Theoretical Concepts
and Modelling
Aspects of the
Cassandra Platform
Dimitris Labridis
Georgios Andreou
Apostolos Milioudi...
Power Distribution Network
Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
Small Industry
MV/LV Power
Transformer
Commer...
Power Distribution Network
• Consumer Side (Demand Side)
• Demand Side Management
– Consumption optimization
– Energy effi...
Cassandra as a solution
• A helping hand in order to:
– Simulate the consumption of consumer populations,
– Understand beh...
Basic modeling concepts
• Reality:
– Installation (the aggregation of all the appliances installed within the
premises of ...
Basic modeling concepts
• Modeling:
– An Installation consists of its Appliances
– Measurements of the installation are us...
Functionality according to quality of input
• Basic simulation rule: The more information you offer as input,
the more acc...
Appliance Consumption Models
• They define mathematically the active and reactive power
demand of an appliance for a speci...
Activity Models
• They describe mathematically the occurrence, duration and
composition of an activity
𝐴 → 𝒂, 𝑓𝑠 𝑡 , 𝑓𝑑 𝑡 ...
Activity Models
• Procedure:
– Correlation of Appliances and Activities (installation modelling phase):
Each Appliance may...
Response Models
• The aim of the CASSANDRA platform in this case is to estimate
whether a consumer will respond to a speci...
Disaggregation Methodology
• Aims to provide information regarding the appliances that
produce a given set of active and r...
Disaggregation Methodology (cont.)
• Step 2: Determination of general events
Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, ...
Disaggregation Methodology (cont.)
• Step 3: Determination of repeated events
Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11,...
Disaggregation Methodology (cont.)
• Step 4: Determination of individual appliances
– Slope Percentage Vector (SPV) calcul...
B. Disaggregation Methodology (cont.)
• Step 5: Identification (clustering) of individual appliances
– Classification acco...
Results in Pilot Cases (Lulea – 40 days)
Background
45,86 %
Refrigeration 9,79%
Cooking
18,79 %
Entertainment 6,67 %
Clean...
Results in Pilot Cases (Lulea – 40 days)
Background
6,36 %
Refrigeration
13,76 %
Cooking
16,17 %
Entertainment
3,78 %
Clea...
Load identification - Lulea installation B
Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1...
Related Conference Papers
1. A Framework for the Implementation of Large Scale Demand Response
G. T. Andreou, A. L. Symeon...
Professor Dimitris P. Labridis
Director of Power Systems Laboratory (PSL)
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineerin...
Lecturer Georgios T. Andreou
Power Systems Laboratory (PSL)
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Aristotle Un...
Dr. Apostolos N. Milioudis
Power Systems Laboratory (PSL)
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Aristotle Univ...
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2. Dimitris Labridis (AUTH) - Presentation of the Theoretical Concepts and Modelling Aspects of the Cassandra Platform

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2. Dimitris Labridis (AUTH) - Presentation of the Theoretical Concepts and Modelling Aspects of the Cassandra Platform

  1. 1. Theoretical Concepts and Modelling Aspects of the Cassandra Platform Dimitris Labridis Georgios Andreou Apostolos Milioudis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh)
  2. 2. Power Distribution Network Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013 Small Industry MV/LV Power Transformer Commercial MV/LV Power Transformer MV/LV Power Transformer Residential Residential Commercial Commercial Overhead or Underground Power Lines HV/MV Power Substation Residential
  3. 3. Power Distribution Network • Consumer Side (Demand Side) • Demand Side Management – Consumption optimization – Energy efficiency – Profit • Problems – Which is the profile of each consumer? – How to cluster/categorize consumers? – Which DSM program/incentive to offer to each consumer? Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  4. 4. Cassandra as a solution • A helping hand in order to: – Simulate the consumption of consumer populations, – Understand behaviors that drive consumption, – Cluster consumers into groups for more efficient incentivisation, – Simulate consumer response to specific Demand Response programs • Two modeling approaches: – Input based on demographic data → aggregate results for a consumer population – Input based on consumer level measurements → bottom-up approach with results regarding individual consumers and/or consumer populations Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  5. 5. Basic modeling concepts • Reality: – Installation (the aggregation of all the appliances installed within the premises of a consumer) – Person(s) performing activities by the use of appliances according to their utility – Person(s) have habits (recurrent behaviour) – Person(s) receive incentives to modify consumption, and choose either to respond or not according to their utility Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  6. 6. Basic modeling concepts • Modeling: – An Installation consists of its Appliances – Measurements of the installation are used in order to determine its Appliances, as well as the consumer Activities (Disaggregation procedure) – Appliances are described by Consumption Models – Consumer utility is modelled through Utility Models – Consumer response to specific incentives is modelled through Response Models – Auxiliary Models: • Pricing Schemes Models • CO2 Emission Calculation • Prosumer Generation Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  7. 7. Functionality according to quality of input • Basic simulation rule: The more information you offer as input, the more accurate results you will obtain • Demographic data input: The simulation will be based on statistics, thus it will not produce accurate individual consumer results • Measurement data input: – The Cassandra modeling is based on per minute measurements of active and reactive power for an installation (loss of information) – Accuracy of results depends on information compensation Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  8. 8. Appliance Consumption Models • They define mathematically the active and reactive power demand of an appliance for a specified time of operation • Example: Refrigerator active power Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013 𝑐 𝑝 𝑡 = 𝑘=1 𝑁 99.8 ∙ 𝑢 𝑡 − 𝑘2520 − 𝑢 𝑡 − 620 − 𝑘2520 , 𝑡 < 𝑑0
  9. 9. Activity Models • They describe mathematically the occurrence, duration and composition of an activity 𝐴 → 𝒂, 𝑓𝑠 𝑡 , 𝑓𝑑 𝑡 , 𝑓𝑁 𝑛 A set of appliances associated with the activity The probability density function (pdf) of the activity start time(s) within a day The pdf of the number of times the activity is performed during a day The pdf of the activity duration 𝑓𝑎 𝑖 𝑡 𝐴 : The probability that an appliance will be triggered at a time t after the activity initiation (may differ according to day type and/or season) Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  10. 10. Activity Models • Procedure: – Correlation of Appliances and Activities (installation modelling phase): Each Appliance may be correlated with a single Activity – Determination of Appliances and respective Activities within measurements (Disaggregation phase) – Training of the Activity Modelling procedure Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  11. 11. Response Models • The aim of the CASSANDRA platform in this case is to estimate whether a consumer will respond to a specific incentive or not • Factors affecting behavioural change are: – Pricing – Environmental impact – Awareness and Sensitivity • Time shifting models describe the changes of the probability density function fs(t) of the activity start time(s) within a day, as a result of the change of price • Consumers may also respond by reducing the number of times they perform some activities Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  12. 12. Disaggregation Methodology • Aims to provide information regarding the appliances that produce a given set of active and reactive power curves. • Step 1: Determination of background demand Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  13. 13. Disaggregation Methodology (cont.) • Step 2: Determination of general events Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  14. 14. Disaggregation Methodology (cont.) • Step 3: Determination of repeated events Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  15. 15. Disaggregation Methodology (cont.) • Step 4: Determination of individual appliances – Slope Percentage Vector (SPV) calculation from active power measurements vector Px – Combination of Points of Interest (POIs) leads to POI vector – Aggregated consumption curved is decomposed into events Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  16. 16. B. Disaggregation Methodology (cont.) • Step 5: Identification (clustering) of individual appliances – Classification according to specific parameters: • Active power • Reactive power (power factor) • Differentiation of active/reactive power during operation • Typical (average) time of use for each appliance – Matching in appliance library Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  17. 17. Results in Pilot Cases (Lulea – 40 days) Background 45,86 % Refrigeration 9,79% Cooking 18,79 % Entertainment 6,67 % Cleaning 9,31 % Lighting 0,65 % Unidentified 8,93 % Percentage Energy Per Activity for Installation A Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  18. 18. Results in Pilot Cases (Lulea – 40 days) Background 6,36 % Refrigeration 13,76 % Cooking 16,17 % Entertainment 3,78 % Cleaning 48,08 % Lighting 0,32 % Unidentified 11,53% Percentage Energy Per Activity for Installation B Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  19. 19. Load identification - Lulea installation B Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 TV1 TV2 Refrigerator Freezer Extra Freezer PC Cooker Microwave Oven Vacuum Cleaner TimesofUSe Installed Appliance
  20. 20. Related Conference Papers 1. A Framework for the Implementation of Large Scale Demand Response G. T. Andreou, A. L. Symeonidis, C. Diou, P. A. Mitkas and D. P. Labridis, IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Technology, Economics and Policies (SG-TEP 2012), December 3-4, 2012, Nürnberg, Germany. 2. Redefining the Market Power of Small-Scale Electricity Consumers through Consumer Social Networks K. C. Chatzidimitriou, K. N. Vavliakis, A. L. Symeonidis and P. A. Mitkas, 10th IEEE International Conference on e-Business Engineering (ICEBE 2013), September 11-13, 2013, Coventry, UK. 3. Event Detection for Load Disaggregation in Smart Metering A. N. Milioudis, G. T. Andreou, V. N. Katsanou, K. I. Sgouras and D. P. Labridis, 4th IEEE European Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT 2013) Conference, October 6 - 9, 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. 4. Agent-based Small-Scale Energy Consumer Models for Energy Portfolio Management A. Chrysopoulos, C. Diou, A. L. Symeonidis and P. A. Mitkas, 2013 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology (IAT-13), November 17-20, 2013, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013
  21. 21. Professor Dimitris P. Labridis Director of Power Systems Laboratory (PSL) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh) P.O. Box 486 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece tel: +302310996374 fax: +302310996302 e-mail: labridis@auth.gr Skype: labridis URL: http://users.auth.gr/labridis/index_en.htm PSL: http://power.ee.auth.gr/index.php?page=intro&action=lnchange&lnid=124&lnsym=EN AUTh: http://www.auth.gr/ Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013 Authors affiliations
  22. 22. Lecturer Georgios T. Andreou Power Systems Laboratory (PSL) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh) P.O. Box 486 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece tel: +302310996118 fax: +302310996302 e-mail: gandreou@auth.gr URL: http://power.ee.auth.gr/index.php?page=andreou Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013 Authors affiliations (cont.)
  23. 23. Dr. Apostolos N. Milioudis Power Systems Laboratory (PSL) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh) P.O. Box 486 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece tel: +302310996379 fax: +302310996302 e-mail: amilioud@auth.gr URL: http://power.ee.auth.gr/index.php?page=milioudis Cassandra Project 1st Workshop September 11, 2013 Authors affiliations (cont.)

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