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Cities advice on sustainable housing and the renovation of social housing!

Cities advice on sustainable housing and the renovation of social housing!

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    Cities advice Cities advice Document Transcript

    • CITIES’ ADVICEFOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 3TABLE OF CONTENTSTABLE OF CONTENTS 3INTRODUCTION 5TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT 19LEGAL FRAMEWORK 39FINANCING ENGINEERING 57CITIZENS’ INVOLVEMENT 77ENERGY PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION 99PROJECT MANAGEMENT 119CONCLUSION 143 CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 4 5 CASH Guide for local authorities and cities on EUROPEAN UNION climate change policies and social housing Cities’ advice for greater EU support to green social housing CASH (Cities’ Action for Sustainable Housing) is a network of 11 partners (10 cities- Utrecht, Tatabanya, Sonderborg, Les Mureaux, Brindisi, Bridgend, Frankfurt, Yambol, Eordea, Echirolles and one region – Region Rhône-Alpes) led by the city of Echirolles in France. The ambition of the CASH project is to propose new solutions and promote new policies for the sustainable renovation of social and affordable housing units in the European Union. The network has organised local technical seminars and meetings in order to exchange experiences and collect good practices on issues such as the legal framework related to refurbishment of social housing, the involvement of citizens, the technical and financial aspects of energy efficiency investments. 1. Citizens’ involvement Key recommendations for an effective citizen involvement in Energy Efficiency (EE ) renovation process and in the reduction of energy consumption are provided by CASH partners through the “Bridgend resolution”. General justification: Combating climate change needs ambitious policies and Urban Climate Policy can only be effective with citizen participation, for the following reasons. Firstly, in the housing sector much energy can be saved, not only with technical measures, but also with behavioural change. Studies show that around 10% of energy can be saved only by routine behaviour change (switching off lights, lowering temperature, etc.). Secondly, many technical energy efficiency measures will be less effective if the related behavioural change is not carried out. Thirdly, there is the “investment-behaviour”. The choice to invest in buying energy efficient household appliances is depending on the knowledge and awareness of the public. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 6 7 For these three reasons citizens’ involvement is an indispensable and essential Concrete suggestions: part of any climate change policy. -  ational and regional revolving funds (supported by additional fees on rent or energy N bills) can be an important instrument, favouring long-term and large-scale projects. Concrete suggestions: - ndependent third-party managing entities should be created or supported to I CASH partners give the following advice: organize technical, financial and organizational aspects and monitor the It is important to involve citizens at all stages of a policy, for instance : measures. They could act as a facilitator between landlords/owners of the hous- - rom the planning phase and during all stages of the renovation process for the f ing units and tenants. The role can be taken by local/regional foundations or en- co-conception of energy efficient renovation to ensure an appropriation of the ergy service/supply companies or even by tenants’ organizations. equipment and systems and the proper functioning of the renovated EE -  o implement energy improvement in an integrative and optimum way, measures T buildings. to reduce other running costs for water, electricity and waste -“the second rent”- - n the co-creation of schemes with tenants not only to improve the energy I should be included. efficiency of homes but to improve citizens health and their environments in -  uropean funds such as the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) E neighbourhoods to give ownership and empower tenants to include energy should not only be provided for energy measures in general, but should also be efficiency measures and change behaviours. focused on social housing with an integrative approach (energy, living To reach that objective, CASH partners suggests for instance to use of a mixture of environment, maintenance and integration). innovative tools favouring exchanges between all stakeholders, such as independent energy advisors, trained champions, ambassadors of energy, trained to change 3. Legal Framework behaviour and attitudes and educate citizens in realising the benefits of energy Based on the barriers, needs and enabling factors, CASH partners have identified efficiency renovation. recommendations for an effective energy efficiency legal framework, agreed in the following ‘Brindisi Manifesto’. 2. Financial instruments In order to improve the financing possibilities for energy efficient large-scale General justification: renovation operations, the CASH network has proposed a series of recommendations, As we showed in the introduction, there are many EU legislative texts that applied to presented as the ‘Frankfurt resolution’. the renovation of social housing in cities. Not only the EU directives on energy or the Structural Funds regulation but also for instance the Public Procurement Directive or General justification: national regulations on rent setting. Cities and Managing authorities have to It has been estimated that the comprehensive energy renovation cost for a dwelling, implement this legislation and gain expertise of how to make it positive for local is in average 23,000 Euro1 (in France). In order to reach the European CO2 projects. reduction goals for housing, approximately 70 to 180 million housing units in the European Union (EU) need to be renovated according to low energy consumption Concrete suggestions: standards. This would require from 1,500 to upwards of 4,000 billion Euros of -  reate local clusters on green social housing. Local clusters may be developed C energy refurbishment investments in the residential sector before 2050, which for the whole supply chain of energy efficient renovation from supplier, planners, represents roughly 27% of the energy consumption in the EU. architects via installer, to users. In such a cluster Quality management can be How can this be achieved? developed, using energy labelling. To reach national and international climate and energy goals, more funds and -  lexible mechanism for rents to fit to local context (deprived neighbourhoods) and F greater contributions are needed from Europe and from national governments for a form of protection from rent increase for existing social rents should be all homeowners. The available financial instruments should be: based on long-term ensured. planning, be better coordinated. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 8 9 4. Technological developments 5. Energy production and distribution Technological possibilities for energy efficient renovation are developing fast. Key recommendations for efficient energy production and distribution systems for Availability of techniques is not a guarantee that they always will be used in the best social housing are provided by CASH partners through the Sønderborg and most effective way. CASH partners have made some suggestions regarding declaration. energy refurbishment of social housing in cities. General justification: General justification: Energy efficient renovation deals not only with technical aspects of insulation, heat Any renovation plan includes the choice of approach, target, energy sources, and ventilation systems, but with the energy sources and their distribution to the technical installations, devices and their adequate sizing. It also requires the housing units, affecting costs paid by tenants and CO2 emissions. How the implication of stakeholders throughout the process. renovation can take place, the technical possibilities and the efficiency of the The renovation approach, whether global or on a step by step, is indeed a major measures are often related to the energy forms and sources that are available for issue. Many stakeholders, in particular communities and social landlords, often ask the building. The carbon emission per unit of energy varies strongly between themselves if they should act on a limited number of buildings to achieve expected different energy mixes, as well as the cost per energy units. That is why CASH EE renovation targets (80 kWh/m².year) or if they should intervene on few of the partners have suggested to use strategic energy planning in order to choose the components (i.e. insulation and glazing or energy supply and equipment, etc.) over most suitable energy scenario for a given city (for instance low cost energy a large number of buildings. Careful decision should be taken so as to keep along scenario or lowest impact energy scenario?) and most suitable energy sources. with the municipal energy reduction goals, available financial resources, other Fossil energy supply is characterized by low per kWh construction costs and high obligations to fulfil, as well as the time lag between major renovations (average of production costs, which represents variable energy costs for the end user. 20 to 30 years). Renewable energy supply is characterized by higher per kWh construction costs but very low production costs and the costs per energy unit. Concrete suggestions: -  ake a survey on the heat energy demand (heating and domestic hot water M Concrete suggestions: DHW). -  iversification of several green energy sources is important and should be D -  ook for potentials of reducing demand (through insulation, water saving L encouraged. devices…). -  reen Combined Heat Power cogeneration should be promoted, because it is a G -  ake a comparison calculation of different heating systems (only boiler, boiler M flexible and efficient method for energy transformation. Cogeneration offers and CHP, heat pump, biomass heating systems -stoves, boilers…-, district tremendous efficiency and cost savings (more than 30% of total primary energy heating), comparing not only acquisition, installation and maintenance costs, but compared to separated production) and can be implemented by energy fuel dependency and emissions (CO2 and others) - keeping in mind that prices for companies (contracting), the social land lords or tenants associations. different fuels may develop differently in the future. -  ommunities of tenants can be involved in the production and distribution of C -  ake a long term 15-20 years calculation. M renewable energy, to keep transport lines short and fixed costs low. To avoid ad-hoc decision making, Social landlords and house owners should make -  uropean directives and funding should take into account, that social housing E a structural renovation plan, where technical, social and economic aspects as well building blocks and areas which need to be modernized may be the nucleus of as environmental aspects play a role. The grey (hidden) energy, including the local energy distribution grids, thus giving better practical and economic energy required in transporting and in recycling the different materials / technology conditions for the implementation of cogeneration units and transforming the at the end of their life cycle, should be taken into account in their selection. supply from fossil fuels to renewables. -  egions should use more than 10% of their European regional development fund R (ERDF) allocation for the modernization of the energy production field linked to social housing CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 10 11 Social housing energy efficient renovation project engineering Key recommendations for an efficient social housing energy renovation project are provided by CASH partners through the Yambol declaration. General justification: During the 2 years of the implementation phase of the CASH project, several topics impacting the energy efficient renovation of social housing were covered, including technological, legal, financial, social and energy production components. It is however essential to ensure the appropriate use of these ingredients through the adequate participation of the different groups of energy renovation actors and the development of synergies between them. Such an optimization of the engineering and management of a social housing energy efficient renovation (SHEER) project should contribute to raising the efficiency and lowering the cost of SHEER operations which deal with low income tenants &/or owners and which have to be replicated on a large scale, social housing representing 12% of European housing stock and 20% of CO2 emissions. Concrete suggestions: -  evelop a new model ensuring a systemic approach of SHEER project integrating D social, political, environmental, legal and financial components and competences. -  et-up an independent project management body specifically created for the S project, integrating critical stakeholders. - nvolve as many strategic stakeholders as possible in the planning phase I -  ake into account the different timescales of the stakeholders and ensure actions T in line with the different needs. -  nsure the use of technology: energy efficient, simple to use, requiring low and E easy maintenance, applicable to large-scale operations, with competitive price -  atch the funding schemes with the timeframe / rhythm of the project and allow M adjustments according to the project evolution. -  rovide the end users with project details at the different stages to increase P transparency and to improve public consultation. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 12 13 The European Union policy context Cities consume between 60 to 80% of energy production worldwide and account for a roughly equivalent share of global CO2 emissions1. How cities grow and operate influences energy demand and thus greenhouse gas emissions. Lifestyles, spatial form and public transport availability but also the way housing is built and used are crucial. Taking this reality into consideration, the European Union has adopted a wide range of initiatives (pieces of legislation or soft measures) that have an impact on the way cities can contribute to the mitigation of and adaptation to the global climate warming. Residential buildings which count on average for 40% of the energy consumption and 30% of CO2 emissions in cities are a key sector to deal with, if cities are to deliver the necessary energy revolution that will allow a better mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. One can classify the EU initiatives in the field of housing and energy in 2 categories: • Initiatives that impose new standards and therefore will bring about short-term costs • Initiatives that will help cities cope with this short term costs The first category is made essentially of the legislation related to the energy efficiency and energy performance of buildings. The recently adopted Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is deemed to be an important step forward to reach the objective of 20% reduction of energy consumption in the EU by 2020 compared to 2005. Some of the most important new provisions with an impact for housing are the following: -  ember states are required to implement a set of binding, flexible measures and M set a national energy efficiency target - which would have to be 20% energy savings for the EU as a whole by 2020. -  nergy companies are requested to reduce their energy sales to industrial and E household clients by at least 1.5% each year; 1 http://www.oecd.org/gov/citiesandclimatechange.htm CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 14 15 -  3% renovation rate for public buildings which are “central government-owned A The second category of EU initiatives in the field of climate change and housing and occupied”; refer to the legislation and soft measures that are supposed to help cities coping -  n obligation on each EU member state to draw up a roadmap to make the A with the new standards in terms of energy efficiency. entire buildings sector more energy efficient by 2050 (commercial, public and private households included); The EU structural funds fall under this category as the new provisions3 give new -  he new directive also includes additional measures on energy audits and energy T opportunities for regions and cities to support social housing in particular in the management for large firms, cost-benefit analysis for the deployment of field of energy efficiency. combined heat and power generation (CHP) and public procurement. -  n article (art.15) refers to the financing mechanisms that have to be set up in A There are at least 3 areas where investment in housing could be co-financed by the order to fulfil the new obligations (in particular national energy efficiency funds) European Regional Development Fund4: Another Directive has a direct impact on how housing is built, renovated and used: 1 Energy efficiency: the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). The EPBD is the main Former objective 2 regions (the most developed EU regions in the EU) will have to legislative instrument at EU level to achieve energy performance in buildings taking dedicate at least 20% of their operational programmes to investment in supporting into account outdoor climatic and local conditions, as well as indoor climate the shift towards a low-carbon economy in all sectors. In particular investment requirements and cost-effectiveness. The main elements are : should be made to support energy efficiency and use of renewable energy in the - Extension of minimum requirements to all new and renovated buildings housing sector; there is therefore no ceiling any more for investment in energy -  trengthening Energy Performance Certificates (EPC) by: S refurbishment in housing, which means that a region is free to invest as much Independent control system for EPCs ERDF as they want on energy refurbishment in housing. One have to note that Publication of the EPCs in all commercial announcements reference is made of housing sector in general, which means that every kind of Extension of display (>500m2, 2015>250m2) housing (including cooperative housing) is eligible to support. -  ethodology for calculating cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance M requirements 2 Social infrastructures: - Introduction of “nearly zero energy buildings” (NZEB) for new building by 2018 The European commission foresees the possibility to invest in social housing under 2 circumstance: To have an overview of the implementation of those 2 directives2, we have put the (a) investing in health and social infrastructure which contribute to national, timeline below (MS = Member States) regional and local development, reducing inequalities in terms of health status, and transition from institutional to community-based services; (b) physical and economic regeneration of deprived urban and rural communities; 3 At the time of writing, the new legislation was still subject of negotiation between the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers. Minor changes might therefore come up from what was proposed by the European Commission. 4 http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docoffic/official/regulation/pdf/2014/proposals/regulation/ 2 For further information see also : http://www.powerhouseeurope.eu/policy _work/eu_impact/ erdf/erdf_proposal_en.pdf CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 16 17 3. Urban development: The regulation stresses that at least 5% of the ERDF resources allocated at national level shall be allocated to integrated actions for sustainable urban development delegated to and directly managed by cities. It means that cities will manage at least 5% of the ERDF national pot directly to support urban development/renewal. Furthermore cities will be allowed to support pilot projects and studies to test innovative solutions linked to sustainable urban development. There is therefore a great scope of cooperation between cities and affordable housing organisations. The European Social Fund also gives new funding opportunities for climate change related initiatives in the housing sector, since it could support the “shift towards a low-carbon, climate-resilient, resource-efficient and environmentally sustainable economy, through reform of education and training systems, adaptation of skills and qualifications, up-skilling of the labour force, and the creation of new jobs in sectors related to the environment and energy”5 Beyond the Structural Funds, we have to mention a “soft” initiative which works as a catalyst of the efforts of cities to cope with the energy efficiency challenge: the Covenant of Mayors. After the adoption, in 2008, of the EU Climate and Energy Package, the European Commission launched the Covenant of Mayors to endorse and support the efforts deployed by local authorities in the implementation of sustainable energy policies. In order to translate their political commitment into concrete measures and projects, Covenant signatories notably undertake to prepare a Baseline Emission Inventory and submit, within the year following their signature, a Sustainable Energy Action Plan outlining the key actions they plan to undertake. Beyond energy savings, the results of signatories’ actions are manifold: creation of skilled and stable jobs, not subject to delocalisation; healthier environment and quality of life; enhanced economic competitiveness and greater energy independence. There are currently more than 4000 cities that have signed up to the Covenant of Mayors, including most of CASH partners. To summarise the policy context, we can say that cities are acting in between new collectively agreed constraints from the EU and new opportunities as well. CASH partner cities have developed during the project recommendations addressed to the managing authorities of the funds and more generally EU decision makers on how to make the best use of EU opportunities in that field. The following section presents these recommendations. 5 http:/ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docoffic/official/regulation/pdf/2014/proposals/regulation/esf/ esf_proposal_en.pdf CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 18 TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT • What to do? • Which technology to use? •  hich energy- efficient W renovation approach to adopt? • Is certification needed? • Is labelling important? CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 20 21 Content Introduction & subject significance A network of 11 European city and region partners involved in the European URBACT “Cities Action for Sustainable Housing – CASH” project, upon the lead of Echirolles city (France), is working on issues of energy efficiency (EE) and STATE-OF-THE-ART 22 sustainable renovation of social housing. In that frame, the aspects of technological development, legal framework, financial engineering, citizen involvement, energy The envelope of the building production and project engineering are being analysed during thematic seminars. Envelope air-tightness Each leads to the production of a mini-guide presenting the state of the art on the The technical installations subject, key issues, advice with associated experiences in partner cities and Energy production and transformation sources of information. Monitoring Some hints to help choosing energy system This edition, covering the theme of technological development is the 1st in a series and technological aspects of 6 mini-guides. KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED 29 Which technology to use? Which renovation approach to adopt? Is certification needed? Is labelling important? Certification Energy performance labels This Mini Guide on Technological development helps pinpoint: the key elements to focus on (heating systems, insulation, glazing, ventilation…) when renovating, as Renovation approach well as, the renovation type and the approaches, all issues tackled by the European directive 2010/31 EU on the energy performance of buildings. EXAMPLES FROM PARTNERS 33 Its purpose is to give practical support to cities interested in identifying effective Renovation approach: Rhone-Alpes Regional measures to enhance energy performance of existing housing stock. Council energy renovation plan of social housing,France Decision making tool: renovation in a portfolio strategy – Mitros, Netherlands “Shared energy skill center” – Les Mureaux,France CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS 35 MORE TO LEARN 36 CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 22 23 STATE-OF-THE-ART While performing wall insulation, control of moisture balance and condensation in walls is key. Since the impact The main objective of this overview of main technological development and of thermal insulation on water vapour dissemination is techniques is to provide local communities with key elements to consider and low, vapour diffusion retarders available choices to make when planning energy renovation. as membranes or coating are used. It will cover: • the envelope of the building and the envelope air-tightness; Its disadvantages: it reduces residential area, it often requires occupants to move • the technical installations; temporally and it wears an additional risk of moisture problems. • energy production and transformation; • monitoring. • New is the use of “Ultra-light-weight aerated concrete”. Next to having a low thermal conductivity, this material is also hygroscopic (moisture buffer) and has low water The envelope of the building vapour resistance. Energy efficient (EE) material and appliances for walls, roof, ceilings and windows, While performing wall insulation, control of moisture balance and condensation in are synthesized hereafter: walls is key. Since the impact of thermal insulation on water vapour dissemination is low, vapour diffusion retarders available as membranes or coating are used. Wall They reduce the rate at which water vapour can move through the building • The effective insulation or inertia is key. Most common is the insulation of the envelope and prevent air leakage through the envelope. Multiple layers of paint in outer walls. Insulation panels are typically made of polystyrene foam, but mineral existing housing units act already as vapour diffusion retarders. fibre has much better fire protection values (compulsory for high rise buildings). Natural insulation products, such as cellulose flakes, wood fibre mats, hemp, Roof sheep’s wool, etc., do not underperform when compared to man-made ones. The roof is most exposed to environmental influences. For individual houses it is Instead they are often far better in terms of performance, durability, in addition to the first criteria to be considered. High insulation thicknesses are highly providing health benefits. Furthermore, they present a lower carbon footprint and recommended. In addition, a special importance has to be given to high grey energy and Offer the characteristics to allow protection from the cold during air-tightness otherwise this can lead to moisture damage, especially in the wood winter and optimum heat protection during summer. In presence of cavity walls, construction. cavity can be filled with insulation material as perlite. New is to fill the insulation material cavities with gas (e.g. CO2) or vacuum. However this technology has to Top floor ceiling make its proof: uncertainty of keeping the vacuum over time exists, insulation For the insulation of the top ceiling, insulation boards (mineral cannot be punched and vapour migration over the aluminium cover is still an wool, foam...) or beds (perlite, cellulose) are possible. The insulation is placed on unknown factor. With regard to Silica-aerogel based insulation, they are only the ceiling and/or between existing beams. available in semi-transparent glazing. To prevent cold air flow around the insulating material, joints must be avoided and insulation boards should be laid with staggered joints. For uneven surfaces with • Ventilated curtain wall is an alternative to the thermal insulation many penetrations, the bedding of perlite or cellulose flakes offers a possible panels. It consists of a sub-structure (wood or aluminium profiles) attached to the technique. outer wall, with insulation material inserted in between and an air gap remaining for Green roof installation can reduce cooling loads on a building by 50% or more, but ventilation between insulation. This technique allows avoiding moisture and mold. they have to be correctly built to avoid water leakage and material degradation and • Internal insulation offers an alternative for houses with facades their maintenance cost have to be integrated. worth preserving and is less expensive than external insulation. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 24 25 Basement ceiling The technical installations To reduce the heat losses from the basement, insulating plates can be attached to Ventilation the basement ceiling. Central mechanical ventilation uses a ventilator, moving the air from the most For uneven or vaulted basement ceilings, airtight cloths can be attached acting as burdened rooms (kitchen, bathroom and toilet) via a pipe system to the exhaust. air chambers so as to form a natural insulation layer. The result is a slight negative pressure in the building, which causes filtered outside air to stream, via supply valves in the outer wall, to living areas. Energy Windows savings can be gained by the choice of ventilator, the exhaust grill and by demand Modern windows with heat-resistant glazing offer a significant reduction in heat controlled or CO2 controlled exhaust. loss (about 40 to 70%). This is achieved by an invisible metallic layer (keeping heat Hygro-adjustable ventilation and double flux ventilation are the most commonly inside) and an inert gas filling between the panes. used ventilation systems and are widely available. The first allows energy savings Three-pane insulating glazing (Ug = 0,5 to 0,6 W/m²K) is available on the market, through the reduction of airflow (0,3 vol/h) but without control on indoor air quality offering additional heat loss reduction of 30% compared to the two-pane windows (its reduced flow requires the use of indoor materials free of volatile organic and is becoming widely used. Their prices vary and can increase considerably the compounds and formaldehyde). The second allows energy savings without budget of a renovation operation. reducing airflow (0,54 vol/h) through heat recovery from extracted air. New solutions are oriented toward small decentralized devices, with simultaneous or Not only should the U-value of the glazing be known, but also the one of the entire alternated blowing and air extraction providing ventilation for a single room. They window influenced by the quality of the frame. Highly insulated frame exist, as the can be integrated in windows without requiring any ventilation network hard to passive house window. If the window frame is covered with insulation up to 2 to 4 cm, install in existing housing units. These are not yet widely available. an installation nearly free of thermal bridges is guaranteed. New is double vacuum glazing (Ug = 1,4 W/m²K), but they are still very expensive. Energy production and transformation Envelope air-tightness There exist several independent energy supply units that can be installed at building and house scales for heating and for domestic hot water (DHW) Attention should be paid to achieve a good balance between energy efficiency . (air-tightness and air renewal) and sanitary conditions. Air-tightness (air permeability Heating or leakage rate) of the envelope is an essential issue to keep in mind. Indeed, the • Biomass heating control of infiltrations coming from: joinery-wall, joinery-floor and roof-wall junctions, Biomass is a renewable low carbon fuel, producing a fraction of the carbon as well as from expansion joints, sheaths, evacuations, electrical conduit, traps, emissions of fossil fuels if correctly managed. A wide range of biomass fuels can rolling shutter, etc., must be ensured, knowing be used: virgin wood, energy crops, agricultural, food and industrial residues. that they can generate up to 50% Most widespread for small scale heating systems are wood pellets and chips from overconsumption of heating in well insulated round wood. There exist several types of biomass heating systems, the most housing units. It is critical that any tape and commons being stoves, available from room heaters of 1.5 kW up to around sealant used should maintain a high flexibility 12kW, and boilers > 25kW. Biomass-fired boilers can be integrated into existing over time to ensure it copes with differential heating systems, and are therefore a real alternative in renovation projects if movement and to resist high and low adequately selected (high performance and low particle emission). temperatures over the lifetime of the building. • Condensing boilers It should, as well, perform under high Condensing boilers are a further development of the low-temperature boilers. humidity conditions. They are the most energy efficient boilers since they use two heat exchangers: Top left in orange indicating infiltration from one taking the water vapour (hot gasses) produced from burning the hydrogen rolling shutter after insulation, Echirolles, France. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 26 27 content of the fuel to heat the water coming back from radiators into the condensing Cogeneration units decentralised energy production system boiler, one capturing the heat from the condensation process during the cooling of the water vapour which condenses into liquid water. The effectiveness of this avoids transportation and reduces the carbon footprint. CHP condensing process depends on the temperature of the water returning to the saves more than 30% primary energy and CO2 compared boiler. System design and installation are key (longer chain of distribution giving to separate production of heat and power cooler water). Since condensation boiler is a low temperature device it is recommended by Decrees in many European countries in case of renovation / the carbon footprint. CHP saves more than 30% primary energy and CO2 reconstruction. compared to separate production of heat and power. There exist solutions from • Passive and active Solar space heating systems micro CHP (<36 electrical kW, 1-5 electrical kW) for single family house, 50 These solar heating systems with air heat collectors (glazed or unglazed) or with electrical kW for housing blocks and up to several 100-1000 electrical kW district liquid collectors, can be > 25 times more cost effective than solar electric systems. heating nets for social housing districts. CHP units work mostly on natural gas but Evacuated tube solar collectors mounted on the roof or on another structure a wide range of biomass fuels can be used (biogas, wood, sewage sludge…), should have a high performance so that high temperatures can be achieved even their system being designed to accept high moisture content material. It is to be with cold outdoor conditions. noted that CHP is most suitable when there is year round demand for heat to • Electric heat pumps balance the demand for electricity. A heat pump can provide heating or cooling, moving heat from ‘a natural source’ • District heating - at the highest temperature (outside air, soil, groundwater, water body, with More and more social landlords and owners adopt district heating. In the city of constant temperature from 5-10°C), to a ‘heat sink’ - at the lowest temperature. To Echirolles (France), it heats more than 75% of social housing units. This system keep this thermodynamic cycle, the heat pump needs electricity from an electric distributes hot water (or steam) to connected buildings and individual houses, or gas engine, or from renewable resources. Most cost-effective are air / water through highly insulated flow and return pipes and heat exchanger heat pumps, but these bivalent systems are less efficient. Air source heat pumps (substation) within each building. The heat is often obtained from a cogeneration are the least efficient but can still be used in low energy consumption dwellings. plant burning fossil fuels (oil / natural gas) or biomass, although single boiler They have the disadvantage of high outside temperature differential which leads installation, or geothermal heating or central solar heating can also be used. to lower efficiency. Geothermal heat pumps, since they draw heat from the ground District heating avoids costs of energy when based on biomass or renewable or groundwater which is at a relatively constant temperature all year round, have energy sources and reduces investments in household or building heating typically higher efficiency but are more expensive, requiring excavation. A equipment. However, it requires important initial investments, thus being less performance coefficient of COP > 4 should be selected (for 1kWh of electricity attractive for areas with low population. With CHP, district heating has the lowest consumed, 4 kWh of heat are produced). Most efficient systems have a COP of 7. carbon footprint of any heating system. In itself district heating is approximately Their capacity has to match heating and cooling demand without being 30% more efficient. However, ownership monopoly issues should be taken into undersized (risk of inadequate cooling) or oversized (risk of inappropriate account. dehumidification). Heat pumps most need additional heat source to cover peak consumption (cold days, etc.). Intelligent heat pumps (as Syd Energi units installed in Sonderborg, Denmark) with a control unit collecting weather data, households consumption and electricity prices, produce heat when prices are low and provide heat-through their heat-storage device, at peak consumption. • Co-generation units - Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Cogeneration units (Combined Heat Power - CHP) generate heat and electricity simultaneously, the heat resulting from the production of electricity or the reverse. This decentralised energy production system avoids transportation and reduces CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 28 29 Domestic hot water (DHW) Some hints to help choosing energy systems • Solar Water Heating systems (SWH) They can cover up to 2/3 of the hot domestic water heat. Simple devices exist and technological aspects with a storage tank mounted above solar collectors on the roof (‘closed-coupled’ •  ake a survey on the heat energy demand (heating and domestic hot water M SWH). Others have storage tank ground or floor mounted. In winter there can be DHW). sometimes with insufficient solar heat gain to deliver sufficient hot water. The •  ook for potentials of reducing demand (through insulation, water saving L performance of an SWH system may be defined by its solar fraction devices…). (corresponding to the fraction of a building’s water heating energy demand he can •  ake a comparison calculation of different heating systems (only boiler, boiler M meet) which depends on the solar characteristic of the system, but also on the and CHP, heat pump, biomass heating systems -stoves, boilers…-, district water-use pattern and on the solar resource. heating), comparing not only acquisition, installation and maintenance costs, but • Heat pump using exhaust air fuel dependency and emissions (CO2 and others) - keeping in mind that prices for An integrated hot water heat pump which actively uses up to 70% of the energy different fuels may develop differently in the future. from exhaust air (from ventilation systems) to ensure central domestic hot water •  ake a long term 15-20 years calculation. To avoid ad-hoc decision making, M preparation all year round, independent of the existing heating system. Social landlords and house owners should make a structural renovation plan, where technical, social and economic aspects as well as environmental aspects Monitoring play a role. The grey (hidden) energy, including the energy required in transporting and in recycling the different materials / technology at the end of their life cycle, Monitoring devices (i.e.: individual meters, check meters, master meters and should be taken into account in their selection. digital smart meters) are necessary to measure the impact of renovation on energy consumption, to evaluate the effect of each new technological and technical implementation, to identify possible malfunctions and to get knowledge on the behaviour of the occupants so as to promote energy conservation measures and to KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED keep the energy performance of the housing unit. However, instrumentation should be easy to use, an energy baseline should be available, data must be reliably recorded and stored, measurement duration should be adapted to the monitoring Certification of materials and of buildings, aspects of energy performance labels, objective and sample size and structure should be representative. as well as renovation approaches, were the key issues discussed during the CASH thematic seminar on technological developments held in Utrecht in January 2011. Here are main elements identified: Feedback of metering results should be fast, clear and understandable to lead to action and to be directly translated into costs related to the energy bill. Clear communication is needed. ‘La Bruyère’ BBC level, renovation OPATB program, Echirolles, France. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 30 31 Certification Certification of building is not mandatory but allows Certification of materials ensuring that specific energy efficiency (EE) targets are Even though the environmental aspects of products do not yet play a big role in the met. There is not one standard European certification tool certification process of the European Organisation for Technical Approval, but several national certification tools. specialised databases exist of validated and labelled building materials based on Life Cycle Analyses (carbon emission and energy used during material production, transportation, recycling...). Not all national validations come to the same results, depending on the assumptions made in the calculations and on differences made on how the materials designers and operators of the sector). While the ITACA Protocol defines the are being used or applied. In the Netherlands a national calculation system is being strategic guidelines and supervises the certification system, regions and provinces developed, bringing at least seven other systems together. should define their own procedures of certification and accreditation systems and issue the certificates. Certification of buildings Certification of the building, demonstrates its commitment to energy efficiency, site Passive House Planning Package PHPP sustainability and indoor environmental quality. It is not mandatory but allows Calculating the energy balance of buildings with very low energy consumption ensuring that specific energy efficiency (EE) targets are met. is a demanding task - existing regulations, standards and pre-standards lack the There is not one standard European certification tool but several national required precision. The method developed by Passivhaus Institut in Darmstadt certification tools. Some are proposing integrated calculation methodology Germany is the widest accepted method, in Europe, to calculate the design process including all the EE aspects, such as heating, technological cooling and lighting for passive house renovation. installations, position and orientation of the building, heat recovery, etc., and not just the degree of the building’s technical insulation. Some used in the countries of CASH network are presented hereafter: Energy performance labels Under the European Directive on Energy performance of Buildings (2002/91/EC) to GPR Building achieve energy performance in buildings, Member States are responsible for: “GPR Building” is a performance based tool developed by the municipality of setting the minimum standards as regards the energy performance of new Tilburg and W/E Consultants in the Netherlands. The aim of this quick and easy to and existing buildings. use software is to raise building quality and reduce the environmental load of To meet their commitment and promote the achievement of high energy buildings, using five indicators: Energy, Environment, Health, User Quality, and performance levels, countries have developed a series of energy performance Long Term Value. It allows visualising the effect of every measure on the labels (EPL). In the absence of European standards, they have developed their sustainability and gives achieved CO2 reduction. At the moment “GPR Building” is own national standards which are not directly comparable. This is because being extended so it can be used internationally. countries aggregate different components in the building’s total allowed energy budget (i.e. some countries ignore domestic hot water, equipment, lighting, or ITACA Protocol fans), they control different stages of the energy chain (e.g. net energy demand, The ITACA Institute (Federal Association of Italian Regions) in Italy, developed the delivered energy or primary energy) and have divergent assumptions on system ITACA protocol as a tool for the certification of the residential public building. efficiencies (e.g. boilers) and primary energy factors. Moreover, areas and volumes Indicators used are: Site, Consumption of resources, Environmental loads, are calculated in different ways in different countries, which complicates simple Environmental indoor quality, Quality of the service and Socio- economic aspects. comparison of requirements that are normalized in relation to floor area or facade It helps providing a common baseline for all stakeholders (property owners, builders, areas, such as energy use [kWh/m².year] or air tightness. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 32 33 Also the climate conditions in different countries and regions are different. Some European examples of EPL, based on reducing the long term consumption of the EXAMPLES from partners buildings, are: • Passivhaus, in Germany, with less than 15 kWh/m2.year of energy consumption -Renovation approach: for heating and the same for cooling, • Low Energy Consumption Building (BBC), in France, for buildings with primary Rhone-Alpes Regional Council energy renovation plan for energy consumption of 50 kWh/m2.year (level A) for new building and of 80 kWh/ social housing, France m2.year for renovated buildings or Effinergie integrating the concept of Starting with the challenge of national EE targets set in the new French Environment bill airtightness. ‘Grenelle 2’, of 80 000 renovations by 2020 in Rhône-Alpes region with an energy Initiatives as the European EPLabel project proposes to harmonise this framework consumption performance level <150kWh/m•/year), CASH partner Rhône-Alpes in public buildings across Europe. Whereas the level of Passivhaus is achievable Regional Council (RARC) has adopted an ambitious regional energy renovation plan in in renovation, the question of impacts on way of living due to building air-tightness favour of social housing, both public and private, for the 2011-2013 period. This plan, constraint should be raised. built around the regional partnership between RARC, the French Agency for Energy and Environment Management (ADEME) and the regional association of social housing Renovation approach organisations (ARRA-HLM), will provide technical assistance and financial support to Which are the EE renovation targets to achieve by social landlords or public social landlords and co-properties. co-properties or private owners and what should be the approach: global or Objectives of this plan are to generalise the target of high energy performance and to step-by-step? While minimum performances are advocated by the European develop a project management integrating a multi-criteria approach (architecture, Directive, specific targets to be achieved through renovation vary from ventilation, comfort, eco-materials, etc.). Energy requirements have been set up so that country to country and are defined by their legal framework which will be flexibility and capacity of adaptation are guaranteed to operators. There are thus 2 presented in the second CASH mini-guide. approaches sharing the common goal of a minimum energy saving of 35%: Regarding the approach, the answers from CASH partners vary: 1. a “step by step” approach reaching at least a level •  atabanya (Hungary), favours achieving the best available and most complete T <150kWH/m•/year, based on technical solutions or “work packages” compatible with building energy refurbishment rather than proceeding to a renovation reaching low-energy buildings standard (BBC renovation level < 80kWh/m 2/year), which will not minimum requirements, since these energy operations are long-term interventions kill future energy saving potential. Priority is given to the enveEnergy lope/shell and most often the unexecuted works are never achieved later on. (a minimum of two actions), with safeguards to satisfy (e.g.: minimum thermal •  hône-Alpes Regional Council (France), has developed (with key stakeholders) R resistance) and some technical consistency to respect (e.g.: mandatory intervention on a ‘step-by-step’ approach for Rhône-Alpes region which concentrates on the ventilation if works programme implies replacement of windows); means (work package) more than on the goals. This progressive approach, not 2. a global approach reaching the BBC low-energy consumption level (<80 kWh/m²/ focusing on reaching immediately ‘BBC renovation level’ but remaining year) and obtaining the French label BBC Effinergie Renovation. compatible with it, allows social landlords investing in renovation operations even It is a progressive plan, with a pilot operation during the first year (2011), on which basis if they don’t have the financial means to reach high targets. the activities for the next two years will be revised and optimised. The Rhone-Alpes •  chirolles (France), until now has favoured the global approach with renovation E example shows that high goals can lead to new ways of working and the development integrating all the elements of the envelope, the energy production and the and implementation of new technologies. technical installations (e.g.: recent ‘Village 2’ district rehabilitation program with For more information on technical requirements, see : new and renovated buildings at BBC levels). However, given the present difficult financial context, the assets of a step by step approach are being discussed in the ► www.logementsocialdurable.fr frame of Echirolles – URBACT CASH Local Action Plan. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 34 35 Decision making tool: Shared energy skill center - Les Mureaux, France renovation in a portfolio strategy - Mitros, Netherlands The city of Les Mureaux plans to set up a special energy training facility for craftsmen. The Dutch housing corporation Mitros uses a decision model for its housing stock, The city has identified a shared interest with several training / research organizations based on return on investment from EE renovation. The principal goal is not to in the sector for a common technical platform. The project partners want to realise minimise the costs, but to try to raise the value of the housing stock. Next to the a new building with the newest energy efficiency technologies so that the technical market value of the houses, it is also the value for renting them out and the value solutions of the building or equipment can be used for educational purposes and for the quality of living (‘social return’). Return on investment gained through training. The building is planned for realisation in 2014. increased life span and value of the house, is a management criterion too. The returns from renovation can be summarised as follow: Returns for tenant: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS lower ‘cost of accommodation’ better climate (health) Technological possibilities for energy efficient renovation are developing fast. more comfort/safety (well-being) Availability of techniques is not a guarantee that they always will be used in the best Returns for the house owner: and most effective way. To cope with this rapidly evolving environment and with this extension of exploitation (direct + indirect) constraint, it is recommended to pay a special attention to the labels and types of increase in rent (direct) equipment and materials, as well as to the installation techniques, in particular for lower risk of future utilization (direct) heritage buildings. Certification can be a guide to perform the appropriate choices. The renovation approach, whether global or on a step by step, is also a major value increase (indirect) issue. Many stakeholders, in particular communities and social landlords, often ask themselves if they should act on a limited number of buildings to achieve expected Making such future oriented calculations urges house owners, tenants and EE renovation targets (80 kWh/m².year) or if they should intervene on few of the landlords, to search for the latest techniques and technologies for energy renovation. components (i.e. insulation and glazing or energy supply and equipment, etc.) over With such model, a rational decision can be made between “Continuation of a large number of buildings. Careful decision should be taken so as to keep along Utilization”, “Disposition”, “Renovation” or “Demolition / rebuilding”. with the municipal energy reduction goals, available financial resources, other obligations to fulfil, as well as the time lag between major renovation operations (average of 20 to 30 years). Moreover, a renovation plan, aside from including the choice of approach, target, energy sources, technical installations, devices and their adequate sizing, requires the implication of stakeholders throughout the process, in particular the tenants, so as to optimize usages and energy efficiency (integrated participative design process). This subject will be covered in one of the following five CASH mini-guides, as well as legal framework, financial engineering, energy production and EE project management. 2nd conference on Energy efficiency, Les Mureaux, France, May 2011. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 36 37 MORE TO LEARN ► www.passiv.de ► www.asiepi.eu or www.buildup.eu General (ASIEPI EP: Comparing Energy Performance Requirements over Europe: Tool and The CASH website with all presentations of the Thematic seminar in Utrecht: Method, 2010) ► http://urbact.eu/cash ► www.norme-bbc.fr (French norms and Grenelle bill) State of the art ► www.frankfurt.de/sixcms/detail.php?id=3076&_ffmpar[_id_inhalt]=102231 Main reference used for the overview of technologies for housing renovation: Leitfaden: „Energetische Sanierung von Gründerzeitgebäuden in Frankfurt“; • Energieeffizienz im Wohngebäudebestand; Techniken, Potenziale, Kosten und Herausgeber: Stadt Frankfurt am Main, Energiereferat. Wirtschaftlichkeit; Institut Wohnen und Umwelt. ► http://ecocitoyens.ademe.fr/ ► http://www.iwu.de/fileadmin/user_upload/dateien/energie/klima_altbau/ IWU_QBer_EnEff_Wohngeb_Nov2007.pdf ► www.logementsocialdurable.fr • W/E Advisers’ presentation: “Energy saving technology, state of the art” on CASH ► www.energiaklub.hu Website. (Hungarian climate policy institute. Energiaklub concentrates on energy efficiency, • La rénovation à très basse consommation d’énergie des bâtiments existants. renewable resources, climate protection, energy policy.) Olivier Sidler, France, 120 p., 2010. ► www.lakcimke.hu Further website sources (A Hungarian on-line and downloadable publication for owners about energy performance certificate of buildings, energy efficiency interventions and renewable ► www.institut-negawatt.com energy sources.) ► www.lowenergyhouse.com (England) ► www.kliba-heidelberg.de/publikationen_oekobaufibel.html (Germany) ► www.pro.baubook.at; www.sev.nl ► http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/ (all about eco-labels) ► www.ecologicalbuildingsystems.com ► www.gprgebouw.nl CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 38 LEGAL FRAMEWORK •  hich key energy efficiency topics are most covered? W •  here are the gaps? W •  re enabling factors appropriate and sufficiently A covered? •  hat are the barriers to implementing? W •  ome interesting bottom-up approaches S •  ecommendations for an effective EE legal framework R CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 40 41 Content Introduction & subject significance This edition, covering the theme of legal framework for energy efficient renovation is the 2nd in a series of 6 mini-guides for the CASH project. STATE-OF-THE-ART 42 Availability of affordable and energy efficient housing is not only a technical or financial matter. European Directives, national / regional / local laws, decrees, European policy & regulation ordinances and policies are forming the framework for cities to work within. This Cash partner legal framework mini-guide describes the existing legal playing field for CASH partners from 9 Key topics most covered by legal instruments European countries at the local level and shows how they can manoeuvre within Topics less covered by legal instruments the given possibilities to enhance energy performance of affordable housing for Specificities and strengths of CASH partners social landlords, low income owners or tenants. It also highlights the gaps, barriers, local needs and the potential solutions for a bottom-up approach more in line with KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED 48 local context. Enabling factors Barriers to implementing Needs & required outcomes EXAMPLES FROM PARTNERS 51 Orca-apulia region, italy Brindisi tenants union, italy Apulia cluster for sustainable buildings, italy Heating source regulated in urban planning Voluntary agreement on local level CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS 53 ‘Brindisi manifesto’ MORE TO LEARN 55 CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 42 43 STATE-OF-THE-ART Principle of subsidiarity has led to a variety of norms and regulations that relate to national, regional or local context. European EE Policy and regulation At European level the reduction of energy consumption in the building sector is an important policy goal which is reflected in many directives and regulations. As illustrated by the table, this resulted in very different EE legal framework in Well-known is the 20-20-20 goal (to reduce GHG emissions by at least 20 per cent by CASH partner countries although they are all based on the same EU 2020; to raise the share of renewable energy to 20 per cent; to improve energy efficiency directives - except for EE targets specification, audits and energy performance by at least 20 per cent), which many local and regional authorities in Europe have certificates. Table results are analyzed in the following subsections. committed to through the “covenant of mayors” (signed by 6 of the CASH partners). Probably the most relevant regulation for CASH is the EU Directive (2002/91/EC) on Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD), in force since 2003 and adapted in May 2010. CRRA, Echirolles, Les Mureaux - FR Sonderborg - DN Tatabanya - HU For EU legislations on Energy Efficiency (EE), consult the link: Frankfurt - GE Bridgend - UK Yambol - BG Utrecht - NL Eordea - HE Brindisi - IT ► http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/other/l27042_en.htm On 22 June 2011, a new set of measures for increased Energy Efficiency was proposed EE Targets + Energetic requirements of buildings by the European Commission (Energy Efficiency Plan 2011). There will be a legal EE DIAGNOSIS Audits + Energy performance certificates obligation for member states to establish energy saving schemes and more efforts from & SPECIFICATIONS EPC of buildings + posting local and regional governments to be made for public buildings. Even though social Renovation labels housing is not explicitly addressed in the new directive, it will be a topic to consider since it is often within the influence of local governments. Energy sources Moreover, the European Commission is developing a “Low-carbon economy 2050 ENERGY PRODUCTION Co-generation roadmap” with objectives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80 to 95% by 2050, & DISTRIBUTION and further rules can be expected. District heating Condominium / co-properties Cash partner legal framework USERS INVOLVEMENT Tenants contribution to energy To understand how some European countries have adapted their legal framework renovation to cope with these European directives and to pinpoint gaps and national specific Clusters (industries & research R&D contributions, CASH partners have illustrated their national, regional and local legal institutions) EE instruments in the form of a table organized by key EE topics, synthesized Subsidies for energy efficiency housing units renovation hereafter – see detailed table on the CASH webpage (http://urbact.eu/cash/, Eco-loans and low interest loans “Project documents”, “CASH Partner legal framework” -. The information gathered has shown how the principle of subsidiarity – central FINANCIAL TOOLS / Fiscal measures ENGINEERING principle in the EU context stipulating that political decisions in the EU must always be taken at the lowest possible administrative and political level and as close to Feed-in tariffs citizens as possible – has led to a variety of norms and regulations that relate Funds for state & municipal buildings to national, regional or local context (cultural, financial, climatic specifics…). CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 44 45 Key topics most covered by legal instruments For financial instruments: subsidies (national or local or a combination of both), loans and feed-in tariffs are regulated the most. For EE diagnosis and specifications: all CASH member states have translated the EPBD into national legislation. Energy Efficiency targets have been defined, Topics less covered by legal instruments monitoring methods developed and certification systems installed. However, Whereas all EE topics are important, several of them, presented hereafter, there is no common calculation scheme between member states making it difficult seem to be poorly regulated: to compare the energy consumption values (e.g.: there are over 25 different types of energy certificates at European level). Regarding levels of target energy values Renovation labels: only a few partner countries have regulated labelling aspect, for energy modernization, whereas these are generally rather poor at national such as France with its high environmental quality (HQE) and low consumption level, partners have shown that, in some cases, the local governments have building (BBC). In Germany, the Passive House Institute (www.passiv.de) has defined more ambitious targets. developed a calculation scheme independent from national standards with procedures and boundary conditions not influenced by political considerations For energy production and distribution: most countries are working on allowing fast integration of new research results which gives more correct results. regulations to promote the use of renewable energy sources, accompanied by Some renovation labels have inspired new national standard construction rules, financial measures (guaranteed feed-in tariffs, subsidies for solar units or heat enforcing EE and bioclimatic assets when constructing a new building (i.e. Thermic pumps...). In some countries (France, Denmark) an assessment on different energy regulation RT 2012 in France). Compulsory renovation rules are expected to options for big projects is even required by national regulation, so that the choice follow. for energy source is not centrally prescribed, but is dependent on the local situation. Cogeneration and district heating: in some partner cities specific energy applications are promoted through legislation, be it cogeneration, district heating or the use of For users’ involvement: several partner countries have legal instruments to natural gas. Local circumstances, resource availability and economical aspects, obtain tenants contribution to energy renovation (Denmark, France, Germany, influence which option for energy supply is promoted, as in Tatabanya, Eordea or Hungary and the Netherlands). In Germany 11% of energy modernization costs Sønderborg with district heating. may be transferred to higher rents and most often, to pay back investments for home improvement, rents are being raised. If and how much the rents in social Co-properties / condominiums: majority voting is ruled differently. In some cases a housing can be raised varies between countries. Some cities (Utrecht, Frankfurt) quorum requirement is used. In most partner countries this has not been the object are developing local rules for this. Because implementation mechanisms are of legal instruments or the choice to be made by owners between normal complex and since this tenants contribution issue often raises social problems, in maintenance works and energy investments. The Netherlands is one of the most cases social landlords prefer not to implement them. Frankfurt and some exceptions, with a law obliging the owners of apartments to set up a fund for long cities in Germany have introduced energy criteria in local rent comparison schemes term maintenance, with differences made between normal maintenance and extra (“Mietspiegel”). Landlords can justify higher rents, if they prove measures (new energy investments. There is no general rule for this in Europe. For Bulgaria, where heating, insulation) or lower energy demand. the situation with ownership of buildings is the most complicated, The Condominium Act, in force, stipulates that a qualified majority of votes is required for decisions In some countries, an assessment on different energy concerning basic repair or renovations and in a month’s time, an amendment should options for big projects is even required by national indicate that “every owner is obliged to pay monthly fees for the renovation of the building”. regulation, so that the choice for energy source is not centrally prescribed but is dependent on the local situation. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 46 47 topic has been mentioned by CASH partners. The Netherlands is one of the exceptions, with a law obliging Specificities and strengths of CASH partners the owners of apartments to set up a fund for long term The detailed CASH partner legal framework table, presented on the CASH maintenance, with differences made between normal webpage, stresses some trends and specificities: maintenance and extra energy investments. Some countries like Italy have developed a series of legal instruments at regional and local levels which deserve to be scaled-up (such as the Brindisi City Council Clusters: only a few CASH members, such as Sønderborg and Brindisi, have regulated resolution to establish the service chart providing 30% of rental fees to the tenants the creation of EE clusters, joining R&D institutions and industries for EE union for self-management including for EE renovation). Others like France have developments. Clusters exist in other partner countries but as supportive measures. adopted a more centralized approach with less local and more national regulation. Fiscal measures: these economic instruments are always mentioned in EU communication documents and policies as being important for realising the energy Some countries have developed specific legal instruments for key EE topics: efficiency goals. Different from subsidies, economical tools - such as tax regulations, •  ungarian Decree N°389/2007 on feed-in tariffs related to cogenerated H should be available for all actors and make energy-friendly options financially electricity; attractive. However, they are very rarely used in social housing EE renovation or •  atabanya’s General Assembly Decree N°4/2010 on measuring and setting T are very recent towards low income owners. district heating and N°10/2010 on the district heating modernization programme (Hungary), Green Procurement (environment-friendly purchasing): even though it is included •  erman EE label, Apulian Regional Council Resolution N°863, March 23, 2010 G in national plans of 6 of the 9 CASH countries, no legal instrument regarding this on R&D (Italy) and French Tax Instructions N°5B-22-09 establishing Tax credit for EE expenditures on main houses and N°6C-1-10 establishing a property tax relief for energy saving works on social housing units. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 48 49 KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED Often supportive measures are not diversified enough, or not adapted to the context, and the legal During the Brindisi seminar, thematic workshops were held on enabling factors, framework not appropriate. This can create barriers to barriers and needs for partners to implement their EE legal framework. Hereafter, implementing the legislation. are some key elements raised by partners. Capacity building and training vary widely, going from schoolchildren to Enabling factors scholars: National educational programme for primary schools in Denmark; Regulatory mechanisms, such as: ‘Volunteer’ modernization and no compulsive teaching programmes in technical schools around the PassivHaus building, measures are found in Germany; posting of energy efficiency levels by estate including programmes for architects and builders in Germany; university agencies in France; obligation to add certification to selling act in Italy; co-property programmes with units on energy in Italy. being able to act as a legal person in Italy, France and the Netherlands; Information & awareness raising stay the most standard enabling factors but are self-management by tenants in Italy and tenants agreement to adopt a renovation still insufficient and untargeted: Awareness raising campaigns by municipalities operation in the Netherlands. and at national level in Denmark; website with advice on energy saving for private owners and tenants in Denmark and the Netherlands; posting of energy efficiency Financial measures are numerous, as listed hereafter, but are often ephemeral levels in estate agencies, energy guides and information desk with information for and project based, not adapted to large scale renovation operations : EC structural co-properties and individual houses in France; NGO providing information on funds; preferential loans and tax incentives for social landlords in France and for financing in Hungary. owners in Italy; guaranteed 2-3% interest loans for social landlords at regional level in the Netherlands; low interest rate credits from national funding banks -KfW- in Barriers to implementing Germany; eco-loans / green loans at 0% interest rate for private owners in France Often supportive measures are not diversified enough, or not adapted to the and Denmark; revolving fund for social landlords at local level by an independent context, and the legal framework not appropriate. This can create barriers to organization in the Netherlands; 3rd line tenants contribution in France); possible implementing the legislation. Below are aspects of legislation that are seen as subsidies from state for low income private owners in France and to reach C level barriers by the CASH partners: in Hungary; regional financial measures in France; exemption of land tax for social •  xisting legal framework does not cover all the aspects of energy efficient E owners in France; exemption of property taxes if level A is achieved in Bulgaria; renovation and legal obligations are not always connected to facilitating reduced VAT in France; fiscal measure: tax deduction for some energy units and instruments like capacity building & training or financing. material in France, Italy and Denmark; white certificates - selling of energy savings •  here can be competitiveness between energy efficient (EE) legal instruments T by social landlords to energy companies in Denmark and France; creation of a and other legal instruments (i.e. fire security, elevators, building regulations, lead national fund fed by fixed rents – once loans are paid-, managed by government on the basis of social landlords’ requests justified by tenants in Denmark; subsidized diagnosis, etc.). This could make it hard to agree on how to implement rent on the basis of energy savings in the Netherlands; public-private partnership legislation. in Italy; financial support for changing old boilers in Germany; risk sharing covered •  oals set by legislation are not always financially achievable or seen as realistic. G by public entities such as municipalities through guarantees. •  eak and unstable financial measures in time, as well as the difference of W incentives between national and regional or local levels, make it difficult to reach Technical support, less widespread, can cover: Technical assistance for the national targets. certification process, accessing financial support and helping draw up funding requests in France; technical assistance for energy measurements by universities Enabling factors exist, as regulatory mechanisms, financial in Denmark; development of district heating by municipalities in Denmark and the measures, technical support, but many of them are short Netherlands; use of smart metering to raise awareness in Germany. term based. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 50 51 •  egal instruments (laws, ordinances, regulations) can be influenced by lobbies L and stakeholders of social housing do not have a strong lobby. EXAMPLES from partners •  ational laws are not always applicable to specific local conditions. Moreover, the N scaling-up of local regulation, which have proven to be efficient, to national Interesting CASH partners’ examples on how to favour a bottom-up approach to legislation is difficult. draw up legal instruments reflecting local needs are shared hereafter: Whereas these barriers are general for many policy areas, there are some additional specific factors for the social housing sector: •  overnments may have high EE targets but social landlords could face difficulties G Orca Apulia Region, Italy to finance renovation, financial instruments being limited (no access to tax deduction The Regional Observatory of the Apulia Region (ORCA) has developed a database and to green loans for some stakeholders…) and not adapted to large scale on stakeholders’ needs and is using it to support the region in drawing up adapted operations and rents being hard to raise when a high percentage of tenants live regional regulation on EE renovation of public social housing. ORCA gathers on very low incomes or social welfare. Renovation investments charged on rents feedback from tenants, not only through data but mostly by talking with them and can generate strong tenants’ opposition driven by their low awareness and orders the data so that it is helpful to the evaluation units. The analysis leads to involvement in the renovation process. matching peoples’ needs and the local laws to find out if there are any gaps •  ixed properties (social landlord buildings with private owners) do not fit with M between them. Then new laws are drawn up or existing ones are implemented with regulations made for standard average situations and social landlords bear all the support of politicians, to promote better practices at local level. ORCA pilot legal obligations. projects for dissemination of good practices are available at: •  ultiplicity of funding sources leads to complex application or transactional M procedures. ► www.orca.regione.puglia.it Needs & required outcomes Brindisi Tenants Union, Italy The EE legal framework should cover several key aspects: The Brindisi Tenants Union promoted two resolutions which were approved • Set ambitious technical standards, with realistic targets, whenever insulation of  unanimously by the City Council, representing a cutting edge in legislation at national the building envelope or a new heating installation is planned. In some German level. These resolutions established the chart, called ‘Carta dei Servizi e cities and in the Baden-Württemberg region, the legal framework stipulates that Commisione Gestione della Carta dei Servizi’, now used by the social landlord IACP renewable energies (i.e. Solar collectors) must be installed if the roof or heating (Istituto Autonomo Case Popolari) and the self-management set of rules which regu- system is modernized; late the tenants and allows the Tenants Union to receive 30% of rental fees (once • Connect financing and the legal framework to establish a transparent way to  used to pay management and administration fees) for self-management. It could be reach an equilibrium between the financial interests of the landlord and of the ten- used for EE renovation or other improvements, in agreement with the IACP. ant; develop coordinated multi-actor instruments (technical, social, financial) for low income owners; Furthermore, the Tenants Union has • Promote renewable sources of energy supply. There should be a clear framework  designed a cartoon to raise tenants’ to support the implementation of heat and electricity from cogeneration and awareness on the impact of housing electricity from renewable energies. Feed-in tariffs, which have caused the high- legislation… This creative tool should be est and most cost-effective boom of energy from renewables (as in Germany) promoted as a best practice to provide in- should be stable for 15-20 years after installation of the plant. formation to citizens on legal framework. • Furthermore, it is fundamental to diffuse the various available EE legal  instruments to municipalities and to raise the awareness of households of the ► www.unioneinquilini.it benefits of EE renovation. A Brindisi Tenants Union representative presenting the high impact of their cartoon on legal instruments. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 52 53 Apulia Cluster for Sustainable Building, Italy CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The Apulia “Cluster for Sustainable Building” is promoting cooperation and educational activities for sustainable development to increase awareness of At the Brindisi thematic seminar, the partners identified gaps between national sustainability in the building process at any level. It brings together industries, legislation and what is locally possible. Based on the barriers, needs and enabling companies and universities in the region, informs and gives training on sustainable factors, they have identified recommendations for an effective EE legal framework, development and energy-related issues, as well as initiates research and agreed in the following ‘Brindisi Manifesto’. innovation. Stakeholders involved share their experiences, allowing regions to give feedbacks to the higher legislative level and to influence new legislation, through the cluster’s R&D activities. Brindisi Manifesto, Recommendations for an effective EE legal framework ► http://www.numix-ecoinnovation.eu/doc/pdf_67.pdf Long term vision of the legal instruments Heating source regulated in urban planning Fast politically-motivated changes of legislation should be avoided. Coherent legal framework at national, regional and local levels Since 1997 Frankfurt obliges building companies and project developers to Legislation must be consistent, understandable and scalable. connect the buildings to local district heating supplied by cogeneration. The use of Flexible and adaptable legal framework other heating systems of fuels is forbidden. This obligation is implemented through In this sense, voluntary legal instruments (soft law) associated with a higher control local ordinations related to land-use plans in urban planning. level should be favoured. Involving stakeholders in drawing up bills, including citizens, is key ► http://www.frankfurt.de/sixcms/detail.php?id=8686&_ffmpar[_id_inhalt]=50482 to produce coherent legislation that can be implemented locally with the participation of EE actors, social landlords, private owners and tenants. ► http://www.frankfurt.de/sixcms/detail.php?id=8686&_ffmpar[_id_inhalt]=50467 Voluntary agreement on local level Utrecht has signed a voluntary agreement with social housing associations to have them insulate 18,660 apartments from 2011 to 2015. In return, the city council will adapt legal rules which hindered housing associations from splitting up big houses or from selling part of their housing stock. ► http://www.utrecht.nl/smartsite.dws?id=88530&GID=366375&commnr=17013 &sub CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 54 55 Scaling-up, into national legal instruments, local Decrees and municipal deliberations that have proven their efficiency MORE TO LEARN Individual cities have often difficulties to give feedback on successful local processes to national government or to the EU. By organizing themselves in An overview of relevant legislation and institutional framework can be found in the dedicated organizations and networks (like CECODHAS, Eurocities, Climate Background Paper made for the thematic meeting in Brindisi. Alliance, ICLEI, national municipal associations, etc.) they can have more influence (See CASH website: http://urbact.eu/cash) on future legislation. Adopting a global approach to the cost of housing (rent-energy-heating) Development of European policy related Being part of the housing costs, heating and energy costs should be integrated in to Energy Efficiency can be found on the website of DG Energy the rent protection systems. Furthermore, claiming “saved energy costs” to compensate energy investments must be made easier for house owners. ► http://ec.europa.eu/energy/index_en.htm Adopting a comprehensive, simple and fast approach to funding Funding should be less oriented towards individual projects or pilots, but be more ► http://ec.europa.eu/energy/efficiency/action_plan/action_plan_en.htm structural support. It should be made less bureaucratic and procedures homogenized and simplified. ► http://ec.europa.eu/energy/strategies/2011/roadmap_2050_en.htm Providing adaptive mechanism for rents, on the basis of incomes Flexible mechanism for rents to fit to local context (deprived neighbourhood) and a ► www.epbd-ca.eu form of protection from rent increase for existing social rents should be ensured. Favoring the creation of clusters Providing appropriate communication and capacity building Other sites Municipalities should receive clear and timely information on legislation and on Covenant of mayors: possible sources of funding in a systematic way and receive appropriate training. Educational programmes for stakeholders, in particular architects and builders, are ► www.eumayors.eu needed and energy efficient Certification of architects / builders should be promoted. Awareness raising campaigns by cities and by tenants unions should be ► Developments of European and national housing policies: promoted (e.g. Climate Tour in Frankfurt, Apulia Cluster for Sustainable Development, ORCA “Watt/IN” project). Even if the occupants of social housing ► www.powerhouseeurope.eu are not always easy to involve in a renovation process, it is essential that they are, just as all other stakeholders, informed and involved. ► www.housingeurope.eu CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 56 FINANCING ENGINEERING •  hat are the modalities to reduce the ’investment costs W and income’ gap? •  ow can the landlord / tenant dilemma be solved? H •  hat are the barriers to implementation? W •  hat are potential solutions for an efficient financial W engineering? CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 58 59 Content Introduction & subject significance This 3rd Mini-Guide on Financial Instruments is based on the exchange of experience between CASH partners, in the preparation of and during the 3rd transnational thematic seminar held in Frankfurt, Germany, September 7 to 9, STATE-OF-THE-ART 60 2011. It analyzes existing financial instruments for energy efficient (EE) renovation available in the 9 European countries of the CASH partner cities. Besides How much money is needed? – The European context underlining successful instruments in use in CASH partner cities, the guide also Existing modalities to reduce the gap between highlights obstacles and presents recommendations for developing financial investment costs and income engineering adapted to long-term and large-scale EE renovation operations. • Reducing the investment costs • Getting additional income • Financing by a third party (TPF) KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED 64 How are the financial instruments perceived by CASH partners? Barriers Specific needs pinpointed by CASH partners Potential solution for efficient financial engineering EXAMPLES FROM PARTNERS 70 The Danish Building Fund, Denmark National rent scheme and scoring system, Netherlands Green Deal, UK KfW programs, Germany Local financial instrument, Brindisi, Italy CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS 72 Funding Investor/user dilemma Networking Recommendations for Managing Authorities MORE TO LEARN 74 CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 60 61 STATE-OF-THE-ART of dividends, and that must be repaid within a fixed period. A Green loan represents a sum of money lent for environmentally-friendly investments (including energy savings), at an interest seeking both financial returns and environmental benefits. Soft loans offer flexible terms for repayment, usually at lower than market interest How much money is needed? rates, and are provided customarily by government agencies. The difference with – The European context the commercial interest rate is mostly covered by the government. It has been estimated that the comprehensive energy renovation cost for a dwelling, is in average 23,000 Euro1 (in France). In order to reach the European CO2 reduction Bank guarantee goals for housing, approximately 70 to 180 million housing units in the European This tool consists in government taking over the bank guarantee to facilitate access Union (EU) need to be renovated according to low energy consumption standards. to loans for low-income private homeowners, social housing organizations, or This would require from 1,500 to upwards of 4,000 billion Euros of energy socio economically deprived groups of homeowners. refurbishment investments in the residential sector before 2050, which represents roughly 27% of the energy consumption in the EU. Tax credits and VAT reduction In some countries, investments for energy improvements can be deducted from How can this be achieved knowing that energy costs should be reduced by a factor income tax or have a reduced VAT rate. The German government has associated of 3 to 4 and that 2/3 to 3/4 of the renovation costs are often dedicated to general this tool with a certain level of energy efficiency that must be reached through the maintenance measures? investment. Tax credits are less likely to be attractive to lower-income households. The trend is to cover these costs in the long term by the added value of the building In some cases, big social landlords are excluded from tax credit reduction. and in the short term through higher rents. However, it is often not possible in the Investment transfer to rent case of social housing, to raise the rent and certainly not more than the expected This represents investments paid back by a higher rent. For this tool to be used reduction in heating costs. Thus, additional financial instruments are required. effectively, an appropriate legal framework has to be in place. In Denmark and the Netherlands, national regulations are in place. See also the chapter on the Existing modalities to reduce owner/tenant dilemma. the gap between investment costs and income Available financial instruments for EE renovation in the 9 countries of the CASH Getting additional income partner cities have been analyzed during the roundtable of the 3rd CASH transnational European funds thematic seminar. They have been categorized into 3 modalities for reducing the gap The EC supports EE renovation through different funds which are mainly between investment costs and incomes: short-term based and project-oriented. Many funds are difficult to access owing to their complexity or criteria. Among the European funds available for actions related • reducing the investment costs, to energy efficiency are: • getting additional income, • European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) is the most relevant for EE • financing by a third party. renovation programs with up to 4% eligible. Reducing the investment costs ► http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/thefunds/regional/index_en.cfm Loan capital, soft loans or green loans Relevant factors of these financial instruments are the interest charged on loans • European Investment Bank (EIB) gives energy loans for the public and private and the time allowed for repayment. Loan capital is the part of an organization’s sectors, including municipalities –for sustainable, competitive and secure energy capital employed that is not equity capital, that earns a fixed rate of interest instead - with long-term fixed rates. 1 “Energy Retrofitting of social housing through energy performance contracts – A feedback from the FRESH project: France, Italy, United Kingdom and Bulgaria.” See www.fresh-project.eu ► http://www.eib.org/ CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 62 63 • European Energy Efficiency Fund (EEEF) for commercially viable EE and Subsidies (often related to revenues) provided by local and national governments. small-scale renewable energy (RE) projects from 5 to 25 M€, targeting municipal These are national grants, accessible to all categories of beneficiaries (social and regional authorities and public and private entities acting on behalf of them, landlords, co-properties and individual properties). Grants specifically targeting such as social housing associations, energy companies, etc. energy efficiency may be directed either to the social housing provider or directly to the individual resident. They vary in scale from large regeneration projects down to ► http://eeef.eu/ the household level. The funds mostly cover only a percentage of the real costs and are project based, with only a limited number of projects open to funding. • European Local Energy Assistance Fund (ELENA) is a technical assistance grant available to local authorities, designed to boost investments in the area of Feed-in tariffs energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy sources. This grant can be used to The self-production of energy, by solar panels or wind, can be supplied to the cover the technical support necessary to prepare, implement and finance the public electric power grid. In many countries, regulations ensure a guaranteed investment program, such as feasibility and market studies, program structuring, minimum price for this energy. This provides an income stream which can help business plans, energy audits, and tender preparation, etc. repay capital loans. It can only be used when energy is being produced, in addition to energy efficiency measures. ► http://www.eib.org/products/technical_assistance/elena/index.htm?lang=en Market instruments : Energy Savings Certificates and Carbon Trading • The Marguerite Fund is an independent Pan European equity fund for Energy, A ‘White Certificate’, also referred to as an Energy Savings Certificate (ESC), Climate Change and infrastructure investments, including sustainable energy Energy Efficiency Credit (EEC), or White tag, is an instrument issued by an production and distribution. authorized body guaranteeing that a specified amount of energy savings has been achieved. In most cases, the white certificates are tradable. In many countries, ► http://www.margueritefund.eu/index.php?pageid=1 energy companies have energy savings goals to achieve. The amount of energy saved in a housing project can be subject to trading. • Joint European Support for Sustainable Investment in City Areas (JESSICA) from EIB, promotes sustainable investments and growth in urban areas. It Financing by a third party (TPF) concerns repayable investments in projects forming part of an integrated plan for Energy Service Company (ESCO) and energy providers sustainable urban development. These investments, which may take the form of This financial mechanism involves the financing by an outside energy service equity, loans and/or guarantees, are delivered to projects via Urban Development investment company (ESCO) or by an energy provider. These investments are then Funds. Topics include: environment, innovation and promotion of sustainable paid off using the cost savings achieved. The investor installs efficient technology energy sources. and maintains the system to make sure energy is saved. This might, for example, involve provision of the heating equipment, fuel and maintenance, as well as ► http://www.eib.org/projects/publications/jessica.htm?lang=en energy saving measures or investments in renovation operations paid back on energy savings. In some countries, as in UK, there are legal obligations which • Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) program has targeted funding for creative compel energy companies to contribute to the EE renovation costs. projects promoting EE, increasing the use of RE sources and energy diversification (up to 75% of project costs) Energy Savings Performance Contract In this kind of contract, the contractor (public or private, or a holding) proposes the ► http://ec.europa.eu/energy/intelligent/index_en.htm owner measures that will produce measurable guaranteed savings, committing itself to reach the level of savings defined in the contract. Projects are partly funded through energy savings and may result in future revenue for the owner. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 64 65 KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED • National financial instruments are mostly available to all beneficiaries but are predominantly short-term based, except in Denmark, Germany and the UK, with long-term instruments; • There are differences between countries regarding the contribution of tenants. How are the financial instruments perceived The following ranking of financial instruments was obtained from CASH partners: by CASH partners? • most successful: funds, grants, subsidies and soft loans, as well as energy During a roundtable discussion, partners have classified financial instruments between obligations and trading; ‘most successful’ and ‘most complex’. Most successful for the network are funds, • most complex to implement, even if very interesting: third-party financing, grants, subsidies, soft loans, energy obligations and trading. These results are transfer of investments into rents, tax rebates and VAT reduction. In third-party similar to the ones presented in the EuroACE report (2010) which has addressed financing, energy savings may not be large enough to repay the investments more than thirty financial instruments. The most complex instruments are the within a reasonable contractual duration. transfer of investments into rents and 3rd party financing. To understand the main gaps in the financial instruments and the differences Barriers between countries in the network, the partners have developed the following grid The creation and use of innovative financing schemes depends on how prevailing which summarizes the financial sources available to different categories of barriers for financing and implementing EE renovation projects can be overcome. beneficiaries. (See table below) Main barriers identified by the CASH network during workshops are illustrated in the following ‘Barriers matrix’. (See table next page) Key findings from the grid, depicting the situation in 10 cities from 9 European countries: Most common barriers in the 9 countries, represented in the top of the matrix, are: • EU instruments are short-term based. Not designed for co-properties, they are •  imited funding, not sufficient to meet important national targets. Climate and L mainly used by social landlords; energy efficiency goals are often set by national governments. The funding to achieve these goals is not high enough or not available at all (see CECODHAS’ Financial instruments in cash partners countries comment in ‘Potential solutions’ section). Due to the overall savings on public budgets in European countries, this situation has only worsened. BENEFICIARIES •  he available funds are often short-term based and project-oriented, which does T Les Mureaux - FR Les Mureaux - FR Les Mureaux - FR not allow mid- and long-term planning needed for large-scale energy efficiency Sonderborg - DN Sonderborg - DN Sonderborg - DN Tatabanya - HU Tatabanya - HU Tatabanya - HU Echirolles - FR Echirolles - FR Echirolles - FR Frankfurt - GE Frankfurt - GE Frankfurt - GE Bridgend - UK Bridgend - UK Bridgend - UK renovations. Yambol - BG Yambol - BG Yambol - BG Utrecht - NL Utrecht - NL Utrecht - NL Eordea - HE Eordea - HE Eordea - HE Brindisi - IT Brindisi - IT Brindisi - IT CRRA - FR CRRA - FR CRRA - FR •  eneficiaries are confronted with complex procedures and application forms for B relatively little funding amounts. •  ack of awareness among owners on funding and on the financial aspects of EE L Social Landlords Co-properties / condominiums Private owners renovation, due to insufficient accessible information, is a widespread problem. Europe •  here is a lack of coherence between various financial instruments aimed at fi- T FINANCING ENTITIES State Region nancing different parts of the renovation process. Community 0 0 •  any municipalities are facing a fundamental lack of financing possibilities, thus M Banks with limited local action. Private * Tenants • t is difficult to reach an owners agreement in co-properties. I Others •  here is a lack of control and monitoring of both the use of finance and of the T Long term Short term Main gaps Not appicable energy usage after the renovation. * Coming project s Revolving funds 0 Only on limited territory CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 66 67 Barriers - Financial instruments energy costs? There is a problem with split incentives, referred to here as the Les Mureaux - FR Sonderborg - DN for energy improvement of social housing Tatabanya - HU Echirolles - FR ‘landlord/tenant’ dilemma. Frankfurt - GE Bridgend - UK Yambol - BG Utrecht - NL Eordea - HE Brindisi - IT CRRA - FR The dilemma has many aspects: • in most cases, the costs of EE renovation cannot be neutralized by lower energy Limited funding to meet important national targets/demand > existing funds Ephemertality of funds - Short term based: makes mid term planning difficult costs obtained from reduced consumption, the investor not taking advantage of Complex and difficult procedures and application forms for little funds / complex EU funding them directly; Multiplicity of funding entities for the different renovation works and lack of coherence • the investment remains unchanged while the revenues from energy savings are Owners not well informed about financial opportunities / no notional information platform Municipalities are underfinanced uncertain and depend on many factors other than the technical measures only; Blocs owned by different owners (mixed & co-properties) need agreement • other benefits are difficult to quantify: comfort of living for tenants, extended Reduction of state and regional public funding Lack of control and monitoring lifetime and added market value of the property for landlords; Risk of no -recovery of investment for district heating • the general interest of the society is served through the reduction of CO2 Long decision making process to attribute funds emissions and of energy dependency. Legally binding instruments (i.e. loans) = owners don’t want them No warranty funds for the owners EE Result are not guaranteed High amount of contribution from owners Cash Partners needs - Financial instruments Les Mureaux - FR Sonderborg - DN Tatabanya - HU Lack of financial mechanism at national level for energy improvement of social housing Echirolles - FR Frankfurt - GE Bridgend - UK Yambol - BG Bureaucracy Utrecht - NL Eordea - HE Brindisi - IT CRRA - FR Many owners refuse mortgage of their property for credit Disparities of financial measures between regions makes difficult reaching national targets Social landlords not supporting investment for district heating increases tenants expenses Low cash flow social landlords Simple, understandable and long term financial products / standardization required Economic crisis generated banks liquidity problem and difficulties to obtain green loans Greater contribution from Europe and states Tenancy law: tenants have to pay higher rents without knowing if ernergy savings will compensate Common approach for co-properties Insufficient rents for social landlords Better promotion of financial opportunities / National information platform Many insurances needed Availability of starting funds and warrantees Majority of housing built before 1945 are not renovated More funds for municipalities Not opossible for housing assoc. to get a loan without repayment which is not the case for private Need for funds at low cost for all (inculding the private sector and social landlords) Access to mortgage is a problem for coproperties Fragmentation of the asset as a result of sale Common approach for mixed / co-properties & ability to recharge for EE improvements (not only for improvements) Very strong barriers Strong barriers Easier ways to get EU funds Harmonization of measures between regions One entry point for funding / forming consortia Specific needs pinpointed by CASH partners Need for more funding sources coherent between themselves Allow government Village Building Fund to be used for demolition / reconstruction As depicted in the ‘Needs matrix’ produced by the network, specific needs relate to: Elevation of regulation ceilings from EU procurement Larger projects social landlords, co-properties and landlord/tenant dilemma. (See table p. 73) Different options for private owners and subsidy scheme Rent index which considers energy measures •  or social landlords, access to preferential loans and bigger loans should be F Better control mechanism of loan programme Tenancy law with cost transfer mechanism based on reduction of energy facilitated. Need for integration of legal framework and funding scheme •  egarding co-properties, the use of an intermediary neutral body to manage the R Need to broaden eligibility criteria for beneficiaries / year of building construction / max. funding budget / subsidy % (flexibility) funding and the savings is seen as a key aspect, as well as the easier access to Enable social landlords to seek tenants approval to a financial contribution to EE works third-party financing. Direct funding for social housing •  s for the landlord/tenant dilemma, the question remains when renovating A Local agencies informing and organizing beneficiaries (with means to do it) social housing: who will pay for this work and who will benefit from the saving in Very strong barriers Strong barriers CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 68 69 In multiple-owner situations (mixed properties, different forms of owner • nvolving tenants from the beginning of the energy renovation process (i.e.: in the i associations, commodity regulations, etc.) the dilemma can be more complicated. co-design), as initiator of energy saving actions; There are different approaches to this dilemma: •  ational information instrument. n • et the tenants pay a global amount to cover all housing costs, i.e. rent, energy, l water, waste... The owner can then adapt the various housing cost elements, The European level without raising the global amount for the tenant. This is mainly possible when The recommendation brought by CECODHAS Housing Europe is key. there is no individual metering of energy use per apartment; « On 28 February 2012, the European Parliament’s Committee on Industry, •  ake all the elements of the costs transparent for the tenant, which should be an m Research and Energy approved the requirement of Member States to renovate incentive to optimize energy efficient behavior; buildings owned by public authorities and public bodies (2.5% of the area per year). •  n equal sharing of costs by tenants, homeowner and government. The UK a CECODHAS Housing Europe stresses that, in contrast to public authorities, public “Green Deal” follows this principle, involving energy companies as the bodies covered by the obligation of thermal renovation, do not have the ability to stakeholder (see ‘Example from partners’ section). In Germany, there has been self-grant public funds to finance these huge investments. Additionally, in the case discussion around a “three thirds” model, in which: of public housing, there is often no way to recover investments due to rent • s covered by the tenant through a transfer of the investment to the rent, based on i regulation  and to the low-income of tenants. It is also important to note that the the expected energy savings; energy service contracting model, while promising, has yet to prove itself to be a •  y the investor/landlord, to cover renovation needs (without necessarily b valid option in the housing sector. Therefore, this legal obligation only makes sense integrating energy savings) and for the added value of the property; if it is accompanied by an obligation to make funding available. Housing Europe calls •  y State funding (or other), the State recovering the VAT (19-25% in EU), as well b on MEPs to rebalance this legal obligation to invest with a legal obligation to make as some money from reduced unemployment and from CO2 savings. available EU funding, including the priority allocation of Structural Funds for 2014-2020 and the creation of a dedicated green investment fund guaranteed by the EU. » In all these approaches, quality control, monitoring, payment regulations and communication are essential. Possible solutions to the landlord/tenant dilemma Claire Roumet, Secretary General, CECODHAS Housing Europe are partly determined by national legal systems (see section ‘Example from partners’). Potential solution for efficient financial engineering Whereas various financial instruments exist, the solution promoted by the CASH network, which arises from 3 working groups, is a financial engineering solution with the following ingredients: • ong term, stable and simple financial instruments (as recommended by the l Energy Efficiency Governance Handbook, 2010 and by the Inofin project, 2008), with preferences for revolving funds, preferential loans with fixed long term interest rates quickly accessible to all categories of beneficiaries, secured Third party financing and the obligation for energy companies to reinvest in EE improvements, as well as bank guarantee and initial deposit; •  eutral independent coordinating body; n • ntegration of EE improvements with water and waste to combine funding sources i and have an integrated approach with a greater impact on carbon reduction; CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 70 71 EXAMPLES from partners will be put in place to protect consumers. A new requirement on energy companies is to provide support, with an estimated value of £1.3 billion a year, to ensure equal access to the Green Deal – regardless The CASH partners have shared examples of good practices. of income or of the type of house. Additional help will be available to ensure the fuel poor get better boilers and fix draughty homes while subsidy will also be provided to help tackle homes that are hard to insulate, including solid wall homes. The Danish Building Fund, Denmark The Green Deal is expected to kick start around £14 billion of private sector The Danish Building Fund supports the building and renovation of social housing in investment over the next decade. It could support at least 65,000 insulation and Denmark. This national fund started in 1966 and is fed by a percentage of rents construction jobs by 2015. (20%). In 2010 the value of the Fund was 100 million Euros. It is used to finance new building activities up to 40% and renovation of houses up to 50% of the costs. The State has a fundamental influence on the way renovations take place and can KfW programs, Germany steer towards EE renovations. In Germany the KfW-development bank has been operating funding programs for The renovation scheme contains a high degree of tenant involvement. Tenants energy and modernization of residential buildings for more than 15 years. Their are members of the Local Social Housing Department (through a minimal funding tools are soft loans and direct subsidies (Zuschuss). There is a wide range membership fee). Different renovation scenarios are presented by the social of programs for reducing heat demand, for promoting renewable energies and for landlord to the tenants who have the right to refuse renovation investments. the modernization of energy sources and dwellings. KfW’s main rule is that the Decisions are adopted by simple majority. higher the savings, the lower the interest rate or the higher the subsidy. Additionally, Criticism are that the procedures for funding are time-consuming and that the fund the services of a consulting body to determine savings potentials and to follow-up is not ambitious enough (up to Passiv Haus level 2). the works to ensure good results, is also funded. Over the last year, KfW has However, it is an interesting long-term, revolving fund. integrated funding for share properties (Wohneigentümergemeinschaften). On the one hand, KfW’s programs are sometimes criticized because they tend to change rather rapidly. On the other hand, they provide several guidelines for achieving National rent scheme and scoring system, Netherlands good results and savings, thus contributing to the good use of State money. From In the Netherlands, the maximum rent of social housing is set by a national scoring the 1 April 2012, heritage-protected buildings can also be financed. KfW’s system. The higher the quality of the house, the higher the rent can be. A recent programs have been evaluated several times for their effectiveness in reducing adaptation of the system has included the energy label of the house in the scoring CO2 emissions and improving living conditions. methodology, to motivate social landlords to invest in energy improvements. If landlords improve the EE of the house, a higher rent may be charged. On the ► www.kfw.de other hand, if no energy improvement is made until 2014, the scoring will be lower and rents reduced. The scoring for the energy label varies from 0 to 44 points and can be a considerable part of the total score of an apartment or house. Local financial instrument, Brindisi, Italy In Brindisi, Italy, the public social landlord IACP (Istituto Autonomo Case Popolari) regulates its relations with tenants through a mixed committee “Commissione di Green Deal, UK Gestione della Carta dei Servizi”, according to the charter “Carta dei Servizi. In the Energy Act of 2011, the UK Government has announced a “Green Deal”, Through municipal deliberation, it has been modified to allow the tenants’ Union to which intends to reduce carbon emissions from buildings, starting in October 2012 receive 30% of the rents (of 30€ min.) for self-management, which could be used with the following characteristics: for improvements in agreement with the IACP. Discussions are underway to Every British home and business will be able to install packages of energy saving include energy improvements. technologies, such as insulation, at no upfront cost. Repayments will be made over time out of the energy savings. A revolving fund will be installed. Strict standards CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 72 73 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS to reduce other running costs for water, electricity and waste -“the second rent”- should be included. •  inancial support programs on a national, regional and local level should bridge F In order to improve the financing possibilities for energy efficient large-scale the gap towards higher energy standards and limited rent increases for low income renovation operations, the CASH network has proposed a series of recommendations, households. presented as the ‘Frankfurt resolution’: •  common approach for social co-property landlords and co-property of low A income households should be available to overcome the problem of some owners objections. Funding •  ll technical measures and energy consumptions must be monitored in a A •  o reach national and international climate and energy goals, more funds and T transparent and independent manner. Tenants have to be informed in a greater contributions are needed from Europe and from national governments for comprehensive manner. all homeowners. • n many countries, energy companies have an obligation to save energy and they I •  he available financial instruments should be: based on long-term planning, be T also already manage energy financing for individual households. Therefore, they better coordinated, non-bureaucratic and accessible to all homeowners. should play an important role in the owner/tenants dilemma. •  ational information platforms could help to promote financial opportunities to all N categories of owners. •  ational and regional revolving funds (supported by additional fees on rent or N Networking energy bills) can be an important instrument, favoring long-term and large-scale Networking of all stakeholders is essential to overcome obstacles. projects. •  ank guarantees from the government should be used to make funds and loans B Recommendations for Managing Authorities also accessible for co-properties and small homeowners. The management of programs supported by the Structural and Cohesion Funds is • ndependent third-party managing entities should be created or supported to I the responsibility of the Member States. For every program, they designate managing organize technical, financial and organizational aspects and monitor the authorities (at the national, regional or other level) which will inform potential measures. They could act as a facilitator between landlords/owners of the beneficiaries, select the projects and generally, monitor implementation. This housing units and tenants. The role can be taken by local/regional foundations or paragraph contains recommendations directed towards the Managing Authorities. energy service/supply companies or even by tenants’ organizations. •  o guarantee the high quality of measures and a low future energy demand, high T •  uropean funds such as the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) E quality standards should be associated with funding. should not only be provided for energy measures in general, but should also be •  Soft/green” loans or other (revolving) funds must easily be accessible to all “ focused on social housing with an integrative approach (energy, living homeowners, including social landlords. environment, maintenance and integration). •  unds should be combined with guarantees for loans so third party engagements F •  he combined use of EU funds such as ESF, ERDF, and EAFRD1, etc. and the T will be promoted. stability of funds over the long term, should be favored. •  xisting funds for house improvement should be more targeted towards EE. E •  he goals and results of the URBACT program and projects should be taken into T account. Investor/user dilemma •  ignificant parts of regional funding should be oriented towards the energy S •  he increase in rents, or the payback of energy investments, should be T improvement of social housing. compensated by energy savings (lowering of energy costs) to solve the “owner/ tenant” dilemma. •  o implement energy improvement in an integrative and optimum way, measures T 1 European Social Fund, European Regional Development Fund, European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 74 75 MORE TO LEARN Affordable Warmth for All A guide to improving energy efficiency in the social housing stock, for social housing providers, residents and supporting organizations. Guidebook produced as part of the FinSH project - Financial and Support Instruments for Fuel Poverty in Social Housing. 2010 ► www.ecuba.it/English%20Guide.pdf Anforderungen an einen Sanierungsfahrplan, Auf dem Weg zu einem klimaneutralen Gebäudebestand bis 2050, ► www.nabu.de Energy Efficiency Governance Handbook, International Energy Agency, Second Edition, OECD/IEA. 2010 Energy Retrofitting of social housing through energy performance contracts A feedback from the FRESH project: France, Italy, United Kingdom and Bulgaria, ► www.fresh-project.eu Financing energy saving measures in the Dutch social housing sector - WP2 report to the InoFin project, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), ECN-E—06-049, December 2006 Guideline on Social Housing Energy Retrofitting Financing Schemes in EU New Member States; 2008, report of the InoFin project; Innovative Financing of Social Housing Refurbishment in Enlarged Europe ► www.join-inofin.eu Background Paper CASH Thematic Seminar Financial Instruments, Frankfurt, 7th, 8th and 9th September 2011, ► http://urbact.eu/cash CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 76 CITIZENS’ INVOLVEMENT • Why is citizen involvement important? • When and how are citizens involved in the EE renovation process? • How are citizens involved in energy savings? • What are the barriers, gaps and solutions to citizen involvement? CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 78 79 Content Introduction & subject significance This 4th CASH mini guide presents results from the 4th Thematic Seminar on “Citizens’ involvement in Energy Efficient (EE) renovation of social housing”, held in Bridgend, UK, from January, 25-27, 2012, for the following topics: STATE-OF-THE-ART 80 • why is citizen involvement important • when and how are citizens involved in the EE renovation process Citizens’ involvement in the EE renovation process • how are citizens involved in energy savings (behavioural changes) Behavioural changes • what are the barriers, gaps and solutions. Clarity about levels of participation is provided by the widely used Arnstein’s ladder KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED 83 of citizen participation (1969): informing through newsletters, press, web, open houses; consulting to obtain feedback; involving to ensure that public concerns and When and how are citizens involved in the EE renovation process? aspirations are understood and considered; collaborating through partnering for How are citizens involved in energy savings? the development of alternatives and solutions; empowering to place final decision- Barriers and solutions making in the hands of the public through citizen juries, tenants boards. Grasping the importance of citizens’ involvement in the EE renovation process is as fundamental as understanding the levels of participation. EXAMPLES FROM PARTNERS 88 Citizens’ involvement: • develops a sense of ownership; and improves the acceptance and the Bridgend City, UK implementation of renovation works Echirolles, France • gives a greater understanding and helps the development of appropriate behaviours Tatabanya, Hungary • helps to ensure long term sustainability by increasing residents’ satisfaction Frankfurt, Germany • enables people to find solutions to their own problems and increases the quality through the integration of new ideas coming from local knowledge • builds local capacity CONCLUSIONS • agrees actions to feasibility & RECOMMENDATIONS 94 ‘Bridgend Resolution’ MORE TO LEARN 97 CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 80 81 STATE-OF-THE-ART 5.timely and easily accessible information for users increases their knowledge and commitment to energy savings or behavioural transformation. Even though this network underlines key principles such as the involvement of users Citizens’ involvement in the EE renovation process from the very beginning of a project and the integration of user groups in the In the guidelines for Sustainable Energy Action Plans of the Covenant of Mayors, co-creation/design/co-production phase, it does not distinguish the type of citizen participation is mentioned as a precondition. Several projects have covered involvement -information or decision making - and doesn’t inform on the precise the topic on “WHEN are citizens involved in an EE renovation process”, but stayed steps of the involvement process. With regard to the HOW, it doesn’t distinguish general and didn’t distinguish between the mode of involvement - “information” between tools ‘done for’ and the tools ‘done with’ the users to influence their versus “decision making”. behaviour. - The SHELTER project ► http://www.sci-network.eu/ The SHELTER project funded by Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) described the phases of the renovation process and the involvement of the different stakeholders Behavioural changes during these phases. It highlights that the tenants have commonly a minor possibility Urban climate policy can only be effective with citizen participation. In the housing to participate in the design decisions taken by the social housing organisations sector much energy can be saved not only with technical measures, but also with (SHOs) and the designers. This means that the potential energy savings can be behavioural changes. jeopardised by the inappropriate behaviour of the tenants owing to their lack of Projects designed around the behavioural aspects focus in providing information or participation. Whereas SHELTER’s focus was on tenants participation upstream of free services to tenants. Generally the awareness-raising tools are made ”FOR” the EE renovation process, their recommendation was to “implement actions that tenants, versus “WITH” tenants. make a direct link for tenants between their behaviour and the energy bill”. ► http://www.shelterproject-iee.eu/# - The ENERGY AMBASSADOR IEE project The Energy Ambassador project generates energy savings in households at risk of energy poverty through the intervention of trained social actors, accurately - The SCI-Network referring occupants to local and national services for support and providing The SCI-Network produced guidance on user involvement in sustainable behavioural advice on heating, electricity and water consumption. renovation projects. Their key preliminary findings are that: 1.it is necessary to integrate properly the users into the procurement process to really profit from proper functioning of an EE building; 2.user involvement can be used in all different phases of a refurbishment process including at the very beginning; 3.users represent important stakeholders in the needs assessment from a procurement point of view. Post occupancy evaluation and feedback are crucial; 4.different groups can be integrated in the co-creation/design/co-production of new innovation; CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 82 83 Tools used to support households were diversified: KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED - Meeting in citizens ‘houses during holidays - Guides translated in languages talked in the district The workshop on the “WHEN and HOW - Hotline - Web are citizens involved in the EE renovation process” - Committee The Workshop highlighted that in almost al cities of the CASH network the following elements are NOT discussed or decided with the citizens (tenants / users…): The most effective advice was: - Lowering indoor temperature (ideally to 18°C) • Types and content of the renovation during the planning phase - Installing flow regulators to most used taps • Design-choices of EE systems, equipment and techniques - Adding roof insulation - Turning-off leisure appliances. Denmark is the only country where legislation requires tenants’ input in the renovation design. In general, main co-production / co-decisions are on: the opportunity of However, all the advices was produced FOR citizens. renovation, on the ‘rent-charge couple’, the changes required in the works during - The Caritas Energy Service project of the Frankfurter Caritas association the renovation –except in Bulgaria where they can participate in the renovation-, works with long term unemployed people who are being trained as energy advisors the analysis of charges and of equipment / systems malfunctions during the for households with social aid. The energy advisors install water and energy saving occupation. materials, thus helping immediate savings of over 20% of electricity. In Germany, more than 70 000 checks in more than 100 cities have been made. In this case, as well, advice developed BY an organisation is provided TO citizens. The Workshop on the “HOW are citizens involved Caritas-Projekt in energy savings” The Workshop underlined interesting actions of co-production of tools with users, ► http://www.stromspar-check.de to influence in an adapted way their behaviour through the communication of information, personal advice, exchanges and involvement in the decision making. The aims of the CASH 4th Thematic Seminar were to explore how to involve These tools started with an understanding of the users’ socio-cultural behaviours tenants, upstream of the EE renovation process, in the decision making and how to and needs through interactive forums, recommendation books. They encompass develop with them awareness raising tools and programmes influencing energy the co-production of communication material in users’ languages, tenants’ advisors consumption behaviours. Facilitating the communication between the different speaking their mother tongues, users’ committee, networking between users, key actors and developing a communication strategy with clear goals on what the citizen actors and elected representatives, users representation in social landlords participation were also key objectives. administration board and the involvement of local district organisations and tenants ‘unions. The Workshop on “barriers & solutions”, identified the following key barriers for the “WHEN”: Reluctance of main stakeholders (social landlords and designers) considering that users are not experts and that their involvement will represent more work; financing criteria not providing the flexibility required to involve citizens and lack of funding CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 84 85 dedicated to citizens’ motivation; rigid regulation and very small budget for personnel When and how are citizens involved in the EE renovation process? dedicated to citizens’ involvement; legal obligation for the involvement of tenants in decision making, faced by lack of majority, tenants not being actively involved; weak INFORMING CO-PRODUCING relationship with elected representatives and social landlords; the ‘will’ to keep cheap rents; no dedicated time in the EE renovation process; long time frame of the process • Information by the County on the strategy (Bridgend, • Diagnosis while walking with residents and City + meeting PLANNING - DECISION UK) between Social landlords, City and tenants to exchange as opposed to users’ time frame targeting quick results which affects their • Information by City and State, on purposes and ben- on the opportunity of renovation (not on the type and efits of renovation activities, as well as on financial content of the renovation) + tenants ‘ petition supporting motivation; available information often too complicated and/or its delivery too late; issues (Yambol-Bulgaria, co-properties) landlords in getting state funds (Echirolles, France) citizens not skilled enough; low involvement in the evaluation of the renovation • Information by City about available funding sources • Tenants vote for the approval of the renovation presented for renovation for residents (Tatabanya- Hungary, to them by the Social landlord -“go or not” decision- project leading to energy inefficient behaviours; energy tariffs often not negotiated co-properties) (Sonderborg, Denmark) with citizens. • Energy platform project: energy diagnosis made by • 70% of residents have to agree on the renovation work students to grasp the context (Les Mureaux, France) (Utrecht, Netherlands) • 69% of owners have to agree on the renovation work in a General Assembly (Yambol, Bulgaria – co-properties) In this context, CASH partners have expressed the need for secure, flexible and long term funding, as well as legal options for citizens’ participation; a well developed • Information of tenants by Social landlords (Utrecht, • Depending on the scheme, tenants are consulted to Netherlands) negotiate the design proposals but the design is limited by communication strategy and plan, providing a platform to understand the needs of • Information meeting between City, Social landlords funding and other standard constraints (Bridgend, UK) citizens and integrating information from citizens, with an array of tools tailored to and tenants to present the renovation design –by legal • Debates and vote on works related to comfort but not on obligation- and relocation of tenants by proactive so- EE renovation designed by architects hired by social land- DESIGN the target groups; constant links between citizens, SHOs and elected members cial workers (Echirolles, France) lords. The negotiation is on the “rent-charges” couple (Echirolles, France) during all stages of the renovation process, together with continuity and • EQB reference table built on a survey done by Social transparency; citizens’ empowerment and training to allow them to fulfill their role landlords on tenants comfort needs –but not on EE reno- vation design- (CRRA, France) in the participation process. • Legislation requires tenants’ inputs in the renovation de- sign. Some social landlords coordinate “inspiration trips” with the tenants for the design (Sonderborg, Denmark) Barriers for the “HOW” relate to the sociological composition and education levels • Social landlords inform tenants about the renovation • Meetings between tenants and companies to par- of users and investment time required to coproduce tools, as well as bills and works while relocating tenants for large renovation ticipate in the renovation work plan on the basis of RENOVATION WORKS guides difficult to understand and lack of understanding of complex EE equipment. works (Utrecht, Netherlands) their needs (Utrecht, Netherlands) • Residents are informed about the schedule of the • Decision of the owners’ General Assembly on the interventions (Tatabanya, Hungary) renovation works and on the assignation of the • Information meetings on works are organised for tenants company is mandatory (Yambol, Bulgaria) More detailed outcomes from these workshops are provided in the following tables. by Social landlords. During renovation, a reference • Tenants are consulted on the changes required in Solutions and recommendations are presented in the “Bridgend Resolution” at the person can be contacted (Echirolles, France) the works (Bridgend, UK) • Tenants are informed about the works from the incep- end of the mini guide. tion (Bridgend, UK) • Public meetings are held to inform tenants on the works. The public association “Réciprocité” produces communication tools and inform on the renovation (Les Mureaux, France) • Tenants are informed about their energy consumptions • An annual analysis of heating and electricity charges is OCCUPATION / MAINTENANCE by the social landlords during specific sessions at the performed between the social landlord, tenants’ union, entrance of the building and by their electricity and heat companies and tenants’ representative for their bills produced by the companies or by the social land- regularisation – “Residence Committee”-. Pressures lords in the case of collective heating –but information is are being put on district heating company by city and often not comprehensive- (Echirolles, France) the tenants’ unions to reduce tariffs (Echirolles, France) • Tenants pay their own energy bill and are informed by the • Tenants’ union supports tenants ‘ association in copro- energy supply company about their energy consumption ducing monitoring tools (Utrecht, Netherlands) (Utrecht, Netherlands) • “Energy Committee” with city, companies and tenants to • Project of creating in 2012 a “Service charge observatory” improve the situation (Les Mureaux, France) (Les Mureaux, France) • “Satisfaction survey” performed by social landlord • Tenants are informed when problems arise (Bridgend, UK) (Bridgend, UK) • Communication for tenants by constructors on the • Monitoring is subject of regulations adopted by the Gen- use of new equipment with heating modernisation eral Assembly of owners (Yambol, Bulgaria) (Tatabanya, Hungary) CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 86 87 How are citizens involved in energy savings? 1/2 How are citizens involved in energy savings? 2/2 CO-PRODUCING / DONE WITH OR BY CO-PRODUCING / DONE WITH OR BY INFORMING / DONE FOR TENANTS INFORMING / DONE FOR TENANTS TENANTS TENANTS • Public events • Communities designing their own material on • Tenants’ associations • Workshops • Printed communication tools (flyers, newsletters, energy saving actions / co-producing communi- • Visits on demonstration sites • “Communities First-type initiative” EXCHANGES PROBLEMS & posters) cation material with tenants in their languages • Information visits on the renovation area while • “Residence Committee” grouping tenants of a works are going on building to detect problems and elaborate plan of GOOD PRACTICES + heating bills • Communication strategy and plan made with • Social landlords ‘ monitoring grid allowing the action with social landlord and tenants’ union COMMUNICATION MATERIAL • Mailing, mail… tenants since the beginning / activity calendar detection and the communication of problems • “open houses” favouring tenants exchanges of • Public relation campaigns (TV…) • Communication strategy for ‘invisible’ tenants • Tenants’ satisfaction survey performed by social problems and good practices • DVD to allow tenants to watch the information at developed with their leaders landlords • Networking between key actors, within a building their own rhythm • Surveys, questionnaires…. • Energy saving examples on website and between areas • Websites + Forums on Internet sites • Training programme • Ombudsman for tenants / residents complaints • “NRJ saving week”… “walk to school week” • Green phone • Schools’ involvement in the co-production of • Manual / guide • Social networks (facebook…) communication material • Education materials • With them, appropriate communication tools (e.g. “Water management pedagogic package”) • Involving tenants in the production of social • Marketing (goodies/freebies) networks • Theatre presentations for tenants + role playing with actors (target group analysis for choosing the tools) • Public meeting • Tenants ‘ Union representation on Social INVOLVING TENANTS IN THE DECISION • Information sessions organised by social landlords • Road shows landlord Management Board • Schools • Mail shots and leaflet drops • Tenants’ association on Steering committee / • Reporting mechanisms through reports and feed- tenants elected on the Management Board of back Social landlords • Negotiation between Social landlords and tenants on rent increase • Energy resource centres • Opinion and recommendation book • Involvement of local district organisations • Tenants panels / committees • Free personal energy diagnosis • Interactive tenants forums • Tenants participation to draft public plans (e.g. Energy ambassadors programme) • Tenants advisors trained by social landlords • Decision making process planning • Independent tenants’ advisor who can speak in mother tongues of tenants • Legal framework for tenants involvement in the • Visits on site by experts decision of the con struction/renovation budget, • District manager in some countries PERSONAL ADVICE • Hotlines • Legal framework for tenants involvement in the decision making • “Ready workshops” / Tupperware meetings • Institutional support to tenants initiatives organised by local energy agency • Flexible and long term financial tools or projects • “Positive Families” energy competition • Stable long term link between tenants’ • Individual meetings organised by social land- representatives and elected members from the city lords for an analysis of energy bills • Training of tenants to implement simple • Training sessions performed by tenants’ union renovation work • “Display” European campaign / energy saving campaigns • Through Consultants consultation sessions and • Local referendums agents • Children as ambassadors OTHERS • Ballot opportunities • Integrated approach, covering energy consumption with other components (water, waste…) • Champions CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 88 89 EXAMPLES from partners the type of insulation (fibre or polystyrene), but not on the type of boiler or glazing. Tenants are given the choice for ‘comfort works’ (as the type of kitchen). EE works choices are linked to WHQS and to funding which is limited to certain types of works, thus restricting citizens’ choices. Bridgend County Borough Council, UK ‘Bridgend CBC - one of the 22 local authorities in Wales (UK) transferred its social Prior to EE renovation V2C identifies tenants’ issues and support needs. An ‘open housing stock in 2003 to Valleys to Coast Housing (V2C). V2C is a SHO regulated day’ is arranged to introduce tenants to the contractor, to outline the project scope by the “Welsh Housing Quality Standard” (WHQS) produced by the Welsh and funding restrictions and to note tenants’ choices on comfort works. Open days Government (WG). WG expects all SHOs to improve/renovate their housing stock are also used for voting demolition. An agreement on structural alterations and by 2012 (adequately heated, fuel efficient and well insulated). finishes is reached through group discussion, however the scheme could proceed without tenant’s approval. ► http://wales.gov.uk/topics/housingandcommunity/housing/publications/ whqsrevisedguide/?lang=en Communities First Communities First (a WG funded programme to reduce poverty), has assisted in WG has acknowledged the importance of tenant participation to produce efficient the development of a training programme with V2C to involve citizens in devising and responsive public services and to implement its housing strategy. WG community access plans. Voluntary community champions were identified and produced the “National tenant participation strategy for wales” in 2007, aimed at, given the skills in design, planning and communication. Even though the social landlords and other relevant bodies sharing information, ideas and experience was not in the co-design of the EE renovation process, it allowed decision-making with tenants and relevant stakeholders, and working with them to emphasis of key principles of Community engagement, such as: agree: - establishing driving motivations - exploring wider options • how their homes and local environment should be managed - clarifying and reconciling options and motivations • what services and service improvements are needed - acknowledging geographical / spatial / socio-economic differences • priorities - tackling the issue of information asymmetry (unknown knowns, unknown • how they will work together to achieve these. unknowns…blind, secret and missing knowledge) and building trust - testing perception against facts ► http://wales.gov.uk/topics/housingandcommunity/housing/publications/ - analysis and feasibility. tenantstrategy/?lang=en Bridgend’s V2C SHO V2C has a management board with one third of tenants ensuring their continuous involvement. V2C developed their “Local tenant participation strategy2011-2014”, with a Community forum fed by the inputs of 3 working groups: ‘Monitoring Group’, Scrutiny Group’ and ‘Policy Group’. ► http://www.v2c.org.uk/ V2C inform their tenants of any changes and engage consultants / architects in the design of EE renovation. On EE renovation aspects, choices are given to tenants on CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 90 91 It also allowed identification of key procedures: Rockwool manufacturer - securing support from key people Rockwool based near Bridgend, produces sustainable insulation products created - identifying community champions / potential community leaders from natural -mainly mineral wool- and recycled products, for Wales the UK and - setting-up working groups to build ownership world-wide. - identifying aims and objectives - conducting citizen survey Rockwool not only puts emphasis on the environmental aspect of its production but - identifying initiatives, schemes and measures has integrated in its approach the involvement of citizens and has stressed that - meeting in community territory convenient for citizens early communication is critical in the insulation process through: - facilitation and presentation in a language adapted to the target group • open days at local level - participation through brainstorming and through activities adapted to different age • residents ‘ days out groups and the public • fish & chips supper - consulting people constantly and explaining technical and legal constraints • community based charities / cultural groups - listening to citizens in their own languages • newsletter with maps of works and photographic imagery of the renovation area - ensuring engagement and post-implementation engagement. with varying colour schemes on the walls; UK Energy Saving Trust ► http://www.rockwool.co.uk/ As regards the HOW to lead citizens in reducing CO2 emissions, the UK Energy Saving Trust non-profit organisation has been created by the British government and Providing client support with tenants’ liaison (on site communication) is necessary the private sector to provide information and advice to people across the UK, looking to ensure the quality of work through solving citizens’ requests and gaining their to save / generate energy and reduce their energy bills. It has developed a “Better understanding and adherence. Training unemployed, often from neighbourhoods working together” programme engaging counties across the UK and Wales. The to be renovated, for insulating lofts (pilot project) and working with organizations in Trust works in partnership with Bridgend City on the topic of smart integrated creating jobs and training people are other innovative activities. metering and on engaging citizens in: • technological changes in their homes Echirolles, France • easy and repeatable behaviours Through the example of ‘Village 2 district EE renovation operation 2003-2012’ the • promoting local champions to demystify technology Echirolles Local Support Group illustrated WHEN and the HOW are citizens • exemplar homes to provide the opportunity to talk to ‘real’ persons. involved in the EE renovation process. It showed that citizens are involved since the beginning of the process, but only It also has programmes on: through consultation and information, except if tenants contribute to the financing • potential savings of the renovation through rent increases. • innovative products & systems • thermal bridging, air tightness and ventilation. The Trust produces a series of guides and has a training programme of entrepreneurs on how to deal with their clients. Its “East advice call centre” answers around 1 Million calls a year from consumers, local authorities and housing organisations. However, main clients are home owners rather than tenants from SHO. Furthermore, the cultural component of citizens is not taken into account in the choice of technology or in adapting advice. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 92 93 Tenants are involved: •  ersonal p advice: consultation, Tupperware meetings, training tenants’ •  t Planning phase: a representatives (mainly by tenants’ union), competition between families; - in the emergence of the renovation idea through meetings and ‘diagnosis while •  xchanges of problems and good practices through workshops and meetings. e walking’; •  t Design phase: a Tatabanya, Hungary -  t the reception of the funding agreement through an information meeting and a The district heating Co., co-owned by Tatabanya municipality, is developing during the elaboration of the pre-program of work through an individual survey several measures to support homeowners and co-properties’ owners in reducing focused on comfort aspects; their energy consumption and reducing CO2 emissions: - hrough an information meeting on types of works, during which works related to t •  evelopment of a heating modernisation fund to connect households to the district D comfort are debated; heating network - from 1700 to 2400 Euros with a rate of contribution of 25-33% - f tenants are requested to contribute to the financing of the renovation, scenarios i - n the first two years, 10% of the targeted apartments have been connected, I prepared by SHO and designers are presented to tenants and the negotiation is counting for 31% energy savings; focused on the costs. Tenants vote by mail, the scenario and rent increase and •  easurement appliances setting on radiators M the adoption of final scenario is performed during a public meeting; • nformation and personal advice, through: I - he renovation methodology (with planning of works and impacts) is presented t -  upport in filling the Heating fund application form, support from experts to s and validated during a meeting. residents’ association… •  t Renovation phase: a - orums (co-properties, tenants…) f -  follow-up of works is achieved through regular meetings at the foot of the building, a -  eb: with information on actions performed and in course (description of w to analyse malfunctions and disturbances and works’ evolution and impacts. In co-properties modernised and monitoring of their energy consumption), the case of collective heating installation, additional meetings are held to explain demonstrating that despite the old behaviour of local people (old coal town) the its management; interventions have a positive impact reducing their energy consumption. -  t the closure of works, an information meeting is held on post-works a management. ► http://www.trf-kft.hu •  t Occupation phase: a -  nergy consumption results - from the monitoring performed by the SHO on spot e Frankfurt, Germany measurements - are shared through a tenants’ committee “Comité de Résidence” The ecologic renovation project “Heinrich-Lübke-Siedlung” of the city’s housing or through quarterly meetings. Individual information is sent by mail to tenants by company ABG Frankfurt Holding has integrated citizens’ involvement since the SHO to disseminate good practices. A guide of good practices is given at planning phase. It has organised workshops (60 participants out of 1600 tenants occupancy; invited) to discuss the project at the planning phase. The project aiming at 90% - he control of operating costs and charges is done during an annual meeting t CO2 emissions reduction was presented to tenants, informing them about the between SHO, tenants’ union and tenants association / representatives; photovoltaic panels to be installed, the renovation of the heat distribution network -  rst monitoring results are presented at a public meeting. fi and the green spaces planned. Beside these information actions on the EE renovation process, it is in the organization of the green spaces that tenants were Tools used to act on energy consumption behaviours (“HOW”), are mainly actively involved. produced by SHO and public agencies and sometimes by the tenants’ union. The few tools co-conceived with citizens relate to collective heating. ► http://www.heinrich-luebke-siedlung.de/ Main tools developed FOR citizens are: •  ommunication material: mails, guides, flyers, brochures, newsletters, websites, c panels and sometimes theatre; CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 94 95 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS efficiency measures and change behaviours - use of an integrated approach to renovation using tools to improve sustainable development in the cities (energy savings, social development, economic Key recommendations for an effective citizen involvement in EE renovation process efficiency and fairness, cooperation between all stakeholders). and in the reduction of energy consumption are provided by CASH partners through the BRIDGEND RESOLUTION: CASH partners, assembled in Bridgend on the 27 3/ HOW do we involve citizens? th of January 2012 and agreed that citizen participation and involvement is - use of a mixture of innovative tools favouring exchanges between all stakeholders, fundamental to the energy efficient renovation process and should be such as independent energy advisors, trained champions, ambassadors of mainstreamed into policies and strategies in making renovation sustainable. energy, trained to change behaviour and attitudes and educate citizens in realising the benefits of energy efficiency renovation. - target all age groups involved in energy efficiency renovation 1/ WHY is it important to involve citizens? - target the everyday issues of citizens to help them get involved - houses, dwellings are the most private domains of citizens. Any changes should - design communication plans and activities with citizens, in which we select a not be done without their involvement. ‘It is their home’ mixture of tools tailored to the target group (work with community leaders, citizen - participation from the conception of an idea can bring new and innovative ideas panels and representatives, tenant resident groups and forums) to the project, ensuring not only the citizen benefits but the community in which - ensure citizens are represented on SHO Boards they live - empower and train citizens to fulfil their role in the participation process - it can improve the understanding, acceptance and implementation of renovation - cities and SHO guarantee transparency throughout the whole process for citizens work in providing simple and understandable tools - it can bring new and unexpected ideas to the project - need of independent organization to support citizens - it supports community capacity building, ownership and empowerment. - develop and use monitoring tools with all the stakeholders - motivating citizens is essential for behavioural change - provide an experience sharing and expression platform to understand the needs - citizens can understand the importance of energy efficiency renovation and how of citizens. Each platform should be city or region scaled. this can reduce energy bills, improve comfort and safety and give piece of mind. - have secure, flexible and long term funding to allow citizen involvement - it can change attitudes and behaviour of citizen’s. - source leaders / champions to raise awareness of energy efficiency renovation and to transmit and disseminate information 2/ WHEN do we involve citizens? - raise awareness of the impact of energy efficiency renovation to enable citizens - from the planning phase and during all stages of the renovation process for the to understand how they can reduce their carbon footprint and energy bills. co-conception of energy efficient renovation to ensure an appropriation of the equipment and systems and the proper functioning of the renovated EE buildings As a conclusion - throughout the evaluation process Citizen’s involvement: - when developing legal instruments / policies to ensure citizen’s participation and - is a necessary condition to make sustainable renovation (energy efficiency, fuel engagement poverty, social inclusion…) - during all stages of the renovation process to ensure constant links with social - will be an integrated part of our local action plan and we encourage all other cities housing organizations and elected representatives and stakeholders to do so. - in the tariff negotiation at the financial design and occupation stages - In the co-creation of schemes with tenants not only to improve the energy efficiency of homes but to improve citizens health and their environments in neighbourhoods to give ownership and empower tenants to include energy CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 96 97 Recommendations for Managing Authorities MORE TO LEARN In October 2011 the European Commission adopted legislative proposals for cohesion policy for 2014-2020. The Commission promotes integrated urban policies and proposes a methodology regarding Community Led Local The place of inhabitants Development, which: is community-led by local action groups, is designed taking ► www.housingeurope.eu into consideration local needs and includes networking and co-operation. In the CASH project an integrative way of working is being encouraged, especially with International Association of Public Participation the involvement of citizens and tenants. The community led local action plans ► www.iap2.org (LAPs) in CASH are being developed by Local Support Groups involving key local stakeholders including tenants. As described in this mini guide, CASH partners Public Participation in Europe, An international perspective; EIPP June 2009 have identified different barriers and needs regarding citizens’ participation to ► www.participationinstitute.org energy efficient renovation, in particular the possibility for citizens to be involved in early phases, for a co-conception. CASH LAPs are integrating this aspect. More UK government website to support citizen participation with methods and projects have to be developed and supported that tackle this barrier and that follow tools: the CASH recommendations made in this mini guide. ► www.peopleandparticipation.net The Managing Authorities are strongly encouraged to support projects – in particular CASH LAPs - where integrated activities with citizens participation take SCI-Network: Guidance on user involvement in sustainable renovation place in the social housing sector, contributing to a low carbon economy. projects Climate Change Policy T.B. Salcedo, A. Straub and H.J. Visscher, Delft University of Technology, Combating climate change needs ambitious policies and Urban Climate Policy can SHELTER Report D 3.1 - Energy renovation process, only be effective with Citizen Participation, for the following reasons: Overview of SHELTER Social Housing Organisations, Coordination of professionals Firstly, in the housing sector much energy can be saved, not only with technical measures, but also with behavioural change. Studies show that around 10% of ► www.shelterproject-iee.eu energy can be saved only by routine behaviour change (switching off lights, The Environment Agency of Bristol published a paper that contains a review of lowering temperature, etc.). a variety of public participation techniques, with their main advantages and Secondly, many technical energy efficiency measures will be less effective if the disadvantages (p. 28). related behavioural change is not carried out. Thirdly, there is the “investment-behaviour”. The choice to invest in buying energy ► http://publications.environment-agency.gov.uk/dispay.php?name=STRE135-E-E efficient household appliances is depending on the knowledge and awareness of the public. For these three reasons citizens’ involvement is an indispensable and essential FINSH: Project Affordable Warmth for all, Chapter 4 part of any climate change policy. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 98 ENERGY PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION •  hy is strategic energy planning key for social housing ? W •  hat are the critical steps and ingredients for successful W strategic energy planning? •  educing energy dependency through diversified green local R energy sources •  he role of green cogeneration and the concept of decentralized T power •  he importance of demand reduction T CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 100 101 Content Introduction & subject significance The CASH project is about energy efficient renovation of social housing. Energy efficient renovation deals not only with technical aspects of insulation, heat and ventilation systems, but with the energy sources and their distribution to the housing STATE-OF-THE-ART 102 units, affecting costs paid by tenants and CO2 emissions. Energy transition • How the renovation can take place, the technical possibilities and the efficiency of the measures are often related to the energy forms and sources that are available for the building. The carbon emission per unit of energy varies strongly between KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED 103 different energy mixes, as well as the costs per energy unit. Strategic Energy Planning When an inefficient boiler is being replaced, the available energy infrastructure and Roles and obligations of energy producters and distributors energy sources play an immediate role in deciding the most environmentally and Challenges, barriers and solutions cost friendly and effective solution. In this 5th mini guide of the URBACT-CASH project - based on the exchanges during the 5th transnational thematic seminar in Sonderborg, Denmark (May 9-11, 2012) -, EXAMPLES FROM PARTNERS 110 the different aspects of: types, availability, costs, efficiency etc. of energy sources, production and distribution, will be discussed. Sønderborg ProjectZero, Denmark Sønderborg Green District Heating, Denmark Sønderborg EUC Syd training center, Denmark Frankfurt CHP program, Germany Tatabánya CHP and district heating system, Hungary CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS 113 Recommendations for EC and Managing Authorities MORE TO LEARN 116 CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 102 103 STATE-OF-THE-ART KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED Energy transition Strategic Energy Planning Ambitious climate targets leading to carbon zero (set by many cities and states) can During the 5th transnational Thematic Seminar in Sønderborg, CASH partners only be reached when both renewable energy and energy efficiency will be have placed energy efficiency in a bigger framework and looked at the whole chain, implemented. from energy production, distribution, conversion and storage, to the end-users. Several studies, as in Frankfurt and Sønderborg (see illustration) demonstrate that fact. As stated by Leif Sønderborg Peterson, to develop the energy systems of the future and increase energy security, we need an integrated Energy Strategy process that will optimize the entire system, from energy production, conversion, The development of an energy strategy represents transportation and distribution, to efficient end-use with significant reductions in a seven-step process, as explained by energy consumption (2012). Mr. Christian Eriksen and Mr. Peter Rathje, respectively Coordinator and Managing Regarding the energy sources, he states that: for many countries, energy security Director of Project Zero, the public-private concerns are accompanied by a preference for renewable options which can foundation created to coordinate the planning reduce their dependence on imported oil and gas, as well as helping to reduce process of Sønderborg’s 2029 Carbon neutral global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Solar energy, which can be used to Energy Strategy. generate heat and electricity, produces 22% of the world’s electricity. Wind energy, which covers currently 1.6% of global electricity consumption, has the potential of cost-effectively covering 30 to 50% of the electricity consumption. The coming Source: Sønderborg’s Energy Strategy decade is seeing the introduction of wind power in the built environment. http://urbact.eu/cash This seven-step process consists in: Hydropower is a mature technology. Biomass presently covers approximately 10% • Getting a big picture by understanding of the world’s energy consumption. Its potential is estimated to cover up to half of what is the population, the industrial and the economic growth in the area - in all the world’s energy needs in 2050. However, biomass production should not compete sectors - for the short, mid and long term, to define the demand. with food supply. Geothermal energy is used in 76 countries for heating and cooling • Creating a baseline, identifying what kind of energy is produced and used at the and in 24 countries to produce electricity and suitable aquifers offer promising present time – with heavy consumption by sector: housing, industries, transportation, potential. agriculture… - and the import / export scheme, to establish a carbon baseline, as well as, making the inventory of local resources and of potential renewable He underlines that to date R&D work on energy storage has focused on electricity and that there is considerable technical and economic potential for heat storage; there is a need for a smart grid which will link production and end-use at the local level and that new end-use technologies have to be widely introduced including highly insulated houses, smart equipment, energy storage and local energy supplies. Finally, he pinpointed the too insignificant welfare gains to motivate end-users and suggests, as well, variable tariffs and taxes to stimulate flexible demand and ‘demand shifting’. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 104 105 energy sources (keeping biomass at the lowest, as a temporary solution due to its Decentralized power and cogeneration competition with food) and evaluating the distance between energy source and The asset of co-generation in a Sustainable energy action plan was addressed by end users. Some of the CASH partners (Frankfurt, Bridgend, Sønderborg, Dr. Werner, Head of Frankfurt am Main Energy Office. He stressed the importance Rhône-Alpes) have already executed a potential study for renewable energy for municipalities to produce their own electricity and not depend on big power sources in their area –see CRRA – France, map on wind resource: companies - concept of “Decentralized power”. For that effect they can use • Doing a scoping exercise, deciding on geographical boundaries of the Strategic combined heat and power generation systems (CHP / co-generation) producing Energy Plan, understanding what produces CO2, identifying and mapping the electricity and heat simultaneously. Whereas at conventional large power stations main stakeholders so as to take into account their specific values and to 60 to 70% of available energy is lost before it gets to the electricity socket, determine the scope of the Plan. This means understanding who own the energy co-generation uses 90% of the waste heat generated in the production of companies – private sector, municipality, citizens -, what are the environmental electricity for district heating. District heating can easily be conceived with responsibilities and the business model of the big and small industries and co-generation, even more in social housing units which are blocks predestined to enterprises, to influence their value system. It also means, having them have cogeneration central systems. Green co-generation using renewable energy on-board, together with parliamentarians for legal aspects, the mayor and sources as geothermal, waste, biomass energy, as in the case of Sønderborg members of the council to ensure continuity, as well as with citizens segmenting district heating, should be favoured. them by age, income, culture to cover the different motivations; Workshop • Elaborating the Strategic Energy Plan, pointing out core activities of the project The criteria for strategic energy planning identified by participants to the thematic integrating all the parameters (energy but also water, waste…) - keeping in mind seminar, for given energy scenarios, are as follows: to be market driven -, having the Region on board to help share the same vision with the same value system creating an CARBON NEUTRAL scenario: “area” thinking and fixing a (these criteria were common to all scenarios) challenge; • Shifting to local green energy sources and becoming less fossil dependent together to have the Plan becoming a • Diversifying green energy sources and becoming less fossil dependent common ‘WE’ issue between all • Diversifying green energy sources stakeholders. Advertising in newspapers • Reducing the demand through EE renovation and more efficient behaviours. on a continuous basis. SECURED ENERGY scenario: • Identifying what are the best practice, • Reducing energy bills – huge funding issue looking at the existing competencies; • Adapting the legislation • Acquiring technical knowledge • Implement the Strategic Energy Plan, ensuring measurement and correction; • Monitoring the process and updating the Strategic Energy Plan on the basis of what has changed through the reiteration of the planning process, with a 2-year Map of Wind potential of the Rhône-Alpes region, Source: CETE, Lyon, France, June 2012 review and a 4-year new road map. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 106 107 are ultimately passed back to the end user/ customer. LOW COST ENERGY scenario: The Energy Efficiency Obligation results in more energy savings than would be • Using density of area to spread the costs obtained from an equivalent rise in the price of energy alone. • Lowering maintenance costs • Ensuring fair and stable prices, not systematic low prices A disadvantage is that public obligations for private companies are, despite the • getting investments from big consumers of the area. success stories, not everywhere implemented and need a constant monitoring and enforcement. LOWEST ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT scenario: • Improving public enquiries Energy distribution is more often still in the hands of the government, historically • Fix environmental quality target owning the infrastructure. It can also be owned by the users as for the heat • Developing labels and quality standards distribution networks in Denmark. The available distribution network is decisive for • Educating and quality training the energy options for the end users. And once a distribution infrastructure is • Improving production ways, storage and distribution available, economics requires its optimal use. • Developing an integrated energy strategy with urban planning • Key energy sources to promote: wind, solar and biogas Availability and ownership of distribution networks are relevant not only for energy • Economic viability efficiency but also for options for the future energy transition process (legal, financial • Associating environmental and health specialists in the strategic energy planning and technical possibilities). process. Changes of cost structure aspects were analysed on the basis of fix and The exercise demonstrated that slightly different priorities can lead to completely variable costs. They are related to the type of enterprise (public or private) due to different activity plans. While setting up partnerships one should be aware of the the provision of expected return on the assets to banks and investors which is goals and starting points of the potential partner. To support cooperation between higher in the private sector. They are related, as well, to the kind of energy sources: partners with different starting points, two methods are recommended: look for common interests and find activities that have positive effect for all partners. - Fossil energy supply is characterized by low per kWh construction costs and high production costs, which represents variable energy costs for the end user. - Renewable energy supply is characterized by higher per kWh construction costs ROLES AND OBLIGATIONS of energy producters and but very low production costs and low marginal cost to generate additional kWh, distributors which offers lower and more stable energy costs for the end user. Energy production is in general not in the hands of cities. To fulfil the obligations Other aspects, such as the fluctuation in the availability of the primary energy for supplying energy at affordable prices, cities have to negotiate with different source - highlighting the importance of favouring energy mix-, as well as grey stakeholders, in particular with energy companies. A help here is that in most energy costs and environmental impacts, have to be taken into consideration. countries in Europe energy companies have the legal obligation to promote energy efficiency with their customers (e.g.: UK Green Deal - allowing supplier subsidy, the cost being covered by savings on the electricity bill-). The Energy Efficiency Obligation avoids spending public money to stimulate energy efficiency. There is now around € 2 billion per year being spent by energy companies in the EU to deliver energy efficiency. This figure represents between 1 and 5% of the energy bill to customers. The costs incurred by energy companies CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 108 109 It is crucial to find common goals and activities to get a real commitment. The Workshop acceptance by the different stakeholders - large industries representing big consumers, power companies including “black producers producing coal, oil…, In line with the previous chapter, it is relevant to know the position and priorities clean technology companies, public stakeholders such as municipality, region, of partners with regard to the energy strategy. In a workshop the CASH partner ministers, social housing organizations (SHO) who are also big consumers, citizens explored the consequences of different models of ownership of energy production and NGOs who can influence the project - of the vision, of the target, of the process in the negotiation process, as illustrated in the table below: and of the load to share is crucial. Differences in working culture or in procedures of decision making and in agendas can be a barrier for close cooperation and it is ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES advised to let partners do those things that they are good at. Their • Innovation, because expertise is at hand, and innovation is economically stimulated. • Profits are for the company and will not be available for the community. representation through the creation of an independent body to get their • Private companies have in general a costefficient structure. • Consumers have little influence in what is appropriation of the project is essential. PRIVATE OWNED • The city has the freedom to choose suppliers for the provided. consumers. • There is a risk for low interest in renewable • Private companies can offer different tariffss for energy. • THE INITIAL FINANCING TO LAUNCH THE PROCESS is difficult to get. Without MODEL OF OWNERSHIP different customers. an initial investment one cannot start and convince others to commit financially CONSUMER • Stable price. • Monopoly of the association Getting the initial financing through the connection to higher level of government OWNED • Creation of green jobs. People can’t choose alternative suppliers. • More influence for the consumers. (regional and national) and involving national agencies to give the Strategic • Local interests are possible. Energy Plan a regional scope is essential; • Possibility to reinvest money in new technology. • Monopoly in pricing. OWNED PUBLIC • Possibility to reinvest profit into EE activities, • Risk for low innovation. because money stays available for the community. • THE POLITICAL ACCEPTANCE is difficult to get since it depends on short term aspects. • Local interests can be promoted. Focus should be put on energy sources availability and cost, yearly targets based on energy balance, secured energy supply ,creation of green jobs, citizens’ involvement… Challenges, barriers and solutions • New skills and capacities that may not be available before. Training can be used In the chapters above the playing field has been described. The positions of the to develop skills at stakeholders and target groups. When training is not available main actors and their role have been analysed. This chapter describes challenges then external knowledge must be introduced. This may be needed only in the for an effective energy strategy. Barriers and possible solutions have been identified. start-up phase, but should anyhow be calculated as additional costs. General barriers and solutions • THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK, due to the difficulty of changing existing inadequate • The DATA needed to establish the baseline and the energy balance can be legislation and to the lack of legal framework to develop specific sectors of green difficult to collect. Availability, accessibility, quality, formats, type and scoping energy sources (as coastal wind turbines in the case of Sønderborg); –national, regional, local-, timeframe, property, as well as inconsistencies and missing data and number of specialists involved in the integration process, are all • THE FLEXIBILITY IN THE PLANNING AND FORECASTING. Room must be left aspects that must fit. An important partner in data collection is the energy to take into account changes of behaviour, of technologies and of legal framework company to get access to the data concerning energy use of households. If direct - Plans should be flexible and iterative; access is not made possible, a solution can be to transfer the data analysis and to ask the energy company. • THE FEASIBILITY of developing potential green energy sources considering nature conservation requirements, neighbour proximity, cultural landscapes • The BUY-IN by the different stakeholders. Involving stakeholders as partners may preservation… (E.g. wind turbines in Sønderborg). not be possible if the stakeholders do not see the advantage of cooperation for their own goals. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 110 111 EXAMPLES from partners The geothermal facility with the waste and wood chip incineration Heat Power Station, is now supplying since mid-2012 more than 10.000 households, businesses and industrial customers in the centre of Sønderborg. Coupled with thermal solar heating facilities (6000 m2 solar collectors) and other sources, the network will be Sønderborg ProjectZero, Denmark expanded to supply approx. 60 % of households on the Island of Als with green, ProjectZero is the vision for creating a carbon neutral Sønderborg municipality by CO2-neutral district heating. 2029, based on CO2 neutral growth and sustainable urban development, with the Broager District Heating Company has been running a solar heating plant since creation of “green” jobs. The ProjectZero concept is based on energy efficiency late 2009. The plant has proven so successful that the company now is looking to combined with the County´s own green energy sources. expand their facilities and become 100% based on renewable energy in cogenerating heat and electricity for their customers and the grid. Stakeholders from the whole municipality are involved in the Project Zero organization, which is a public-private partnership in charge of coordinating the Gråsten District Heating Company is currently underway with a project that will planning process of the energy strategy. construct the world’s largest combined thermal solar heating and absorption heat pump plant, reducing their current CO2-emissions by more than 90%. Plans are Key issues of ProjectZero are: made for expanding the new plant to cover a larger supply-area and fully replace • Energy consumption reduction by 40% compared to baseline 2007 through energy fossil fuels. efficiency retrofit; • Conversion to local multiple renewable energy sources including efficient use of the The long term plans are to link up the different district heating “islands” located at areas manure and waste from farming, geothermal heat, wind, solar heat and urban areas throughout Sønderborg Municipality into a large, intelligent, green district photovoltaic and using green combined heat and power generation systems; heating network supplying CO2-neutral heat and hot water. • Creation of an intelligent, dynamic energy system, in relation of the district heating network; Sønderborg EUC Syd training center, Denmark • Creation of economic growth and new jobs by increasing demand for energy retrofit EUC Syd is a vocational regional technical college with core competencies in energy and craftsmen (strategy to create 500 new local jobs in the construction industry). efficiency and strategic energy planning and is involved in Project Zero. EUC Syd ► http://www.projectzero.dk/ is developing technical skills on inverters, photovoltaic, heat pumps, building construction, etc. It presents itself as “Zero house – Zero construction - Zero academy”. Sønderborg Green District Heating, Denmark Sønderborg Fjernvarme district heating company is a consumer-owned non-profit EUC Syd has trained 140 agents from Sønderborg Municipality responsible of utility company, where each consumer has a vote. It produces energy using green building management and maintenance, as well as 150 energy counsellors screening energy sources and distributes the energy. buildings for energy renovation, in cooperation with the Danish Institute of Technology. The energy sources have evolved from 100% oil in 1963, to a combination of oil, natural gas and waste incineration in 1985. In 1996 oil and natural gas were used in a combined heat and power station (cogeneration CHP) also powered with waste incineration and in 2012 a geothermal plant and wood chip boilers were added. ► http://www.geothermi.dk ► http://www.sonderborg-fjernvarme.dk CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 112 113 An objective is to create new ways of teaching and learning in the fields of new energy producing and energy saving technologies. The plan is to establish a national and CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS international training centre for renewable energy. Key recommendations for efficient energy production and distribution systems for Frankfurt CHP program, Germany social housing are provided by CASH partners through the Sønderborg Combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems are an essential element in declaration: the energy transition.. Co-generation is flexible and can change the relation of produced power – heat. A system that integrates solar/wind with heat networks and Energy Strategy CHP can buffer the irregular availability of wind and solar energy. • Social housing should be part of the climate policy of the whole city. • A clear vision and an energy strategy for the whole city and region are a precondition Frankfurt has more than 200 cogeneration units for housing blocks installed. for the transformation of energy supply and distribution for social housing. Connecting these small nets through the district heating network will improve • For a successful energy strategy it is important to have an overview of the present flexibility and efficiency. The objective of the city is to work on a ‘District heating net situation, potentials and problems, as well as of the different stakeholders and map’, integrating green CHP. Its aim is to produce its own electricity, with social their interest. housing blocks predestined to have cogeneration central systems, and not depend • One of the objectives of a clear vision and an energy strategy should be the creation on big power companies – concept of “Decentralized power”. of more green jobs. • Setting the goals of the Energy Plan should be done in close cooperation with CASH partners Frankfurt and Rhone-Alpes are partners in the IEE funded project different stakeholders. “CHP goes green”. • The ‘Buy-in’ of stakeholders is key. The process of active building and creating ownership is needed to gather many actors behind a common strategy. Tatabánya CHP and district heating system, Hungary • Understanding the position and, interests of potential partners is essential to negotiate a common strategy. About 20,000 housing units (75.5% of the whole local housing stock) are connected • Technical, legal, organizational and social frameworks are just as decisive as the to the district heating system in Tatabánya, Hungary. This system is provided by the political support. local central heating company named KOMTÁVH_ Zrt. (District Heating Joint Stock Company of Komárom-Esztergom County) owned mostly by the Municipality (96.4%). The heat feeding the district heating is supplied by the local CHP Power Plant Company named Tatabánya Power Plant Ltd. owned at 51% by the municipality. This context enables the realisation of municipal energy policies related to the heating energy distribution for local housing. The local natural gas based CHP power plant is developing a programme for changing the energy source for renewables. The company granted 523 million HUF (1.8 million EUR) subsidy in the framework of the new national ‘Széchenyi Plan’ for the conversion to biomass based system. In addition it granted also about 247 million HUF (840 000 EUR) subsidy for the creation of a boiler for hot water. The total investment cost is 2.8 billion HUF (9.65 million EUR). The project has just started and will be finished in 2014. Hence the natural gas dependence will be reduced for 10%. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 114 115 -  ith large heat storages (as in Denmark) is very helpful to integrate and balance w Renewable energy and Climate Change the fluctuations of wind and solar electricity. • The transformation from fossil energy towards a low carbon energy supply with •  ommunities of tenants can be involved in the production and distribution of C renewable energy sources is essential for all cities. Social housing and its energy renewable energy, to keep transport lines short and fixed costs low. supply must fit in this development: •  ombined heat and power is essential for community heating (and vice versa) C - Fossil energy supply is characterized by low investments costs -now that the and should be implemented with a communication and common decisions or production infrastructures exist - and high and insecure variable energy costs for common property of the local community of social housing tenants and should be the end-user. supported by the European Community. - Renewable energy supply is characterized by high investment costs and low costs for the actual energy use. - As a consequence the energy pricing for end users will be moving from low fixed Recommendations for EC and Managing Authorities costs with high variable costs towards higher fixed cost and lower variable costs. •  uropean directives and funding should take into account, that social housing E For social house owners it will be more difficult to use the reduction of energy building blocks and areas which need to be modernized may be the nucleus of costs as a motivation for behavioural change of tenants, or for covering the costs local energy distribution grids, thus giving better practical and economic conditions for energy efficient renovation. for the implementation of cogeneration units and transforming the supply from • The CASH cities express the need for external support to guarantee a stable fair fossil fuels to renewables. cost and pricing system so as to ensure the right to energy to all citizens. •  nergy modernization of social housing which comprises energy savings, E • Energy supply for social housing must contribute to a secure, affordable and cogeneration and renewable energies is a cross-sectorial issue and should be healthy housing situation. Preferences for renewables must be favoured securing recognized in several directives and funding schemes. renewables in the near future as opposed to fossil fuels. •  he EU directives about energy performance of buildings (EPBD), energy T • No strategy towards a low carbon economy can succeed without a strong effort efficiency and energy services (including CHP) should take into account, that the for reducing the demand through energy efficient renovation and changes in modernization of social housing may be a main structural factor of implementing behaviours. savings of energy and cogeneration and ‘greening’ the energy sources. • n the Intelligent Energy for Europe (IEE) programme there should be a funding I focus on modernization of social housing to meet energy, climate, health and Ways to get there social targets. •  iversification of several green energy sources is important and should be D • n EU regional development fund (ERDF), more than 10% should be eligible for I encouraged. the modernization of the energy production field linked to social housing, not only •  reen Combined Heat Power cogeneration should be promoted, because it is a G for energy and climate targets but for basically better and healthier living flexible and efficient method for energy transformation. Cogeneration: conditions and better social coherence. -  ffers tremendous efficiency and cost savings by simultaneously producing heat o • n EU social funds (ESF) the training/formation and the creation of new jobs I and electricity should be a funding focus for the modernization of the energy production field -  aves more than 30% of total primary energy compared to separated s linked to social housing. production, -  ay reduce the total energy costs for tenants, m Sønderborg, 11 May 2012 -  an be implemented by energy companies (contracting), the social land lords or c tenants associations, -  ith district heating nets is a basis for the easier switching from fossil energies to w renewable energy (biomass, geothermal heat, municipal waste, solar thermal energy) CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 116 117 MORE TO LEARN An explanation on the social housing system in Denmark. KAB is a major organization in the Danish non profit housing sector. ► http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktsghMTds7w Detailed information on Project Zero in Sønderborg: ► in Danish > http://www.projectzero.dk/ ► in English > http://uk.brightgreenbusiness.com/ CHP Goes Green, and IEE funded project on the role of Combined Heat Power in promoting renewable energy. Both CASH partners Frankfurt and Rhône-Alpes are partners in this project. ► http://www.chp-goes-green.info/ Energy efficiency obligations – the EU experience; ECEEE briefing for DG Energy on EU energy efficiency obligations on energy companies and their importance in meeting climate change and energy security challenges; March 2012, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. ► http://www.eceee.org/EED/energy-efficiency-obligations Energy Strategy Sønderborg 2010 ► www.sonderborgkommune.dk Non-fossil energy technologies in 2050 and beyond, by Leif Sonderberg Petersen, in International Sustainable Energy Review, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2012. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 118 PROJECT MANAGEMENT •  hich are the critical ingredients to optimize a social housing W energy efficient renovation project? •  ow could the existing involvement of the key actors in the H different project phases be optimized? •  hat are the barriers and solutions to project management? W •  hat are the coordination and control mechanisms? W •  hat are the differences in project management between social W landlords and co-properties? CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 120 121 Content Introduction & subject significance During the 2 years of the implementation phase of the CASH project, several topics impacting the energy efficient renovation of social housing were covered, including technological, legal, financial, social and energy production components. The objective of this 6th mini-guide is to provide recommendations to improve the overall project cycle STATE-OF-THE-ART 122 management, which can be reached ensuring the appropriate use of these ingredients through the adequate participation of the different groups of energy renovation actors Project management and the development of synergies between them. Such an optimization of the engineering and management of a social housing energy efficient renovation KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED 125 (SHEER) project should contribute to raising the efficiency and lowering the cost of SHEER operations which deal with low income tenants &/or owners and which have to be replicated on a large scale, social housing representing 12% of European housing workshop 1: stock and 20% of CO2 emissions. barriers and solutions encountered in SHEER project management workshop 2: Which coordination mechanism / body is required? coordination and control mechanism What is the role of cities – in charge of CO2 reduction policies - in this engineering and workshop 3: what relationship should they have with the coordinating body and with local, regional optimizing the involvement of key actors in SHEER phases and and national entities? promoting synergies between them What stakeholders’ training is needed? What communication plan and monitoring tool should be adopted? EXAMPLES FROM PARTNERS 135 These important issues were discussed by CASH partners, during the 6th transnational Valleys to Coast social landlord, Bridgend, UK seminar held in Yambol, Bulgaria on September 2012, based on their experiences of SHEER project management and of barriers and challenges they are facing. Rhône-Alpes Region, France: A regional standard for energy renovation of social housing Utrecht Municipality, The Netherlands Echirolles, France CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS 139 Key recommendations for Social housing efficient energy renovation project management are provided by CASH partners through the Yambol declaration from September 2012. MORE TO LEARN 141 CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 122 123 STATE-OF-THE-ART The critical ingredients to optimize SHEER operations, in all dimensions, are: •  ocial and political buy-in / ownership of key stakeholders s As recognized universally, Project management -applied to any field- is the discipline •  hoice of technology on the basis of its efficiency, simplicity to use and reproducibility c of defining, planning, securing through risk analysis, executing, controlling and over vast operations and of locally available, diversified green energy sources monitoring project steps up to project closure. • egislation adapted to local needs, allowing the implementation of optimal solution l and participative EE process Project management methodologies may vary, but in general they •  ppropriate financial engineering, allowing stable, affordable and simple financing a all use the following steps: directly accessible 1. nitiation: idea for a desirable outcome defined with the users I •  ppropriate know-how of multidisciplinary stakeholders. a 2.  lanning and Design: detailed project description defining and planning activities – P This engineering of social, scientific, practical and economic variables is the their relationship-, time, cost and resources on the basis of project constraints and risks cornerstone of SHEER. It can be achieved through the participation of the different groups of energy renovation actors at the appropriate phases, their 3.  xecution: building the project team and implementation of the work defined in the E adequate training, and through the development of synergies between them. project management plan 4.  ontrolling and Monitoring: measuring the on-going project activities, monitoring the C project variables against the project baseline and identifying corrective actions to address risks and problems 5.  losing: concluding all activities, analysing the final outcome and signing off the C project with key stakeholders. In the context of SHEER project, this methodological approach corresponds to the following phases of energy efficient (EE) renovation process: 1. Inception, program of requirements and feasibility study (Initiation)  2. Design tendering and design (Planning and Design)  3. Construction tendering and Construction (Execution)  4. Defects inspection and Completion (Controlling and Closing)  5. Exploitation (Monitoring)  However, having these steps correctly identified and logically organized is not sufficient to ensure the efficiency of a SHEER project and the minimization of its cost. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 124 125 The key actors present in the SHEER phases have been identified thoroughly by the “SHELTER Promoting Energy Renovation” Intelligent Energy Europe project KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED (2010-2013), which has analysed the cases of 6 social landlords’ renovation processes in Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Italy and UK. They have identified seven main types of actors involved: Workshop 1: barriers and solutions encountered in SHEER project • Social landlords / Social housing organizations (SHO) management • Tenants • Designers, architects, engineers, consultants The main barriers highlighted by CASH partners in SHEER project management • Construction companies including installation companies relate primarily to the financial aspects, the awareness and involvement of • Maintenance companies stakeholders throughout the process, the role of the cities as public authorities and • Manufacturers the quality of the result. Specific barriers were encountered in partner cities from • Investors: banks, municipalities, governments, energy companies. Eastern countries in which social housing has undergone tenure changes with public stock transferred into private ownership characterized by low income SHELTER has presented the phases in which these actors are involved, using the owners. For each of these barriers, the CASH network has proposed solutions 6 cases. based on partners’ field experiences, which are presented below. The CASH network has gone a step further and has BARRIERS analysed, on the basis of current CASH partners’ cases: •  ong time frame of SHEER operations; L •  Rigid financial frame (once approved it can’t change with project evolution); •  hat are the barriers encountered by CASH partners in SHEER project W •  oans-conditions: availability, timescale, bad credit rating, cost…; L management and potential solutions? •  qual treatment for funding between the public social landlords and the private E •  hat are their recommendations regarding coordination and control mechanisms? W low income owners •  ow the existing involvement of the key actors in the SHEER phases could be H •  isunderstanding of EE benefits by the stakeholders M improved and how synergies could be promoted between them? •  eak role of cities in SHEER process: weak institutional role in SHEER W operations and not enough communication with social landlords and with private The goal of this analysis was to optimize the engineering of the above mentioned owners to ensure linkages with municipal energy policies and to help them carry social, scientific, practical and economic variables and obtain a major shift in energy out the process; consumption in the social housing sector, while keeping the investment costs at a •  ad quality of renovation work due to lack of training of companies on SHEER B minimum and rent/charges couple stable or even lower. requirements (construction companies, maintenance companies, etc…) and on the necessary coordination between work types / professions; •  Risk of gaps between the design and the results, particularly regarding the real energy savings; •  Communication gap between city, companies and owners (mostly low income owners); •  ow income owners reject the idea of loans -even low interest bank loans under L government guarantee-; •  oor motivation of low income owners. P CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 126 127 SOLUTIONS Quality and training: •  romote quality through: the elaboration of specific regulation and quality P accreditation for private landlords, regular review and inspections, as well as Stakeholders’ involvement: through local, long term performance and quality contract between Social •  ring together stakeholders to work on a shared action plan with shared targets B landlords and municipalities, specifying energy performance, maintenance, (as URBACT Local Support Groups) monitoring criteria –quality of work, tenants satisfaction, energy consumption…; • nvolve as upstream as possible the stakeholders of the implementation phases I •  avour the use of “Energy efficient (EE) renovation skills centers” to train the F -in particular, involve construction companies in the design phase; workers; •  ring associations to work on the site after the renovation work to help tenants B •  rain the different stakeholders involved in the SHEER process on EE renovation T adapting to their new living environment; aspects -in particular within municipalities so as to have adequately skilled people • dentify referent citizens among active citizens of the community and use existing I to ensure the links with cities’ policies and energy strategy- and provide specific associations to motivate low income owners to engage themselves in EE renovation training to tenants on the use of the new equipment / systems explaining them the interest of contracting a preferential loan. •  se only best proven techniques avoiding electronic devices complex to control U and maintain: elaborate a guide to help choosing appropriate technology energy Role of municipalities: efficient, simple to use and to maintain and integrate maintenance aspects •  ake cities play the role of facilitators for financial and technical aspects M upstream. •  evelop links between SHEER programmes and city policies (energy and social D policies, as well as, urban policies…) through the establishment of shared: Improving the urban environment and fighting stigma: targets, standards, renovation / demolition options, location and type of renovation…; •  et rid of the negative image of social housing linked to the stigma of deprived G •  nsure, as a first step, that the building fulfils the minimum conditions to be E neighbourhoods through the marketing of renovation actions, the sharing of good renovated through the development of a municipal database with information on practices and of positive experiences between tenants from different buildings’ conditions. neighbourhoods, a greater social diversity favoured by EE renovation type and through education. Communication: •  romote communication between stakeholders: within departements, as well as, P Workshop 2: coordination and control mechanism between city, social landlords and private owners; Regarding the coordination aspect of SHEER process, CASH partners •  nsure efficient transfer of information throughout the project and between all E recommend the constitution of a coordinating body with decision-making power, stakeholders. similar to a Steering Committee, integrating the following key players: •  roject owner (Social landlords or private owners); P Funding: •  roject manager (controlling the process and ensuring linkages between P •  nsure the participation of investors after the design phase, during the construction E stakeholders), which should be independent to avoid conflict of interests in the and the maintenance phases to provide financial flexibility and readjust the funding SHEER project management; scheme with realities of the project evolution if needed; •  itizens representatives and/or tenants ‘union; C •  nsure an equal access to preferential loans &/or other financial sources to Social E •  unicipality: with representatives of Housing, Social and Urban planning M landlords and to low income owners (public/private sectors) and design financial services, as well as relevant elected members. instruments covering all aspects of SHEER at the appropriate timescale and There is no necessity of a permanent coordinating body which would add more offering flexibility to allow adjustments with project evolution. bureaucracy, but of a reactive temporary body which could meet at key •  alance the spending over the SHEER process to avoid penalties linked to the B milestones along the project cycle and take critical decisions. However, a full time irregular rhythm of the different stages of the project. project manager should be assigned. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 128 129 The coordinating body would be actively supported by an advisory board, similar to a PLANNING DESIGN CONSTRUCTION MAINTENANCE URBACT Local Support Group, whose function would be to provide advice at key stages SHO along the SHEER process, made up of: Governing bodies / Municipality •  odies involved at any level in urban renewal; B Investors •  epresentatives of national agencies linked to EE; R Designer / consulting firm •  nergy companies (gas, heating, electricity…); E Tenants •  hird party investors / financing body. T Associations Constructions companies Other critical ingredients for the control and coordination Manufacturers •  n independent Peer review of EE renovation proposals –with: city, experts a Maintenance companies from national entities related to the topic, financial entities, social landlords and Existing situation Desired situation / involvement missing tenants-. It should be organized at an early stage to ensure the selection of optimum scenario, while adding quality to the project through the integration of Table 1: Stakeholders’ involvement in SHEER project managed by social landlord peers’ experiences / know-how. The Peer review should be kept during the SHEER project life; • n the planning stages of a project managed by a social landlord, a ‘concept’ is I •  communication plan should be elaborated from the inception of a project and a created, based on surveys and observations of the needs of property. Discussions managed by the city. Continuous communication should be provided to the different are then held by the social landlord with governing Bodies / municipality and stakeholders. It should develop a sense of ownership and help avoid conflicts. associations involved in the neighbourhood and/or in the topic, to advance ideas within the project. In some cases, designer/consulting firms and investors are Workshop 3 : party to the discussion. Schemes rarely include construction companies, manufacturers and tenants. optimizing the involvement of key actors in sheer phases •  uring design stages, designer, professionals and governing bodies/municipality D and promoting synergies between them are included to fully develop the design of the renovation project and to plan the works, ensuring all necessary approvals are obtained. Tenants are consulted on OPTIMIZING THE INVOLVEMENT OF KEY ACTORS the final design, mostly regarding comfort aspects, to analyse what requires Differences exist in the stakeholders involved in an EE renovation project improve. performed by a social landlord and/or by an owners’ association in Western •  uring the tendering and the beginning of the construction phases, investors D countries and by private owners in Eastern countries. These cases have been and funding bodies, construction companies, manufacturers and designers are analysed so as to be more specific and pertinent when establishing included in finalising proposals for the project. This is to ensure that what is recommendations to optimize the involvement of actors in SHEER phases and planned could be afforded. to promote synergies between them. •  uring the construction phase, the work is undertaken in trio between the social D landlord, the construction companies and the manufacturers. Tenants are a) Project Management Process by social housing landlord (e.g. informed on the construction workflows. cities as Bridgend-UK, Echirolles-France and Utrecht-The Nether- •  t the end of projects, during the maintenance phase, tenants are usually trained A lands) to use the new technologies, manufacturers for warranty protection, governing In general, in projects managed by social landlords the existing involvement of actors can bodies for monitoring, construction companies for defects rectification final be depicted as follows (in dark green in Table 1): account and future defects liability periods of typically 12 months. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 130 131 b) Case of blocks of flats owned and managed by social housing land- Furthermore, involving investors at earlier stages allows greater understanding of lords that contain long leaseholders who have bought flats within the needs and ensuring coherence between the funding mechanisms and the needs, blocks: as well as, to have their approval on some demolition schemes. Involving them in In some countries, the social landlord has strict legal control on how to undertake the construction phase allows ensuring, through the monitoring of expenses, that improvements with a very strong emphasis on early inclusion of co-owners in works’ the social landlord can afford what is planned and that there is no overspend. It planning. Initially the requirement for the works needs to be established and might allow adjusting financial frame based on SHEER project evolution. It also communicated to co-owners, (during the feasibility stage). Co-owners may ask for their creates confidence between investors and social landlords, facilitating the funding own contractors to bid for the works. If the social landlord recieives no comments it can of further works and stabilizing the cost of financing. go to full design and tendering of the works. If there are comments, the social landlord Relationship between governing bodies/municipality and social landlords should has to consider them. When a tendered price has been established the social landlord be continuous to ensure a strong link between SHEER projects and municipal has again to write to co-owners with a statement of estimated prices and may then energy policy, as well as an appropriate representation of the different groups of contract for the works with the construction companies if no further comments are tenants. Municipal teams are elected by the population on the basis of policies, received. At the end of the project (Final Account’ phase) the social landlord writes to including the Municipal energy policy and should make sure results will be achieved. the co-owners with an Invoice/Bill for the final amount that they must pay. They should guarantee to citizens the success of SHEER projects and should thus ensure multi-stakeholders consultation, as well as, tenants’ involvement at all In other countries, the social landlord has to obtain a large majority of both tenants phases, acting as facilitators and as safeguards during exchanges. Their and co-owners (70%) to agree to the improvements, before the social landlord can involvement in the construction and in the monitoring phases will allow contract for the works. guaranteeing results. It play the role of facilitators for financial and technical aspects. Proposed future improvements for sections a) & b): To improve the SHEER process managed by social landlords, as illustrated in light green in Table 1, we may wish to extend the inclusion of tenants, manufacturers and construction companies in the earlier stages of the renovation, from the inception phase and, in particular, into the design phase. This will allow better planning of the concept of the scheme, while optimizing the energy efficiency of the buildings and behaviours and reducing the costs. Constructors should be involved in the design phase to bring their field knowledge so as to optimize the design and reduce maintenance, as well as renovation costs. Manufacturers should be involved in the design to help, for example, choosing suppliers for specific equipment before tendering. Maintenance companies involvement in the design phase could help optimize the choice of technologies and provide evaluation of the charges. Tenants should be able to exchange with designer and constructors so that the SHEER project meets tenants‘ needs and maximizes appropriate behaviours. They should be in contact with the municipality during all phases to facilitate the dialogue with the different stakeholders. Exploring the idea of more direct communication between construction companies and tenants in the teaching of the use of equipment is also recommended. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 132 133 c) Project management process by Co-Properties A relatively high percentage of owners’ agreement is needed for a complex The striking differences in the case of a SHEER project managed by a co-property renovation (from 50% + 1 vote to 100% depending on the rules of the call for corporation, is: proposals or the rules of the bank). • n the planning, design and construction phases, the co-property’s corporation, I The other barriers are: the investors and the designer work in trio; •  ow income owners’ culture against loans; L •  enants are almost not involved in the process except to inform them on the T •  ccess to flats impeded by owners; A construction workflows and for maintenance during post-construction phase; • nexistence of municipal database with blocks characteristics and conditions I •  unicipalities are often absent from the process, except if they contribute to the m describing the building capacity for an EE renovation and no budget for financing mechanism, in which case they are considered as a funding entity. pre-diagnosis; •  o legal EE renovation incentives for low income owners. N If the EE renovation project is decided by the owners, it is managed by a Joint PLANNING DESIGN CONSTRUCTION MAINTENANCE representative body - owners’ association organizing the main interventions Co properties’ corporation related to the building, including EE renovation. The general assembly of the Investors / funding entities owners is the forum for decision making procedures related to the building Designer Tenants (e. g. reconstruction / renovation…). The involvement of the different stakeholders Constructions companies in the phases of an EE renovation managed by a Joint representative body is Manufacturers illustrated in Table 3. Maintenance companies Existing situation Desired situation / involvement missing PLANNING DESIGN CONSTRUCTION MAINTENANCE Table 2: Stakeholders’ involvement in SHEER project managed by a co-property corporation Design tendering Feasibility study requirements Construction Construction Future Improvements for c): Exploitation Completion Program of inspection Stakeholders tendering Inception To improve the SHEER process managed by Co-properties’ corporations, it is key Defects Design to include tenants, construction companies and manufacturers into earlier phases, at least since the design phase, to allow optimizing buildings’ energy efficiency and Government bodies reducing EE renovation costs. Owners d) Project management process by Co-Properties of Eastern European countries as Joint representatives Hungary and Bulgaria Local District In most Eastern European countries, the public stock has been transferred to pri- Heating company vate ownership characterized by low income owners. The percentage of private Representative of experts ownership is traditionally high - around 90% - and the rate of completely Constructions companies municipally owned block of flats is low. The blocks of flats are over 40 years old, Designer / consulting firm Investors with different levels of maintenance. Such a complex situation makes energy efficient renovation expensive and external subsidy necessary (e. g. the European Regional Development Fund -ERDF grant). Existing situation Desired situation / involvement missing Usual financing bodies are: the State, the municipality and the owners and sometimes it is necessary to involve other external financing bodies (banks etc.). Table 3: Project management process by co-properties in Eastern-European countries CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 134 135 If the EE renovation project is a municipal decision, it is managed by a Project management body - a municipality funded non-profit company managing all the EXAMPLES from partners main steps of the process and supported by the Joint representative body. The decision making body is the Municipality and the Mayor and local experts - chief Valleys to Coast social landlord, Bridgend, UK architect, climate manager, energy manager etc.- are all representatives of municipal departments. In Valleys to Coast (V2C) SHEER projects, involvement of stakeholders starts If the EE renovation project is financed by ERDF, other stakeholders should be early. taken into account: - Managing Authorities: National Development Agency, Regional Development At the planning phase V2C invites discussions with Governing bodies, designer Agency. and investors to get shared ideas and ensure appropriate support. Depending on - Intermediate bodies for applications: first level controller etc. the type of project, manufacturers are involved since the feasibility study to choose Future improvements, illustrated in light green in Table 3, are: suppliers for specific equipment before tendering (e.g. when requiring equipment with low maintenance). • nvolving the owners / Joint representatives in the early period of inception i can contribute to a successful renovation procedure. During the design phase, V2C includes designer / consultant firm, professionals, • nvolving the designers, architects and constructors in the planning phase i tenants and governing bodies/municipality to make improvements, ease the design by an agreement based on a public procurement procedure could reduce the approval and optimize workflows. V2C can have a tender with construction conflicts between these actors and the procurer. companies at that phase to optimize the design. For specific projects with limited • nvolving the investors during the program of requirements phase can optimize I timeframe, manufacturers can be chosen. Sometimes, tenants are involved since the choice of the financial frame/instrument; the feasibility study to give their opinion on design details, as well as investors to • ntegrating an independent project management body responsible for all the I have their approval on some demolition schemes. main issues dedicated to the renovation can also improve the success of an EE renovation project and ensure a constant link with the different stakeholders, in During the tendering and construction phases, V2C includes investors and funding particular construction and design firms. The City of Tatabánya has created such bodies, construction companies, manufacturers and designers to finalise proposals a project management non-profit ltd. and ensure what is planned to do can be afforded. During the construction phase in V2C ‘private investors’ closely monitor the actual expenditure against the initial budgeted plans. This requires good realistic timescales in V2C planning and allows avoiding over spending money against plans. Failure to deliver closely to plans may mean that investors lose ‘confidence’ in V2C skills to ‘control projects’ which may then lead to them not funding further work in the future or raising the cost of finance as they consider there are ‘risks’ to lend money. At end of projects, tenants are included again for usage of new technologies, manufacturers for warranty protection, governing bodies for monitoring, construction companies for defects rectification, final account and future defects liability periods of typically 12 months. Investors are always involved in the construction and maintenance phases, allowing re-pricing the interest on the loan / penalties. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 136 137 Rhône-Alpes Region, France: In order to improve the quality of the renovated buildings, social landlords are also expected to increase the accessibility for disabled people. This global costs A regional standard for energy renovation of social housing approach allows optimizing the overall building maintenance costs. In Rhône-Alpes region, 5,000 social housing have to be renovated each year to fit in with the national energy legislation requirements. To help fulfil this demanding The project management is thus complex and demanding to achieve best-quality program, Rhône-Alpes regional council, the regional federation of social landlords operations. Therefore a technical assistance has been set up to answer the social (ARRA-HLM) and the regional agency for energy and environment (ADEME) and landlords’ questions, through a website and a hotline – they are much used other organizations set up together a regional standard to improve the quality of indeed. thermal renovation of social housing: the Environmental Quality of Buildings (EQB) standard. Launched in 2010, this standard allows subsidies granting and technical Building on the EQB standard success, the next step would be to spread these assistance to social landlords or private owners who match its criterion. It proposes good practices for project management to all the social landlords in Rhône-Alpes, a global approach of the renovation (architecture, energy, material, charges, in order for them to use it systematically when leading a thermal renovation accessibility, health, etc.) which is based on technical, energetic and social operation. diagnosis. This standard is of great support for the social landlords in terms of project management. Rather than being a basic budget line in the financial planning, it Utrecht Municipality, The Netherlands leads them towards a global project management. The expected energy efficiency The municipality of Utrecht has set the goal to be climate neutral in 2030. To of the renovated building has to be precisely assessed - the subsidy level promotes achieve this, Utrecht has worked both with social landlords and with residents for high quality operations. The social landlords have thus to build a real energy the private homes. strategy, by targeting an energy efficiency level and describing precisely the technology that will be used on the renovated building. Here are some required The municipality is designing the SHEER projects with social landlords through a steps for the project management: “Gentleman Agreement” and is involved in all phases. •  etting professional references of the team in charge of the project conception G •  ealization of preliminary studies (social, architectural, technical as well as a R One of the projects in the Programme Utrechtse Energie (Utrecht Energy precise energetic study) Programme) concerning private homes is ‘The E-team in action’. In this project the •  roduction of an energetic and environmental assessment related to the proper P municipality cooperates with a team of 15 residents of two town districts in order to requirements of EQB standard promote energy-efficiency in private homes. These so called energy ambassadors, • ncluding the maintenance firm in the renovation project (for energy assessment, I who work on a voluntary basis, stimulate their own neighbours and district residents choice of the technologies, evaluation of the charges) to save energy in their houses. •  esignation of a person in the conception team responsible for the issues related D ► http://www.utrecht.nl/smartsite.dws?id=363948. to air tightness •  election of work companies regarding also skills and experience rather than S price alone, and giving a specific training of the selected company about the project specificities •  esigning an energy savings monitoring program. D Not solely restricted to the energetic aspects, the EQB standard requires the establishment of participative consultation committees with inhabitants all along the project cycle. After the works, social landlords have to help them using the new devices in their homes. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 138 139 Local governments in The Netherlands nowadays are reconsidering their relationship with the public sphere; the project is an example of a new approach to CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS societal issues. Other important partners in the project are: Key recommendations for Social housing efficient energy renovation project 1. organizations for energy consultancy; they give energy advice to the house  management are provided by CASH partners through the Yambol declaration from owners; September 2012: 2.  inancial organizations, developing attractive financial products to make the F energy-saving measures affordable; 3. the social housing organizations, responsible for the housing of citizens with  lower incomes; 4. several industrial companies which are taking care of energy Develop a new model ensuring a systemic approach of Social Housing Energy saving measures, such as isolation, establish solar panels etcetera. Together efficient renovation project engineering: integrating social, political, environmental, with the municipality all partners cooperate in a consortium. legal and financial components and competences. The challenge is to explore the best public-private cooperation (a kind of ‘joint venture’) Management between local government, citizens and ‘the market’ to become a sustainable town. •  et-up an independent project management body specifically created for the S project, integrating critical stakeholders Echirolles, France •  et-up a Monitoring committee with critical stakeholders involved at key stages of S Developing synergies between stakeholders is a major issue tackled by the City of the project Echirolles, France, in its public and private EE renovation projects. The following •  eep the project objectives in mind throughout the project K diagram synthesises the synergies favoured among key stakeholders to optimize •  eep motivation throughout the process K the timeframe, the cost, the efficiency and the sustainability of such projects. •  eep the project cycle as simple and flexible as possible and keep the timescale K under control. Process and partnership •  nsure the “buy-in” of key stakeholders E • nvolve as many strategic stakeholders as possible in the planning phase I • nvolve the construction companies, field experts, energy specialists and I manufacturers at the design phase to optimize EE and reduce costs • nvolve investors upstream to favour their better understanding of the needs. I • nvolve politicians / elected members since the inception I •  ake into account the different timescales of the stakeholders and ensure actions T in line with the different needs •  avour transverse work within entities involved in the process. F Citizens’ involvement • nvolve tenants and existing local association in the decision making since the I inception phase so as to favour better appropriation, better understanding and behaviour • mprove the relationship between tenants, municipality and designers I •  nsure a dedicated budget for tenants participation. E CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 140 141 Quality MORE TO LEARN • nvolve energy specialists from the inception I • ntegrate quality requirements / criteria upstream I •  nsure the use of technology: energy efficient, simple to use, requiring low and E T.B. Salcedo, A. Straub and H. J. Visscher, 2012, “Energy Renovation Process, easy maintenance, applicable to large-scale operations, with competitive price Overview of SHELTER Social Housing Organisations – Models of Coordination” D •  et-up lower EE renovation limits S 3.2, SHELTER – Promoting Energy Renovation, Intelligent Energy Europe project •  nsure there is a balance with the other needs (eg: waste and water E 2010-2013. management). Bernard Wallyn, 2009, Energy Renovation project Sterrenveld, Wezembeek-Oppem, Financing in Sustainable Energy Saving in Existing Housing Now – Antwerp 14-10, 2009. •  nticipate global cost (on a long term basis) A •  etter consider the financial implications of each idea / action and communicate B J. Davidson Frame, 2002, The new Project Management - tools for an age of rapid about them change, complexity, and other business realities, Jossey-Bass editor. •  atch the funding schemes with the timeframe / rhythm of the project and allow M adjustments according to the project evolution Other web references: •  n the case of third party financing, ensure that social landlords have the I appropriate in-house knowledge to ensure the control of the investor’s activities. ► http://www.pmi.org/About-Us/About-Us-What-is-Project-Management.aspx ► http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/introduction-to-project-management.html Education ► http://www.managementstudyguide.com/project-management.htm •  romote education as a tool to get trained stakeholders with the required skills at P ► http://www.mpug.com/Pages/WhatisProjectManagement.aspx every level / phase of the renovation process (use the educational systems) •  rain the municipal staff in EE renovation T •  rain energy ambassadors to facilitate communication with tenants T •  rain social landlords’ staff on energy performance contracting to ensure control T and monitoring. Communication •  rovide and implement a Communication plan during the process with the different P stakeholders •  nsure the communication to social landlords of the municipal policy on EE E •  rovide the end users with project details at the different stages to increase P transparency and to improve public consultation •  emove the stigma of deprived neighbourhoods. R CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 142 143 Conclusion: Get ready for 2014! The European Union wants to be back on track to reach the objective of 20% reduction of energy consumption by 2020. It is not only a question of political credibility. It is also for cities an opportunity to mitigate and adapt to climate change and thus create new sources of growth. Cities should see the EU as an ally in this quest, not as a costly constraint. The EU indeed provides many new opportunities to support green social housing and thus increasing both the environmental performance and social inclusion in cities. To seize these opportunities require a bit of preparation especially for the implementation of the Structural Funds programming period 2014-2020. Member States and Regions will indeed prepare their Partnership agreements and Operational Programmes from early 2013 onwards. They should rely on the expertise of cities involved in other EU initiatives such as URBACT II or the Covenant of Mayors. And cities all over Europe should use the know-how of CASH partners on green social housing and articulate programmes and projects around the six dimensions of citizens’ involvement, financing, legal framework, technical issues, project management and energy production aspects. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 144 145 ALSO AVAILABLE “Cities’ action for sustainable housing” URBACT WEBSITE http://urbact.eu/cash 11 CASH partners’ local action plans : Outputs in other languages: English, french, german, italian, bulgarian, hungarian, greek, dutch, danish CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • 146 Lead Partner Tatabanya Thierry Monel, Ville Echirolles, France Tamas Galgovics t.monel@ville-echirolles.fr galgovics.tamas@tatabanya.hu Tel: 33 (0) 4-76-206060 Utrecht Lead Coordinator Inge Van der Klundert Sophie Moreau, Ville Echirolles, France i.van.de.klundert@utrecht.nl s.moreau@ville-echirolles.fr Tel: 33 (0) 4-76205600 Yambol Bridgend (UK) Mariya Paspaldzhieva Elaine Williams paspaldjieva@abv.bg elaine.williams@bridgend.gov.uk Conseil Régional Rhône-Alpes Brindisi (Italy) Claire Prédal Valerio Costantino cpredal@rhonealpes.fr arch.costantino@gmail.com Frankfurt (Germany) Werner Neumann werner.neumann@stadt-frankfurt.de Echirolles Elected member in charge of CASH Stéphanie Abrial Les Mureaux (France) Stephanie.abrial@iep-grenoble.fr Brigitte Bonafoux bbonafoux@mairie-lesmureaux.fr Echirolles Elected member in charge of Housing and Laeticia Bideau-Maruejouls Carole Simard lmaruejouls@mairie-lesmureaux.fr c.simard@ville-echirolles.fr Eordea (Greece) Lead Partner Technical support team Kostas Nikou Stephane Durand, knikou@gmail.com Sustainable Development Department Sonderborg s.durand@ville-echirolles.fr Inge Olsen Sylvain Bove, Financial Officer iols@sonderborg.dk s.bove@ville-echirolles.fr Document prepared by: Sophie Moreau - Lead Coordinator, Jan Dictus - Lead expert, with the contribution of CASH local Coordinators, Lead Partner team and CASH partners Photography credentials: Lead and local CASH coordinators Photography cover : Nadine Barbaçon - contact@uneuro.org Layout: www.sharewood-creative.com Translated by: Accent Mondial. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
    • URBACT is an European exchange and learning programme promoting sustainable urban developpement. CASH (Cities’ Action for Sustainable Housing) is an URBACT network of 11 partners (10 cities- Utrecht, Tatabanya, Sonderborg, Les Mureaux, Brindisi, Bridgend, Frankfurt, Yambol, Eordea, Echirolles and one region Region Rhône-Alpes) led by the city of Echirolles in France. The ambition of the CASH project is to propose new solutions and promote new policies for the sustainable renovation of social and affordable housing units in the European Union. Cities have become major policy players in the area of climate change policy and sustainable energy policy, for at least 2 simple and interlinked reasons: first, cities use a significant proportion of the world’s energy and secondly, cities have significant energy and CO2 savings potential . In this book we present the eleven Local Actions Plans designed by the partners of URBACT CASH project, as a local contribution to the social and environmental issue of climate change.URBACT CASH PROGRAMPARTNERS