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Peter York's slides from the AZENET Conference on Organizational Effectiveness …

Peter York's slides from the AZENET Conference on Organizational Effectiveness
May 8 and 9

Published in Business
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  • 1. Peter YorkSenior PartnerChief Research & Learning OfficerTCC Group
  • 2. Agenda1.  Nonprofit Effectiveness: Who Are We Talking About?2.  Effectiveness for All3.  Sustainability: How Leading, Adapting and Managing Matter4.  Growth & Scaling: How Program Codification, Replication & Resource Generation Matter5.  Strategic Learning: The Key to Effectiveness 2
  • 3. The Micro and Macro Impact Ecosystem Types of Nonprofits: Macro Strategies Change populations en masse through 1.  Macro – Policy/Advocacy, adding, changing, monitoring and/or Systems evaluating system and/or institutional laws, regulations, funding allocations, standards, practices and/or policies 2.  Micro – Direct Service Social 3.  Hybrid Problem or Desired 4.  Intermediaries Impact Micro Strategies Change individuals, families and small groups,through implementation of funded programs, and on-the-ground enforcement and/or adherence programs for new or improved laws, regulations, policies 4
  • 4. Types of Nonprofits Neighborhood Organizations Scalers Grassroots organizations •  Serves local neighborhood 10% •  Either macro or micro, narrow set of services •  Addresses basic needs •  <$150K Community Organizations •  Serve multiple neighborhoods Small •  Broader array of servicesBusinesses •  Macro, micro and/or hybrid •  Employ multiple strategies 20% •  Reach $1M+ Mom & Pops Scaling Organizations 70% •  Work across many communities •  Develop replicable models w/in macro and/or micro •  Codify way to achieve goals •  Networked/affiliated 5
  • 5. The Four Core Capacities Model External Environment Resources Human Facilities Resources Organization Adaptive Capacity the ability of a nonprofit organization to monitor, assess and respond to internal and external changes . History Leadership Capacity Management Capacity the ability of all organizational the ability of a nonprofit leaders to create and sustain organization to ensure theTime the vision, inspire, model, Organizational effective and efficient use of Technology prioritize, make decisions, Culture organizational resources provide direction and innovate, Language all in an effort to achieve the organizational mission. Technical Capacity the ability of a nonprofit organization to implement all of the key organizational and programmatic functions Finances/ Program Funding Design and Model Key Resources the one or more critically needed resources that most directly support programs and services 7
  • 6. The Lifecycle ModelAll organizationsgo throughstages of Impact expansion through Stage 3 sharing, collaboration and/ordevelopment and collective actionhave to “get theirhouse inorder” (achievelifecycle stage 3) Infrastructure/business development tobefore they are Stage 2 sustain and grow results from the coreready for program/strategy modelcollective action. Core program or strategy development for direct targets: Stage 1 Micro = individuals, small groups Macro = populations, system change agents, etc. 8
  • 7. Organizational EffectivenessLeaders GetResources & Impact Direct Collaborative Resources Impact Expansion Social Impact Expansion Managers Deploy the Infrastructure Operational Resources Business Processes Development Sustain & Grow Resources Program (Micro)/ System Program Delivery/ Core Program Client/Target Leaders (Macro) Resources Development Strategy Deployment ChangesDesign & Plan 9
  • 8. Organizational Resource Sustainability of CCAT Orgs Challenged Strong 30% 28% Satisfactory 42% 11
  • 9. The Sustainability Formula ProgramLeadership Adaptability Sustainability Capacity 12
  • 10. The Sub-Capacities that MatterInternal Leadership Program Staffing•  Applying a mission-centered, •  Making staffing changes as focused, and inclusive needed to increase and improve approach to making decisions, programs and service delivery as well as inspiring and Empowering motivating people to act on them •  Promoting proactivity, learning, and a belief in the value andFundraising Skills ability of staff and client•  Developing resources Leader Vision necessary for efficient operations, including •  Formulating a clear vision and management of donor relations motivating others to pursue it 13
  • 11. There’s More to Leadership…•  Effectively communicating mission and vision•  Engaging all stakeholders in planning•  Making decisions on cost-effectiveness•  Implementing quick fixes•  Holding leaders accountable for recipient/target results Only one in four nonprofit organizations are well led… 14
  • 12. The Key to Leading Is Learning•  Gathering sophisticated program and business data•  Determining formulas for success•  Engaging in data-driven planning•  Measuring and managing performance Only one in four nonprofit organizations are effective learners… 15
  • 13. There’s More to Program Capacity…•  Effective staffing•  Infrastructure growth to keep up with program growth•  Continuous program delivery improvement•  Continuous program management improvement•  Facilities Only one in seven organizations have strong program capacity... 16
  • 14. Some Nonprofits Grow Faster than Others•  Only 1 in 2 nonprofits grow faster than the annual inflation rate over a three-year period.•  Five measures of organizational capacity explain 20% of the reasons why an organization grows faster than inflation: 1.  Program Design (Strategic Learning/R&D) 2.  Program Replication 3.  Independent Program Resource Generation 4.  Program Sustainability 5.  Growth Rate Stability 18
  • 15. How Well Are Nonprofits Doing? Independent Program Resource Generation (1 in 50) Program Reliability (1 in 50) Program Design (1 in 25) Program Sustainability (1 in 3) Organizational Stability (1 in 2) 19
  • 16. The Building Blocks of Nonprofit Growth & Scaling Program•  Centralized Program Design Leadership Reliability & Program- Expansion Centered, Management•  Program-Centered Independent, Sustainable and Independent, Diversified Resource Generation Sustainable, & Diversified•  Program Reliability andResource Management Expansion Generation Centralized Program Design Leadership 20
  • 17. The Program Design Leader’s Checklistq  Gather data directly from q  Identify patterns and themes in program recipients to program data that show which determine how to improve program ingredients worked, services for whom, and how.q  Decide on outcome metrics q  Bring program design leaders by first listening to, together to address the documenting, and sharing resources needed to deliver actual client success stories programs effectively. and results. q  Leverage insights to inform theq  Engage key leaders and staff program implementation team. in making meaning out of client-derived data. 21
  • 18. The Resource Generator’s Checklistq  Make sure the strategic plan is q  Invest your resources into anchored in resourcing, strengthening and improving strengthening and improving your programs/program program impact, which is a models, and don’t invest in non- significant predictor of plan programmatic infrastructure implementation. until program growth hurts.q  Diversify the funding streams - q  Keep your board and funders particularly if your organization “out of the kitchen,” including depends on a few large grants raising or providing program from funders who have a say in funding, unless they agree to a how programs are delivered. “no strings attached” policy.q  Acquire numerous repeat givers, donors or buyers 22
  • 19. The Program Manager’s Checklistq  Train staff to deliver the q  Invest in program managers program as it is designed. as implementers (staff or volunteers) grow.q  Invest in ongoing training for program improvements and/or q  Have clear guidelines to make modifications. difficult staffing decisions based on program data.q  Assess program implementers based on client results. q  Develop cost-per-result metrics to manageq  Leverage program data to accountability. measure and monitor program delivery. 23
  • 20. The Developmental Model for Growth & Scaling, and The Learning Tools to Get ThereBuild the Expansion Model to Replicatethe Model In More Communities Scaling Evaluation & Community Impact StudiesBuild the Business Model to Grow Performance Measurement &the Program in Our Community Growth ManagementBuild the Program Model Strategic Learning/for Those We Serve Codification Research & Development 24
  • 21. strategies to achieve social impact
  • 22. The Key to Effectiveness
  • 23. strategies to achieve social impact
  • 24. The Metrics, Methods & Analyses Are Wrong •  There’s NO outcome synchronicity between the investor and investee •  There’s NO Research & Development for programs/initiatives •  Effectiveness and accountability HAVE TO BE viewed through the measurement of proximate effect •  Proximate cause-and-effect is the ONLY way! •  Learning REQUIRES understanding the cause, NOT the effect 28
  • 25. The Outcome Synchronicity Problem – A Comparative Example For-Profit Accountability: Nonprofit Accountability: Just Give Me the Direct Results, But Somehow Prove to Just Give Me (or Show Me) the Direct “Them” That We Can Do Much More… Results, Please… Nonprofit •  Child Development, School Business Readiness, Crime Leaders & Reduction Investors Business Clients •  Parental Reduction in Child Consumers Abuse & Neglect, Maternal (Funders) Leaders Health Recuperation, parent-child bonding, healthy •  Same Direct Results adjustment to family change, tools for care and as the For-Profit Fundersfeeding, stress-reducing routines and habits, better Business (Investors) communication skills with providers 29
  • 26. Evaluation: Using the Wrong Model Community / Short-Term Long-TermResources Strategies Social Outcomes Outcomes Impact 30
  • 27. Strategic Learning: Changing the Model Community / Achievable ResearchResources Strategies Social Outcomes says… Impact 31
  • 28. The Problems with Comparison Groups We Did It On Our OwnControlGroup What About All of Us? Yeah! But,Intervention three of us Group would have succeeded anyway It made a Evaluator significant Why did difference What the girls do …the About Us? better? program worked 32
  • 29. strategies to achieve social impact
  • 30. Five Guiding Principles for Strategic Learning1.  Listen to the client2.  Quantify, then qualify3.  Measure backgrounds, program experiences and direct outcomes4.  Don’t describe, analyze5.  Don’t report, design and re-design 34
  • 31. The Seven Steps to Strategic Learning 1.  Determine the “real” outcomes 2.  Find or create the metrics 3.  Gather data, quant then qual 4.  Make meaning out of patterns 5.  Create/modify program models 6.  Re-design programs 7.  Repeat steps 2-6 35
  • 32. First, Uncover the “Real” Outcomes•  It’s all about the path to behavior change: –  Awareness + –  Knowledge + –  Attitude + –  Motivation + –  Skills + –  Opportunity + –  Behaviors = ___________________ Habits 36
  • 33. Analyze DataHold one or more meetings and go through the following process:1.  Create outcome buckets – high, medium, low.2.  Ask of this sorted data the following questions: •  What program components and combinations worked? •  What background factors played a role? •  What preconditions (readiness factors) made a difference?3.  Finalize conclusions about what worked, for whom and why. 37
  • 34. Make MeaningHold one or more meetings to discuss the following:1.  How should we change our program formulas? What do we leave in, what do we improve and what do we take out?2.  What resources do we need or need to change to improve the program?3.  How can we leverage findings to garner more and/or better resources?4.  How do we better “manage to outcomes,” moving forward? 38
  • 35. strategies to achieve social impact
  • 36. Types of Nonprofits
  • 37. The Micro and Macro Impact Ecosystem Types of Nonprofits: Macro Strategies Change populations en masse through 1.  Macro – Policy/Advocacy, adding, changing, monitoring and/or Systems evaluating system and/or institutional laws, regulations, funding allocations, standards, practices and/or policies 2.  Micro – Direct Service Social 3.  Hybrid Problem or Desired 4.  Intermediaries Impact Micro Strategies Change individuals, families and small groups,through implementation of funded programs, and on-the-ground enforcement and/or adherence programs for new or improved laws, regulations, policies 42
  • 38. Types of Nonprofits Mom & Pops Scalers •  Grassroots organizations •  Serves local neighborhood 10% •  Either macro or micro, narrow set of services •  Addresses basic needs •  <$250K Small Businesses Small •  Serve multiple neighborhoodsBusinesses •  Broader array of services •  Macro, micro and/or hybrid 20% •  Employ multiple strategies •  $250K - $1M Mom & Pops 70% Scalers •  Work across many communities •  Develop replicable models w/in macro and/or micro •  Codify way to achieve goals 43
  • 39. Capacity Building Effectiveness = “Ready, Set, Go” Awareness, Knowledge, Attitude, Motivation, Skills Opportunity, Behavior, Habit Ready Set Go! Skills: •  Awareness •  Plans •  Assisting •  Know-How •  Tools •  Showing •  Motivation •  Resources •  Doing •  Instructions •  Feedback Support: •  Education •  Resources •  Coaching •  Training •  Tools •  Mentoring •  Consulting •  Technical Assistance •  Technical Support“Go” Services ensure that behaviors happen, habits are formed, and changes are sustained 44
  • 40. Seven Steps for Capacity Strategy1.  Determine what type of org 5.  Determine who needs to you are – Mom and Pop, change. small nonprofit business, or scaler. 6.  Determine whether the individuals or group are2.  Assess your organization’s “ready to go” or “need to get size. ready.”3.  Assess your organization’s 7.  Determine a cost-effective lifecycle. model for supporting capacity building.4.  Assess your organization’s capacity needs. 45
  • 41. The Lifecycle ModelAll organizationsgo throughstages of Impact expansion through Stage 3 sharing, collaboration and/ordevelopment and collective actionhave to “get theirhouse inorder” (achievelifecycle stage 3) Infrastructure/business development tobefore they are Stage 2 sustain and grow results from the coreready for program/strategy modelcollective action. Core program or strategy development for direct targets: Stage 1 Micro = individuals, small groups Macro = populations, system change agents, etc. 46
  • 42. The New Lifecycle Model: Size Matters Only   10%   of nonprofits reach or exceed this point75%   The Sky is the Limit of nonprofits sustain at orbelow this level Infr ent astr ve lopm uctu re R e eD edu ctur ctio a stru n Infr Program Development Program Reduction $250,000 $1,000,000 $500,000 $3,000,000 $5,000,000 $10,000,000 $10,000,000 $5,000,000 $3,000,000 $1,000,000 $500,000 $250,000 47
  • 43. Assessing Lifecycle Stage and Capacity Needs Infrastructure Core Program Collective Impact Development Internal leadership and Internal leadership to Scalable models for Leadership vision to design, sustain sustain and grow community impact and and grow program model business model system change Organizational Evaluation, planning, Needs assessment and assessment for and process ongoing evaluation (SL/ sustainability and implementation forCapacity Needs Adaptive R&D) to sustain and business planning for community alliances, grow independent resource collaborations, and generation for growth system reform efforts HR and infrastructure Strong program management and management and Alliance and partner Management implementation for performance management measurement for sustainability and growth sustainability and growth Operational and Program delivery, administrative facilities; Relationships, networks, Technical resources and tools for skills and tools for and resources sustainability and growth sustainability and growth 48
  • 44. Who Needs to Change and How? Does Not Know Does Not Want Needs Instructions, Needs Practice Who? How To and Confidence (Ready – Awareness & (Ready – Attitude and Tools, Systems, (Go) Knowledge) Motivation) Resources (Set)•  Executive Director Inform Counsel Instruct Mentor•  Board Members ______________ _______________ _______________ _______________•  Program Directors ______________ _______________ _______________ _______________•  Program Managers•  Operational Directors ______________ _______________ _______________ _______________•  Operational ______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ Managers•  Program Educate Direct Resources Coach Implementers ______________ _______________ _______________ _______________•  Operational ______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ Implementers•  Community Outreach ______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ Directors ______________ _______________ _______________ _______________•  Community Outreach Managers Support•  Community Outreach _______________ Implementers _______________ _______________ _______________ 49
  • 45. The End