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Greco roman glossary
 

Greco roman glossary

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    Greco roman glossary Greco roman glossary Presentation Transcript

    • Greek and Roman Mythology A Glossary for Lit Crit
    • The Olympians
      • Zeus/Jupiter: the king of the gods, god of the sky, rain, justice and mercy
      • Hera/Juno: queen of the gods; goddess of marriage, childbirth
      • Poseidon/Neptune: king of the sea; associated with a trident
      • Hades/Pluto: god of the dead and wealth, ruler of the Underworld
      • (Pallas) Athena/Minerva (yes, as in McGonagall): goddess of wisdom, war, reason, intellectual activity, arts, literature, purity
    • The Olympians (cont.)
      • Hermes/Mercury: the messenger god; god of travelers, thieves, commerce
      • Aphrodite/ Venus: goddess of love, desire, and beauty
      • Ares/Mars: god of war
      • Apollo: god of poetry, music, medicine, music, light, truth, prophesy, and sometimes the sun,
      • Artemis/Diana: goddess of the hunt, chastity, virginity, childbirth, the natural environment, and sometimes the moon
      • Hephaestus/Vulcan: the lame god, the smith, god of the fire and forge
      • Hestia/Vesta: goddess of the hearth
    • Other Important Gods
      • Eros/Cupid: I don’t really think I have to go over this one; son of Aphrodite
      • Demeter/ Ceres: goddess of corn, grain, and the harvest
      • Persephone/Prosperina: goddess of spring, queen of the dead
      • Dionysus/Bacchus: god of wine, fertility
      • Helios/Sol (Invictus): god of the sun
    • Other Important Gods (cont.)
      • Selene/Luna: goddess of the moon
      • Eos/Aurora: goddess of the dawn
      • Hecate/Trivia: goddess of the new moon, witches
      • Pan/Faunus: god of flocks, shepherds, goatherds
      • Eris/Discordia: goddess of discord
      • Nemesis/Invidia: goddess of revenge
    • Other Important Gods (cont.)
      • Thanatos/Mors: personification of death
      • Hypnos/Somnus: sleep
      • Iris: goddess of the rainbow, messenger
      • Calypso: a nymph and a lover of Odysseus
      • Circe: turned Odysseus’ men into pigs
    • The Titans (remember them!)
      • Gaea (Gaia)/ Terra (Tellus): mother earth
      • Ouranos/Uranus: father sky
      • Kronos (Chronus)/Saturn: lord of time, king of the Titans
      • Rhea/Ops: wife of Chronus
      • Prometheus: the wisest titan
      • Epimetheus: Prometheus’ brother
      • Mnemosyne/Moneta: memory
      • Atlas: held the world upon his back
    • The Muses
      • Patronesses of the arts
      • Daughters of Mnemosyne and Zeus
      • Clio (history)
      • Urania (astronomy)
      • Melpomene  (tragedy)
      • Thalia (comedy)
      • Terpsichore (dance)
      • Calliope (epic poetry)
      • Erato (love poetry)
      • Polyhymnia (songs to the gods)
      • Euterpe (lyric poetry)
    • The Graces
      • Daughters of Zeus and Eurynome
      • Aglaia  (splendor)
      • Euphrosyne (mirth)
      • Thalia  (good cheer)
    • The Erinnyes (The Furies, The “Kindly Ones”)
      • Punish crime, pursuing wrongdoers until death
      • Came from the blood of Uranus when he was castrated
      • Called the Kindly Ones because using their names was believed to summon them
      • Alecto
      • Megaera
      • Tisiphone
    • The Fates
      • Determined the course of all events
      • Even Zeus was afraid to cross them
      • Clotho (the maiden): spun the thread of life
      • Lachesis (the matron): measured out the thread of life
      • Atropos (the crone): cuts the thread of life
      • Trying to prevent fate often brought about its fulfillment
    • The Creatures
      • Cyclopes: one-eyed giants
      • Scylla and Charybdis: a monster that haunted rocks and a demon that created whirlpools; sailors could avoid one, but not both
      • Centaurs: men with horse legs and human torsos
      • Fauns: goat legs and human torsos
      • Cerberus (think Fluffy): the gigantic three-headed dog who guarded the Underworld
      • Sirens: beautiful, half woman, half bird; sang an irresistible song that caused sailors to starve themselves
    • The Creatures (cont.)
      • Medusa: a woman with snakes for hair; avoid her gaze- she turns people to stone
      • Chimera: three heads- lion, goat, snake; front part of lion, middle of goat, snake for a tail
      • Echinda: the mother of most monsters; half nymph, half snake
      • Pegasus: winged horse
      • Nymphs: personifications of oceans, rivers, and trees
    • Heroes
      • Heracles/Hercules: son of Zeus and a mortal woman; performed 12 labors to appease Hera
      • Odysseus/Ulysses: hero of Trojan war, blown off course for ten years while trying to return home
      • Jason: led the Argonauts to find the Golden Fleece
      • Orpheus: best musician ever; journeyed to the Underworld to attempt to save his wife
      • Theseus: (the same one as the one in MSND ) defeated the minotaur
    • Heroes (cont.)
      • Perseus: Defeated Medusa
      • Bellephoron: defeated the chimera
      • Achilles: hero of the Trojan who could only be defeated when shot in the heel
      • Meleager: led the expedition to kill the Calydonian boar; killed his uncles; his mother killed him
      • Cadmus: searched for, but failed to find, his sister Europa after she was kidnapped by Zeus; killed a dragon; founded Thebes
    • Heroes (cont.)
      • Agamemnon: the brother-in-law of Helen; led the Greek armies in the Trojan war
      • Ajax: hero of the Trojan war who committed suicide after being driven mad by Athena
      • Hector: the son of King Priam of Troy and the best Trojan warrior; slain by Achilles
      • Patroclus: impersonated Achilles and was killed by the Trojans
    • Heroines
      • Atlanta: only female Argonaut; only female hunter of Calydonian Boar; lost a race because she stopped to pick up Aphrodite’s apples
      • Hippolyta: (yeah, she’s in MSND ) Queen of the Amazons; her girdle was stolen by Heracles; she married Theseus (but you knew that)
    • Villains
      • Sisyphus: literally escaped Hades twice; condemned to roll a stone up a hill that would roll down as soon as he rolled it close to the top
      • Tantalus: either shared the secrets of the gods or fed them his son Pelops; condemned to stand in water which disappears when he tries to drink it, with food over his head that disappears when he attempts to eat it
      • Narcissus: (not really a villain) an arrogant man who was turned into a daffodil
      • Medea: a witch who helped Jason take the Golden Fleece, married him, and murdered their children
    • Miscellaneous Men
      • Daedalus: designed the minotaur’s labyrinth, a pair of wax wings; recaptured by Minos when he passed a thread through a shell
      • Icarus: flew too close to the sun on the wings his father designed; drowned in the sea
      • Midas: everything he touched turned to gold (“That’s the Midas touch.” He makes an appearance in Once Upon a Time. )
      • Orion: a handsome hunter and Artemis’ companion; some say Apollo tricked Artemis into killing him, others say he threatened to kill all the animals, so Gaia killed him
      • Paris: a prince of Troy raised as a goatherd; chose Aphrodite as the fairest of three goddesses, awarded with Helen’s love, causing the Trojan War
    • Miscellaneous Women
      • Cassandra: a Trojan princess and priestess of Athena; either spurned Apollo or cheated on him; cursed with the gift to see the future without anyone believing her about her predictions
      • Helen: “The face that launched a thousand ships.” the most beautiful woman in the world; when she ran away with Paris, the Trojan War began
      • Psyche: married Eros, had serious mother-in-law problems
      • Echo: a nymph who faded away to just her voice
    • Miscellaneous Women (cont.)
      • Arachne: bragged she was better at weaving than Athena; when she proved that she was, was turned into a spider
      • Ariadne/ Arianna: gave Theseus golden thread that led him out of the labyrinth; abandoned by him on an island (may have married Dionysius)
      • Penelope: Odysseus’ wife; who held off her suitors for ten years by saying she would not choose one to marry until she finished weaving a wedding veil; she unraveled each night what she had woven that day
      • Cassiopeia: bragged she was most beautiful woman, angered Poseidon, forced to sacrifice daughter Andromeda
      • Andromeda: almost sacrificed; saved by Perseus
    • Real Peoples Related to Mythology
      • The Amazons: a race of warrior women (probably did actually exist, according to recent archaeological discoveries)
      • Bacchantes (Roman): priestesses of Bacchus; known to go into blood frenzies and orgies of drink during the feast of Bacchnalia
      • Vestal Virgins (Roman): priestesses of Vesta, in charge of maintaining the sacred fire in Rome
      • Trojans: people of a city that fought in (and lost) a war with the Greek kingdoms
      • Oracle of Delphi: title of the most famous prophetesses of Apollo
      • Sibyl: another prophetess
    • Greek and Roman Writers
      • Homer: the blind poet, author of The Iliad and The Odyssey
      • Sophocles: playwright (the Oedipus Cycle)
      • Obviously, this is just a piece of mythology, but these are the important characters.