The sonnet

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The sonnet

  1. 1. Poetry If It’s a Square…
  2. 2. The Sonnet <ul><li>A poem- usually fourteen lines long- following one of several set rhyme schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Generally in iambic pentameter </li></ul><ul><li>IF IT’S A SQUARE, IT’S A SONNET </li></ul><ul><li>The two main forms- Shakespearean/English, Petrarchan/Italian </li></ul><ul><li>Spenserian is a variation of English </li></ul>
  3. 3. Petrarchan Sonnet- Sonnet No. 43 By Elizabeth Barrett Browning <ul><li>How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee to the depth and breadth and height </li></ul><ul><li>My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight  </li></ul><ul><li>For the ends of Being and ideal Grace. </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee to the level of everyday's </li></ul><ul><li>Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light. </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee freely, as men strive for Right; </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise. </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee with the passion put to use </li></ul><ul><li>In my old griefs, and with my childhood's faith. </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee with a love I seemed to lose </li></ul><ul><li>With my lost saints!–I love thee with the breath, </li></ul><ul><li>Smiles, tears, of all my life!–and, if God choose, </li></ul><ul><li>I shall but love thee better after death. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Petrarchan Sonnet- A Rhyme Scheme <ul><li>How do I love thee? Let me count the ways . a </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee to the depth and breadth and height b </li></ul><ul><li>My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight b  </li></ul><ul><li>For the ends of Being and ideal Grace . a </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee to the level of everyday's a </li></ul><ul><li>Most quiet need, by sun and candle- light . b </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee freely, as men strive for Right ; b </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise . a </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee with the passion put to use c </li></ul><ul><li>In my old griefs, and with my childhood's faith . d </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee with a love I seemed to lose c </li></ul><ul><li>With my lost saints!–I love thee with the breath , d </li></ul><ul><li>Smiles, tears, of all my life!–and, if God choose , c </li></ul><ul><li>I shall but love thee better after death . d </li></ul>Other rhyme schemes for the sestet: c d e c d e c d e d c e
  5. 5. Petrarchan Sonnet- Form <ul><li>How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee to the depth and breadth and height </li></ul><ul><li>My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight  </li></ul><ul><li>For the ends of Being and ideal Grace. </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee to the level of everyday's </li></ul><ul><li>Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light. </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee freely, as men strive for Right; </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise. </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee with the passion put to use </li></ul><ul><li>In my old griefs, and with my childhood's faith. </li></ul><ul><li>I love thee with a love I seemed to lose </li></ul><ul><li>With my lost saints!–I love thee with the breath, </li></ul><ul><li>Smiles, tears, of all my life!–and, if God choose, </li></ul><ul><li>I shall but love thee better after death. </li></ul>One octet- presents a narrative, states a proposition, or raises a question One sestet- abstract comment, applies proposition, or solves problem
  6. 6. Petrarchan Sonnet- A Rhyme Scheme Iambic Pentameter
  7. 7. Shakespearean Sonnet- Sonnet No. 118 By William Shakespeare <ul><li>Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou growest: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this and this gives life to thee. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Rhyme Scheme Shakespearean Sonnet <ul><li>Shall I compare thee to a summer's day ? a </li></ul><ul><li>Thou art more lovely and more temperate : b Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May , a And summer's lease hath all too short a date : b Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines , c And often is his gold complexion dimm'd ; d And every fair from fair sometime declines , c By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd ; d But thy eternal summer shall not fade e </li></ul><ul><li>Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest ; f </li></ul><ul><li>Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade , e When in eternal lines to time thou growest : f So long as men can breathe or eyes can see , g So long lives this and this gives life to thee . g </li></ul>
  9. 9. Shakespearean Sonnet- Form <ul><li>Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou growest: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this and this gives life to thee. </li></ul>3 Quatrains pose a question answered by final couplet.
  10. 10. Shakespearean Sonnet- Meter Iambic pentameter
  11. 11. Spenserian Sonnet- from Amoretti by Edmund Spenser <ul><li>What guile is this, that those her golden tresses a She doth attire under a net of gold ; b And with sly skill so cunningly them dresses , a That which is gold or hair, may scarce be told ? b Is it that men’s frail eyes, which gaze too bold , b She may entangle in that golden snare ; c And being caught may craftily enfold b </li></ul><ul><li>Their weaker hearts, which are not yet well aware ? c Take heed therefore, mine eyes, how ye do stare c Henceforth too rashly on that guileful net , d In which if ever ye entrapped are , c Out of her bands ye by no means shall get . d Folly it were for any being free , e To covet fetters, though they golden be . e </li></ul>
  12. 12. The History of the Sonnet <ul><li>Developed in Italy—Plutarch became the most famous sonnet writer (if you see a reference to Laura, it’s one of Petrarch’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced into England by Thomas Wyatt (translated some of Petrarch’s, wrote a few of his own) </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare: the greatest writer of the modified (English) type </li></ul><ul><li>Very few famous writers use the Spenserian form </li></ul><ul><li>Famous English sonneteers: Sidney, Shakespeare, Milton, Wordsworth, Keats, D.G. Rossetti, Meredith, Auden, Geoffrey Hill </li></ul><ul><li>Famous American sonnets by: Longfellow, Robinson, Frost< Cunnings, Berryman </li></ul>
  13. 13. An American Sonnet Divina Commedia No. 1 by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow <ul><li>Oft have I seen at some cathedral door </li></ul><ul><li>A laborer, pausing in the dust and heat, </li></ul><ul><li>Lay down his burden, and with reverent feet </li></ul><ul><li>Enter, and cross himself, and on the floor </li></ul><ul><li>Kneel to repeat his paternoster o'er; </li></ul><ul><li>Far off the noises of the world retreat; </li></ul><ul><li>The loud vociferations of the street </li></ul><ul><li>Become an undistinguishable roar. </li></ul><ul><li>So, as I enter here from day to day, </li></ul><ul><li>And leave my burden at this minster gate, </li></ul><ul><li>Kneeling in prayer, and not ashamed to pray, </li></ul><ul><li>The tumult of the time disconsolate </li></ul><ul><li>To inarticulate murmurs dies away, </li></ul><ul><li>While the eternal ages watch and wait. </li></ul>

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