Greco roman glossary


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Greco roman glossary

  1. 1. Greek and Roman Mythology A Glossary for Lit Crit
  2. 2. The Olympians <ul><li>Zeus/Jupiter: the king of the gods, god of the sky, rain, justice and mercy </li></ul><ul><li>Hera/Juno: queen of the gods; goddess of marriage, childbirth </li></ul><ul><li>Poseidon/Neptune: king of the sea; associated with a trident </li></ul><ul><li>Hades/Pluto: god of the dead and wealth, ruler of the Underworld </li></ul><ul><li>(Pallas) Athena/Minerva (yes, as in McGonagall): goddess of wisdom, war, reason, intellectual activity, arts, literature, purity </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Olympians (cont.) <ul><li>Hermes/Mercury: the messenger god; god of travelers, thieves, commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Aphrodite/ Venus: goddess of love, desire, and beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Ares/Mars: god of war </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo: god of poetry, music, medicine, music, light, truth, prophesy, and sometimes the sun, </li></ul><ul><li>Artemis/Diana: goddess of the hunt, chastity, virginity, childbirth, the natural environment, and sometimes the moon </li></ul><ul><li>Hephaestus/Vulcan: the lame god, the smith, god of the fire and forge </li></ul><ul><li>Hestia/Vesta: goddess of the hearth </li></ul>
  4. 4. Other Important Gods <ul><li>Eros/Cupid: I don’t really think I have to go over this one; son of Aphrodite </li></ul><ul><li>Demeter/ Ceres: goddess of corn, grain, and the harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Persephone/Prosperina: goddess of spring, queen of the dead </li></ul><ul><li>Dionysus/Bacchus: god of wine, fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Helios/Sol (Invictus): god of the sun </li></ul>
  5. 5. Other Important Gods (cont.) <ul><li>Selene/Luna: goddess of the moon </li></ul><ul><li>Eos/Aurora: goddess of the dawn </li></ul><ul><li>Hecate/Trivia: goddess of the new moon, witches </li></ul><ul><li>Pan/Faunus: god of flocks, shepherds, goatherds </li></ul><ul><li>Eris/Discordia: goddess of discord </li></ul><ul><li>Nemesis/Invidia: goddess of revenge </li></ul>
  6. 6. Other Important Gods (cont.) <ul><li>Thanatos/Mors: personification of death </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnos/Somnus: sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Iris: goddess of the rainbow, messenger </li></ul><ul><li>Calypso: a nymph and a lover of Odysseus </li></ul><ul><li>Circe: turned Odysseus’ men into pigs </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Titans (remember them!) <ul><li>Gaea (Gaia)/ Terra (Tellus): mother earth </li></ul><ul><li>Ouranos/Uranus: father sky </li></ul><ul><li>Kronos (Chronus)/Saturn: lord of time, king of the Titans </li></ul><ul><li>Rhea/Ops: wife of Chronus </li></ul><ul><li>Prometheus: the wisest titan </li></ul><ul><li>Epimetheus: Prometheus’ brother </li></ul><ul><li>Mnemosyne/Moneta: memory </li></ul><ul><li>Atlas: held the world upon his back </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Muses <ul><li>Patronesses of the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Daughters of Mnemosyne and Zeus </li></ul><ul><li>Clio (history) </li></ul><ul><li>Urania (astronomy) </li></ul><ul><li>Melpomene  (tragedy) </li></ul><ul><li>Thalia (comedy) </li></ul><ul><li>Terpsichore (dance) </li></ul><ul><li>Calliope (epic poetry) </li></ul><ul><li>Erato (love poetry) </li></ul><ul><li>Polyhymnia (songs to the gods) </li></ul><ul><li>Euterpe (lyric poetry) </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Graces <ul><li>Daughters of Zeus and Eurynome </li></ul><ul><li>Aglaia  (splendor) </li></ul><ul><li>Euphrosyne (mirth) </li></ul><ul><li>Thalia  (good cheer) </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Erinnyes (The Furies, The “Kindly Ones”) <ul><li>Punish crime, pursuing wrongdoers until death </li></ul><ul><li>Came from the blood of Uranus when he was castrated </li></ul><ul><li>Called the Kindly Ones because using their names was believed to summon them </li></ul><ul><li>Alecto </li></ul><ul><li>Megaera </li></ul><ul><li>Tisiphone </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Fates <ul><li>Determined the course of all events </li></ul><ul><li>Even Zeus was afraid to cross them </li></ul><ul><li>Clotho (the maiden): spun the thread of life </li></ul><ul><li>Lachesis (the matron): measured out the thread of life </li></ul><ul><li>Atropos (the crone): cuts the thread of life </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to prevent fate often brought about its fulfillment </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Creatures <ul><li>Cyclopes: one-eyed giants </li></ul><ul><li>Scylla and Charybdis: a monster that haunted rocks and a demon that created whirlpools; sailors could avoid one, but not both </li></ul><ul><li>Centaurs: men with horse legs and human torsos </li></ul><ul><li>Fauns: goat legs and human torsos </li></ul><ul><li>Cerberus (think Fluffy): the gigantic three-headed dog who guarded the Underworld </li></ul><ul><li>Sirens: beautiful, half woman, half bird; sang an irresistible song that caused sailors to starve themselves </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Creatures (cont.) <ul><li>Medusa: a woman with snakes for hair; avoid her gaze- she turns people to stone </li></ul><ul><li>Chimera: three heads- lion, goat, snake; front part of lion, middle of goat, snake for a tail </li></ul><ul><li>Echinda: the mother of most monsters; half nymph, half snake </li></ul><ul><li>Pegasus: winged horse </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphs: personifications of oceans, rivers, and trees </li></ul>
  14. 14. Heroes <ul><li>Heracles/Hercules: son of Zeus and a mortal woman; performed 12 labors to appease Hera </li></ul><ul><li>Odysseus/Ulysses: hero of Trojan war, blown off course for ten years while trying to return home </li></ul><ul><li>Jason: led the Argonauts to find the Golden Fleece </li></ul><ul><li>Orpheus: best musician ever; journeyed to the Underworld to attempt to save his wife </li></ul><ul><li>Theseus: (the same one as the one in MSND ) defeated the minotaur </li></ul>
  15. 15. Heroes (cont.) <ul><li>Perseus: Defeated Medusa </li></ul><ul><li>Bellephoron: defeated the chimera </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles: hero of the Trojan who could only be defeated when shot in the heel </li></ul><ul><li>Meleager: led the expedition to kill the Calydonian boar; killed his uncles; his mother killed him </li></ul><ul><li>Cadmus: searched for, but failed to find, his sister Europa after she was kidnapped by Zeus; killed a dragon; founded Thebes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Heroes (cont.) <ul><li>Agamemnon: the brother-in-law of Helen; led the Greek armies in the Trojan war </li></ul><ul><li>Ajax: hero of the Trojan war who committed suicide after being driven mad by Athena </li></ul><ul><li>Hector: the son of King Priam of Troy and the best Trojan warrior; slain by Achilles </li></ul><ul><li>Patroclus: impersonated Achilles and was killed by the Trojans </li></ul>
  17. 17. Heroines <ul><li>Atlanta: only female Argonaut; only female hunter of Calydonian Boar; lost a race because she stopped to pick up Aphrodite’s apples </li></ul><ul><li>Hippolyta: (yeah, she’s in MSND ) Queen of the Amazons; her girdle was stolen by Heracles; she married Theseus (but you knew that) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Villains <ul><li>Sisyphus: literally escaped Hades twice; condemned to roll a stone up a hill that would roll down as soon as he rolled it close to the top </li></ul><ul><li>Tantalus: either shared the secrets of the gods or fed them his son Pelops; condemned to stand in water which disappears when he tries to drink it, with food over his head that disappears when he attempts to eat it </li></ul><ul><li>Narcissus: (not really a villain) an arrogant man who was turned into a daffodil </li></ul><ul><li>Medea: a witch who helped Jason take the Golden Fleece, married him, and murdered their children </li></ul>
  19. 19. Miscellaneous Men <ul><li>Daedalus: designed the minotaur’s labyrinth, a pair of wax wings; recaptured by Minos when he passed a thread through a shell </li></ul><ul><li>Icarus: flew too close to the sun on the wings his father designed; drowned in the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Midas: everything he touched turned to gold (“That’s the Midas touch.” He makes an appearance in Once Upon a Time. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Orion: a handsome hunter and Artemis’ companion; some say Apollo tricked Artemis into killing him, others say he threatened to kill all the animals, so Gaia killed him </li></ul><ul><li>Paris: a prince of Troy raised as a goatherd; chose Aphrodite as the fairest of three goddesses, awarded with Helen’s love, causing the Trojan War </li></ul>
  20. 20. Miscellaneous Women <ul><li>Cassandra: a Trojan princess and priestess of Athena; either spurned Apollo or cheated on him; cursed with the gift to see the future without anyone believing her about her predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Helen: “The face that launched a thousand ships.” the most beautiful woman in the world; when she ran away with Paris, the Trojan War began </li></ul><ul><li>Psyche: married Eros, had serious mother-in-law problems </li></ul><ul><li>Echo: a nymph who faded away to just her voice </li></ul>
  21. 21. Miscellaneous Women (cont.) <ul><li>Arachne: bragged she was better at weaving than Athena; when she proved that she was, was turned into a spider </li></ul><ul><li>Ariadne/ Arianna: gave Theseus golden thread that led him out of the labyrinth; abandoned by him on an island (may have married Dionysius) </li></ul><ul><li>Penelope: Odysseus’ wife; who held off her suitors for ten years by saying she would not choose one to marry until she finished weaving a wedding veil; she unraveled each night what she had woven that day </li></ul><ul><li>Cassiopeia: bragged she was most beautiful woman, angered Poseidon, forced to sacrifice daughter Andromeda </li></ul><ul><li>Andromeda: almost sacrificed; saved by Perseus </li></ul>
  22. 22. Real Peoples Related to Mythology <ul><li>The Amazons: a race of warrior women (probably did actually exist, according to recent archaeological discoveries) </li></ul><ul><li>Bacchantes (Roman): priestesses of Bacchus; known to go into blood frenzies and orgies of drink during the feast of Bacchnalia </li></ul><ul><li>Vestal Virgins (Roman): priestesses of Vesta, in charge of maintaining the sacred fire in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Trojans: people of a city that fought in (and lost) a war with the Greek kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Oracle of Delphi: title of the most famous prophetesses of Apollo </li></ul><ul><li>Sibyl: another prophetess </li></ul>
  23. 23. Greek and Roman Writers <ul><li>Homer: the blind poet, author of The Iliad and The Odyssey </li></ul><ul><li>Sophocles: playwright (the Oedipus Cycle) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Obviously, this is just a piece of mythology, but these are the important characters. </li></ul>