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Cities advice

  3. 3. 4 5 CASH Guide for local authorities and cities on EUROPEAN UNION climate change policies and social housing Cities’ advice for greater EU support to green social housing CASH (Cities’ Action for Sustainable Housing) is a network of 11 partners (10 cities- Utrecht, Tatabanya, Sonderborg, Les Mureaux, Brindisi, Bridgend, Frankfurt, Yambol, Eordea, Echirolles and one region – Region Rhône-Alpes) led by the city of Echirolles in France. The ambition of the CASH project is to propose new solutions and promote new policies for the sustainable renovation of social and affordable housing units in the European Union. The network has organised local technical seminars and meetings in order to exchange experiences and collect good practices on issues such as the legal framework related to refurbishment of social housing, the involvement of citizens, the technical and financial aspects of energy efficiency investments. 1. Citizens’ involvement Key recommendations for an effective citizen involvement in Energy Efficiency (EE ) renovation process and in the reduction of energy consumption are provided by CASH partners through the “Bridgend resolution”. General justification: Combating climate change needs ambitious policies and Urban Climate Policy can only be effective with citizen participation, for the following reasons. Firstly, in the housing sector much energy can be saved, not only with technical measures, but also with behavioural change. Studies show that around 10% of energy can be saved only by routine behaviour change (switching off lights, lowering temperature, etc.). Secondly, many technical energy efficiency measures will be less effective if the related behavioural change is not carried out. Thirdly, there is the “investment-behaviour”. The choice to invest in buying energy efficient household appliances is depending on the knowledge and awareness of the public. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  4. 4. 6 7 For these three reasons citizens’ involvement is an indispensable and essential Concrete suggestions: part of any climate change policy. - ational and regional revolving funds (supported by additional fees on rent or energy N bills) can be an important instrument, favouring long-term and large-scale projects. Concrete suggestions: - ndependent third-party managing entities should be created or supported to I CASH partners give the following advice: organize technical, financial and organizational aspects and monitor the It is important to involve citizens at all stages of a policy, for instance : measures. They could act as a facilitator between landlords/owners of the hous- - rom the planning phase and during all stages of the renovation process for the f ing units and tenants. The role can be taken by local/regional foundations or en- co-conception of energy efficient renovation to ensure an appropriation of the ergy service/supply companies or even by tenants’ organizations. equipment and systems and the proper functioning of the renovated EE - o implement energy improvement in an integrative and optimum way, measures T buildings. to reduce other running costs for water, electricity and waste -“the second rent”- - n the co-creation of schemes with tenants not only to improve the energy I should be included. efficiency of homes but to improve citizens health and their environments in - uropean funds such as the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) E neighbourhoods to give ownership and empower tenants to include energy should not only be provided for energy measures in general, but should also be efficiency measures and change behaviours. focused on social housing with an integrative approach (energy, living To reach that objective, CASH partners suggests for instance to use of a mixture of environment, maintenance and integration). innovative tools favouring exchanges between all stakeholders, such as independent energy advisors, trained champions, ambassadors of energy, trained to change 3. Legal Framework behaviour and attitudes and educate citizens in realising the benefits of energy Based on the barriers, needs and enabling factors, CASH partners have identified efficiency renovation. recommendations for an effective energy efficiency legal framework, agreed in the following ‘Brindisi Manifesto’. 2. Financial instruments In order to improve the financing possibilities for energy efficient large-scale General justification: renovation operations, the CASH network has proposed a series of recommendations, As we showed in the introduction, there are many EU legislative texts that applied to presented as the ‘Frankfurt resolution’. the renovation of social housing in cities. Not only the EU directives on energy or the Structural Funds regulation but also for instance the Public Procurement Directive or General justification: national regulations on rent setting. Cities and Managing authorities have to It has been estimated that the comprehensive energy renovation cost for a dwelling, implement this legislation and gain expertise of how to make it positive for local is in average 23,000 Euro1 (in France). In order to reach the European CO2 projects. reduction goals for housing, approximately 70 to 180 million housing units in the European Union (EU) need to be renovated according to low energy consumption Concrete suggestions: standards. This would require from 1,500 to upwards of 4,000 billion Euros of - reate local clusters on green social housing. Local clusters may be developed C energy refurbishment investments in the residential sector before 2050, which for the whole supply chain of energy efficient renovation from supplier, planners, represents roughly 27% of the energy consumption in the EU. architects via installer, to users. In such a cluster Quality management can be How can this be achieved? developed, using energy labelling. To reach national and international climate and energy goals, more funds and - lexible mechanism for rents to fit to local context (deprived neighbourhoods) and F greater contributions are needed from Europe and from national governments for a form of protection from rent increase for existing social rents should be all homeowners. The available financial instruments should be: based on long-term ensured. planning, be better coordinated. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  5. 5. 8 9 4. Technological developments 5. Energy production and distribution Technological possibilities for energy efficient renovation are developing fast. Key recommendations for efficient energy production and distribution systems for Availability of techniques is not a guarantee that they always will be used in the best social housing are provided by CASH partners through the Sønderborg and most effective way. CASH partners have made some suggestions regarding declaration. energy refurbishment of social housing in cities. General justification: General justification: Energy efficient renovation deals not only with technical aspects of insulation, heat Any renovation plan includes the choice of approach, target, energy sources, and ventilation systems, but with the energy sources and their distribution to the technical installations, devices and their adequate sizing. It also requires the housing units, affecting costs paid by tenants and CO2 emissions. How the implication of stakeholders throughout the process. renovation can take place, the technical possibilities and the efficiency of the The renovation approach, whether global or on a step by step, is indeed a major measures are often related to the energy forms and sources that are available for issue. Many stakeholders, in particular communities and social landlords, often ask the building. The carbon emission per unit of energy varies strongly between themselves if they should act on a limited number of buildings to achieve expected different energy mixes, as well as the cost per energy units. That is why CASH EE renovation targets (80 kWh/m².year) or if they should intervene on few of the partners have suggested to use strategic energy planning in order to choose the components (i.e. insulation and glazing or energy supply and equipment, etc.) over most suitable energy scenario for a given city (for instance low cost energy a large number of buildings. Careful decision should be taken so as to keep along scenario or lowest impact energy scenario?) and most suitable energy sources. with the municipal energy reduction goals, available financial resources, other Fossil energy supply is characterized by low per kWh construction costs and high obligations to fulfil, as well as the time lag between major renovations (average of production costs, which represents variable energy costs for the end user. 20 to 30 years). Renewable energy supply is characterized by higher per kWh construction costs but very low production costs and the costs per energy unit. Concrete suggestions: - ake a survey on the heat energy demand (heating and domestic hot water M Concrete suggestions: DHW). - iversification of several green energy sources is important and should be D - ook for potentials of reducing demand (through insulation, water saving L encouraged. devices…). - reen Combined Heat Power cogeneration should be promoted, because it is a G - ake a comparison calculation of different heating systems (only boiler, boiler M flexible and efficient method for energy transformation. Cogeneration offers and CHP, heat pump, biomass heating systems -stoves, boilers…-, district tremendous efficiency and cost savings (more than 30% of total primary energy heating), comparing not only acquisition, installation and maintenance costs, but compared to separated production) and can be implemented by energy fuel dependency and emissions (CO2 and others) - keeping in mind that prices for companies (contracting), the social land lords or tenants associations. different fuels may develop differently in the future. - ommunities of tenants can be involved in the production and distribution of C - ake a long term 15-20 years calculation. M renewable energy, to keep transport lines short and fixed costs low. To avoid ad-hoc decision making, Social landlords and house owners should make - uropean directives and funding should take into account, that social housing E a structural renovation plan, where technical, social and economic aspects as well building blocks and areas which need to be modernized may be the nucleus of as environmental aspects play a role. The grey (hidden) energy, including the local energy distribution grids, thus giving better practical and economic energy required in transporting and in recycling the different materials / technology conditions for the implementation of cogeneration units and transforming the at the end of their life cycle, should be taken into account in their selection. supply from fossil fuels to renewables. - egions should use more than 10% of their European regional development fund R (ERDF) allocation for the modernization of the energy production field linked to social housing CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  6. 6. 10 11 Social housing energy efficient renovation project engineering Key recommendations for an efficient social housing energy renovation project are provided by CASH partners through the Yambol declaration. General justification: During the 2 years of the implementation phase of the CASH project, several topics impacting the energy efficient renovation of social housing were covered, including technological, legal, financial, social and energy production components. It is however essential to ensure the appropriate use of these ingredients through the adequate participation of the different groups of energy renovation actors and the development of synergies between them. Such an optimization of the engineering and management of a social housing energy efficient renovation (SHEER) project should contribute to raising the efficiency and lowering the cost of SHEER operations which deal with low income tenants /or owners and which have to be replicated on a large scale, social housing representing 12% of European housing stock and 20% of CO2 emissions. Concrete suggestions: - evelop a new model ensuring a systemic approach of SHEER project integrating D social, political, environmental, legal and financial components and competences. - et-up an independent project management body specifically created for the S project, integrating critical stakeholders. - nvolve as many strategic stakeholders as possible in the planning phase I - ake into account the different timescales of the stakeholders and ensure actions T in line with the different needs. - nsure the use of technology: energy efficient, simple to use, requiring low and E easy maintenance, applicable to large-scale operations, with competitive price - atch the funding schemes with the timeframe / rhythm of the project and allow M adjustments according to the project evolution. - rovide the end users with project details at the different stages to increase P transparency and to improve public consultation. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  7. 7. 12 13 The European Union policy context Cities consume between 60 to 80% of energy production worldwide and account for a roughly equivalent share of global CO2 emissions1. How cities grow and operate influences energy demand and thus greenhouse gas emissions. Lifestyles, spatial form and public transport availability but also the way housing is built and used are crucial. Taking this reality into consideration, the European Union has adopted a wide range of initiatives (pieces of legislation or soft measures) that have an impact on the way cities can contribute to the mitigation of and adaptation to the global climate warming. Residential buildings which count on average for 40% of the energy consumption and 30% of CO2 emissions in cities are a key sector to deal with, if cities are to deliver the necessary energy revolution that will allow a better mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. One can classify the EU initiatives in the field of housing and energy in 2 categories: • Initiatives that impose new standards and therefore will bring about short-term costs • Initiatives that will help cities cope with this short term costs The first category is made essentially of the legislation related to the energy efficiency and energy performance of buildings. The recently adopted Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is deemed to be an important step forward to reach the objective of 20% reduction of energy consumption in the EU by 2020 compared to 2005. Some of the most important new provisions with an impact for housing are the following: - ember states are required to implement a set of binding, flexible measures and M set a national energy efficiency target - which would have to be 20% energy savings for the EU as a whole by 2020. - nergy companies are requested to reduce their energy sales to industrial and E household clients by at least 1.5% each year; 1 CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  8. 8. 14 15 - 3% renovation rate for public buildings which are “central government-owned A The second category of EU initiatives in the field of climate change and housing and occupied”; refer to the legislation and soft measures that are supposed to help cities coping - n obligation on each EU member state to draw up a roadmap to make the A with the new standards in terms of energy efficiency. entire buildings sector more energy efficient by 2050 (commercial, public and private households included); The EU structural funds fall under this category as the new provisions3 give new - he new directive also includes additional measures on energy audits and energy T opportunities for regions and cities to support social housing in particular in the management for large firms, cost-benefit analysis for the deployment of field of energy efficiency. combined heat and power generation (CHP) and public procurement. - n article (art.15) refers to the financing mechanisms that have to be set up in A There are at least 3 areas where investment in housing could be co-financed by the order to fulfil the new obligations (in particular national energy efficiency funds) European Regional Development Fund4: Another Directive has a direct impact on how housing is built, renovated and used: 1 Energy efficiency: the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). The EPBD is the main Former objective 2 regions (the most developed EU regions in the EU) will have to legislative instrument at EU level to achieve energy performance in buildings taking dedicate at least 20% of their operational programmes to investment in supporting into account outdoor climatic and local conditions, as well as indoor climate the shift towards a low-carbon economy in all sectors. In particular investment requirements and cost-effectiveness. The main elements are : should be made to support energy efficiency and use of renewable energy in the - Extension of minimum requirements to all new and renovated buildings housing sector; there is therefore no ceiling any more for investment in energy - trengthening Energy Performance Certificates (EPC) by: S refurbishment in housing, which means that a region is free to invest as much Independent control system for EPCs ERDF as they want on energy refurbishment in housing. One have to note that Publication of the EPCs in all commercial announcements reference is made of housing sector in general, which means that every kind of Extension of display (500m2, 2015250m2) housing (including cooperative housing) is eligible to support. - ethodology for calculating cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance M requirements 2 Social infrastructures: - Introduction of “nearly zero energy buildings” (NZEB) for new building by 2018 The European commission foresees the possibility to invest in social housing under 2 circumstance: To have an overview of the implementation of those 2 directives2, we have put the (a) investing in health and social infrastructure which contribute to national, timeline below (MS = Member States) regional and local development, reducing inequalities in terms of health status, and transition from institutional to community-based services; (b) physical and economic regeneration of deprived urban and rural communities; 3 At the time of writing, the new legislation was still subject of negotiation between the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers. Minor changes might therefore come up from what was proposed by the European Commission. 4 2 For further information see also : _work/eu_impact/ erdf/erdf_proposal_en.pdf CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  9. 9. 16 17 3. Urban development: The regulation stresses that at least 5% of the ERDF resources allocated at national level shall be allocated to integrated actions for sustainable urban development delegated to and directly managed by cities. It means that cities will manage at least 5% of the ERDF national pot directly to support urban development/renewal. Furthermore cities will be allowed to support pilot projects and studies to test innovative solutions linked to sustainable urban development. There is therefore a great scope of cooperation between cities and affordable housing organisations. The European Social Fund also gives new funding opportunities for climate change related initiatives in the housing sector, since it could support the “shift towards a low-carbon, climate-resilient, resource-efficient and environmentally sustainable economy, through reform of education and training systems, adaptation of skills and qualifications, up-skilling of the labour force, and the creation of new jobs in sectors related to the environment and energy”5 Beyond the Structural Funds, we have to mention a “soft” initiative which works as a catalyst of the efforts of cities to cope with the energy efficiency challenge: the Covenant of Mayors. After the adoption, in 2008, of the EU Climate and Energy Package, the European Commission launched the Covenant of Mayors to endorse and support the efforts deployed by local authorities in the implementation of sustainable energy policies. In order to translate their political commitment into concrete measures and projects, Covenant signatories notably undertake to prepare a Baseline Emission Inventory and submit, within the year following their signature, a Sustainable Energy Action Plan outlining the key actions they plan to undertake. Beyond energy savings, the results of signatories’ actions are manifold: creation of skilled and stable jobs, not subject to delocalisation; healthier environment and quality of life; enhanced economic competitiveness and greater energy independence. There are currently more than 4000 cities that have signed up to the Covenant of Mayors, including most of CASH partners. To summarise the policy context, we can say that cities are acting in between new collectively agreed constraints from the EU and new opportunities as well. CASH partner cities have developed during the project recommendations addressed to the managing authorities of the funds and more generally EU decision makers on how to make the best use of EU opportunities in that field. The following section presents these recommendations. 5 http:/ esf_proposal_en.pdf CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  10. 10. 18 TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT • What to do? • Which technology to use? • hich energy- efficient W renovation approach to adopt? • Is certification needed? • Is labelling important? CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  11. 11. 20 21 Content Introduction subject significance A network of 11 European city and region partners involved in the European URBACT “Cities Action for Sustainable Housing – CASH” project, upon the lead of Echirolles city (France), is working on issues of energy efficiency (EE) and STATE-OF-THE-ART 22 sustainable renovation of social housing. In that frame, the aspects of technological development, legal framework, financial engineering, citizen involvement, energy The envelope of the building production and project engineering are being analysed during thematic seminars. Envelope air-tightness Each leads to the production of a mini-guide presenting the state of the art on the The technical installations subject, key issues, advice with associated experiences in partner cities and Energy production and transformation sources of information. Monitoring Some hints to help choosing energy system This edition, covering the theme of technological development is the 1st in a series and technological aspects of 6 mini-guides. KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED 29 Which technology to use? Which renovation approach to adopt? Is certification needed? Is labelling important? Certification Energy performance labels This Mini Guide on Technological development helps pinpoint: the key elements to focus on (heating systems, insulation, glazing, ventilation…) when renovating, as Renovation approach well as, the renovation type and the approaches, all issues tackled by the European directive 2010/31 EU on the energy performance of buildings. EXAMPLES FROM PARTNERS 33 Its purpose is to give practical support to cities interested in identifying effective Renovation approach: Rhone-Alpes Regional measures to enhance energy performance of existing housing stock. Council energy renovation plan of social housing,France Decision making tool: renovation in a portfolio strategy – Mitros, Netherlands “Shared energy skill center” – Les Mureaux,France CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS 35 MORE TO LEARN 36 CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  12. 12. 22 23 STATE-OF-THE-ART While performing wall insulation, control of moisture balance and condensation in walls is key. Since the impact The main objective of this overview of main technological development and of thermal insulation on water vapour dissemination is techniques is to provide local communities with key elements to consider and low, vapour diffusion retarders available choices to make when planning energy renovation. as membranes or coating are used. It will cover: • the envelope of the building and the envelope air-tightness; Its disadvantages: it reduces residential area, it often requires occupants to move • the technical installations; temporally and it wears an additional risk of moisture problems. • energy production and transformation; • monitoring. • New is the use of “Ultra-light-weight aerated concrete”. Next to having a low thermal conductivity, this material is also hygroscopic (moisture buffer) and has low water The envelope of the building vapour resistance. Energy efficient (EE) material and appliances for walls, roof, ceilings and windows, While performing wall insulation, control of moisture balance and condensation in are synthesized hereafter: walls is key. Since the impact of thermal insulation on water vapour dissemination is low, vapour diffusion retarders available as membranes or coating are used. Wall They reduce the rate at which water vapour can move through the building • The effective insulation or inertia is key. Most common is the insulation of the envelope and prevent air leakage through the envelope. Multiple layers of paint in outer walls. Insulation panels are typically made of polystyrene foam, but mineral existing housing units act already as vapour diffusion retarders. fibre has much better fire protection values (compulsory for high rise buildings). Natural insulation products, such as cellulose flakes, wood fibre mats, hemp, Roof sheep’s wool, etc., do not underperform when compared to man-made ones. The roof is most exposed to environmental influences. For individual houses it is Instead they are often far better in terms of performance, durability, in addition to the first criteria to be considered. High insulation thicknesses are highly providing health benefits. Furthermore, they present a lower carbon footprint and recommended. In addition, a special importance has to be given to high grey energy and Offer the characteristics to allow protection from the cold during air-tightness otherwise this can lead to moisture damage, especially in the wood winter and optimum heat protection during summer. In presence of cavity walls, construction. cavity can be filled with insulation material as perlite. New is to fill the insulation material cavities with gas (e.g. CO2) or vacuum. However this technology has to Top floor ceiling make its proof: uncertainty of keeping the vacuum over time exists, insulation For the insulation of the top ceiling, insulation boards (mineral cannot be punched and vapour migration over the aluminium cover is still an wool, foam...) or beds (perlite, cellulose) are possible. The insulation is placed on unknown factor. With regard to Silica-aerogel based insulation, they are only the ceiling and/or between existing beams. available in semi-transparent glazing. To prevent cold air flow around the insulating material, joints must be avoided and insulation boards should be laid with staggered joints. For uneven surfaces with • Ventilated curtain wall is an alternative to the thermal insulation many penetrations, the bedding of perlite or cellulose flakes offers a possible panels. It consists of a sub-structure (wood or aluminium profiles) attached to the technique. outer wall, with insulation material inserted in between and an air gap remaining for Green roof installation can reduce cooling loads on a building by 50% or more, but ventilation between insulation. This technique allows avoiding moisture and mold. they have to be correctly built to avoid water leakage and material degradation and • Internal insulation offers an alternative for houses with facades their maintenance cost have to be integrated. worth preserving and is less expensive than external insulation. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  13. 13. 24 25 Basement ceiling The technical installations To reduce the heat losses from the basement, insulating plates can be attached to Ventilation the basement ceiling. Central mechanical ventilation uses a ventilator, moving the air from the most For uneven or vaulted basement ceilings, airtight cloths can be attached acting as burdened rooms (kitchen, bathroom and toilet) via a pipe system to the exhaust. air chambers so as to form a natural insulation layer. The result is a slight negative pressure in the building, which causes filtered outside air to stream, via supply valves in the outer wall, to living areas. Energy Windows savings can be gained by the choice of ventilator, the exhaust grill and by demand Modern windows with heat-resistant glazing offer a significant reduction in heat controlled or CO2 controlled exhaust. loss (about 40 to 70%). This is achieved by an invisible metallic layer (keeping heat Hygro-adjustable ventilation and double flux ventilation are the most commonly inside) and an inert gas filling between the panes. used ventilation systems and are widely available. The first allows energy savings Three-pane insulating glazing (Ug = 0,5 to 0,6 W/m²K) is available on the market, through the reduction of airflow (0,3 vol/h) but without control on indoor air quality offering additional heat loss reduction of 30% compared to the two-pane windows (its reduced flow requires the use of indoor materials free of volatile organic and is becoming widely used. Their prices vary and can increase considerably the compounds and formaldehyde). The second allows energy savings without budget of a renovation operation. reducing airflow (0,54 vol/h) through heat recovery from extracted air. New solutions are oriented toward small decentralized devices, with simultaneous or Not only should the U-value of the glazing be known, but also the one of the entire alternated blowing and air extraction providing ventilation for a single room. They window influenced by the quality of the frame. Highly insulated frame exist, as the can be integrated in windows without requiring any ventilation network hard to passive house window. If the window frame is covered with insulation up to 2 to 4 cm, install in existing housing units. These are not yet widely available. an installation nearly free of thermal bridges is guaranteed. New is double vacuum glazing (Ug = 1,4 W/m²K), but they are still very expensive. Energy production and transformation Envelope air-tightness There exist several independent energy supply units that can be installed at building and house scales for heating and for domestic hot water (DHW) Attention should be paid to achieve a good balance between energy efficiency . (air-tightness and air renewal) and sanitary conditions. Air-tightness (air permeability Heating or leakage rate) of the envelope is an essential issue to keep in mind. Indeed, the • Biomass heating control of infiltrations coming from: joinery-wall, joinery-floor and roof-wall junctions, Biomass is a renewable low carbon fuel, producing a fraction of the carbon as well as from expansion joints, sheaths, evacuations, electrical conduit, traps, emissions of fossil fuels if correctly managed. A wide range of biomass fuels can rolling shutter, etc., must be ensured, knowing be used: virgin wood, energy crops, agricultural, food and industrial residues. that they can generate up to 50% Most widespread for small scale heating systems are wood pellets and chips from overconsumption of heating in well insulated round wood. There exist several types of biomass heating systems, the most housing units. It is critical that any tape and commons being stoves, available from room heaters of 1.5 kW up to around sealant used should maintain a high flexibility 12kW, and boilers 25kW. Biomass-fired boilers can be integrated into existing over time to ensure it copes with differential heating systems, and are therefore a real alternative in renovation projects if movement and to resist high and low adequately selected (high performance and low particle emission). temperatures over the lifetime of the building. • Condensing boilers It should, as well, perform under high Condensing boilers are a further development of the low-temperature boilers. humidity conditions. They are the most energy efficient boilers since they use two heat exchangers: Top left in orange indicating infiltration from one taking the water vapour (hot gasses) produced from burning the hydrogen rolling shutter after insulation, Echirolles, France. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  14. 14. 26 27 content of the fuel to heat the water coming back from radiators into the condensing Cogeneration units decentralised energy production system boiler, one capturing the heat from the condensation process during the cooling of the water vapour which condenses into liquid water. The effectiveness of this avoids transportation and reduces the carbon footprint. CHP condensing process depends on the temperature of the water returning to the saves more than 30% primary energy and CO2 compared boiler. System design and installation are key (longer chain of distribution giving to separate production of heat and power cooler water). Since condensation boiler is a low temperature device it is recommended by Decrees in many European countries in case of renovation / the carbon footprint. CHP saves more than 30% primary energy and CO2 reconstruction. compared to separate production of heat and power. There exist solutions from • Passive and active Solar space heating systems micro CHP (36 electrical kW, 1-5 electrical kW) for single family house, 50 These solar heating systems with air heat collectors (glazed or unglazed) or with electrical kW for housing blocks and up to several 100-1000 electrical kW district liquid collectors, can be 25 times more cost effective than solar electric systems. heating nets for social housing districts. CHP units work mostly on natural gas but Evacuated tube solar collectors mounted on the roof or on another structure a wide range of biomass fuels can be used (biogas, wood, sewage sludge…), should have a high performance so that high temperatures can be achieved even their system being designed to accept high moisture content material. It is to be with cold outdoor conditions. noted that CHP is most suitable when there is year round demand for heat to • Electric heat pumps balance the demand for electricity. A heat pump can provide heating or cooling, moving heat from ‘a natural source’ • District heating - at the highest temperature (outside air, soil, groundwater, water body, with More and more social landlords and owners adopt district heating. In the city of constant temperature from 5-10°C), to a ‘heat sink’ - at the lowest temperature. To Echirolles (France), it heats more than 75% of social housing units. This system keep this thermodynamic cycle, the heat pump needs electricity from an electric distributes hot water (or steam) to connected buildings and individual houses, or gas engine, or from renewable resources. Most cost-effective are air / water through highly insulated flow and return pipes and heat exchanger heat pumps, but these bivalent systems are less efficient. Air source heat pumps (substation) within each building. The heat is often obtained from a cogeneration are the least efficient but can still be used in low energy consumption dwellings. plant burning fossil fuels (oil / natural gas) or biomass, although single boiler They have the disadvantage of high outside temperature differential which leads installation, or geothermal heating or central solar heating can also be used. to lower efficiency. Geothermal heat pumps, since they draw heat from the ground District heating avoids costs of energy when based on biomass or renewable or groundwater which is at a relatively constant temperature all year round, have energy sources and reduces investments in household or building heating typically higher efficiency but are more expensive, requiring excavation. A equipment. However, it requires important initial investments, thus being less performance coefficient of COP 4 should be selected (for 1kWh of electricity attractive for areas with low population. With CHP, district heating has the lowest consumed, 4 kWh of heat are produced). Most efficient systems have a COP of 7. carbon footprint of any heating system. In itself district heating is approximately Their capacity has to match heating and cooling demand without being 30% more efficient. However, ownership monopoly issues should be taken into undersized (risk of inadequate cooling) or oversized (risk of inappropriate account. dehumidification). Heat pumps most need additional heat source to cover peak consumption (cold days, etc.). Intelligent heat pumps (as Syd Energi units installed in Sonderborg, Denmark) with a control unit collecting weather data, households consumption and electricity prices, produce heat when prices are low and provide heat-through their heat-storage device, at peak consumption. • Co-generation units - Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Cogeneration units (Combined Heat Power - CHP) generate heat and electricity simultaneously, the heat resulting from the production of electricity or the reverse. This decentralised energy production system avoids transportation and reduces CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  15. 15. 28 29 Domestic hot water (DHW) Some hints to help choosing energy systems • Solar Water Heating systems (SWH) They can cover up to 2/3 of the hot domestic water heat. Simple devices exist and technological aspects with a storage tank mounted above solar collectors on the roof (‘closed-coupled’ • ake a survey on the heat energy demand (heating and domestic hot water M SWH). Others have storage tank ground or floor mounted. In winter there can be DHW). sometimes with insufficient solar heat gain to deliver sufficient hot water. The • ook for potentials of reducing demand (through insulation, water saving L performance of an SWH system may be defined by its solar fraction devices…). (corresponding to the fraction of a building’s water heating energy demand he can • ake a comparison calculation of different heating systems (only boiler, boiler M meet) which depends on the solar characteristic of the system, but also on the and CHP, heat pump, biomass heating systems -stoves, boilers…-, district water-use pattern and on the solar resource. heating), comparing not only acquisition, installation and maintenance costs, but • Heat pump using exhaust air fuel dependency and emissions (CO2 and others) - keeping in mind that prices for An integrated hot water heat pump which actively uses up to 70% of the energy different fuels may develop differently in the future. from exhaust air (from ventilation systems) to ensure central domestic hot water • ake a long term 15-20 years calculation. To avoid ad-hoc decision making, M preparation all year round, independent of the existing heating system. Social landlords and house owners should make a structural renovation plan, where technical, social and economic aspects as well as environmental aspects Monitoring play a role. The grey (hidden) energy, including the energy required in transporting and in recycling the different materials / technology at the end of their life cycle, Monitoring devices (i.e.: individual meters, check meters, master meters and should be taken into account in their selection. digital smart meters) are necessary to measure the impact of renovation on energy consumption, to evaluate the effect of each new technological and technical implementation, to identify possible malfunctions and to get knowledge on the behaviour of the occupants so as to promote energy conservation measures and to KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED keep the energy performance of the housing unit. However, instrumentation should be easy to use, an energy baseline should be available, data must be reliably recorded and stored, measurement duration should be adapted to the monitoring Certification of materials and of buildings, aspects of energy performance labels, objective and sample size and structure should be representative. as well as renovation approaches, were the key issues discussed during the CASH thematic seminar on technological developments held in Utrecht in January 2011. Here are main elements identified: Feedback of metering results should be fast, clear and understandable to lead to action and to be directly translated into costs related to the energy bill. Clear communication is needed. ‘La Bruyère’ BBC level, renovation OPATB program, Echirolles, France. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  16. 16. 30 31 Certification Certification of building is not mandatory but allows Certification of materials ensuring that specific energy efficiency (EE) targets are Even though the environmental aspects of products do not yet play a big role in the met. There is not one standard European certification tool certification process of the European Organisation for Technical Approval, but several national certification tools. specialised databases exist of validated and labelled building materials based on Life Cycle Analyses (carbon emission and energy used during material production, transportation, recycling...). Not all national validations come to the same results, depending on the assumptions made in the calculations and on differences made on how the materials designers and operators of the sector). While the ITACA Protocol defines the are being used or applied. In the Netherlands a national calculation system is being strategic guidelines and supervises the certification system, regions and provinces developed, bringing at least seven other systems together. should define their own procedures of certification and accreditation systems and issue the certificates. Certification of buildings Certification of the building, demonstrates its commitment to energy efficiency, site Passive House Planning Package PHPP sustainability and indoor environmental quality. It is not mandatory but allows Calculating the energy balance of buildings with very low energy consumption ensuring that specific energy efficiency (EE) targets are met. is a demanding task - existing regulations, standards and pre-standards lack the There is not one standard European certification tool but several national required precision. The method developed by Passivhaus Institut in Darmstadt certification tools. Some are proposing integrated calculation methodology Germany is the widest accepted method, in Europe, to calculate the design process including all the EE aspects, such as heating, technological cooling and lighting for passive house renovation. installations, position and orientation of the building, heat recovery, etc., and not just the degree of the building’s technical insulation. Some used in the countries of CASH network are presented hereafter: Energy performance labels Under the European Directive on Energy performance of Buildings (2002/91/EC) to GPR Building achieve energy performance in buildings, Member States are responsible for: “GPR Building” is a performance based tool developed by the municipality of setting the minimum standards as regards the energy performance of new Tilburg and W/E Consultants in the Netherlands. The aim of this quick and easy to and existing buildings. use software is to raise building quality and reduce the environmental load of To meet their commitment and promote the achievement of high energy buildings, using five indicators: Energy, Environment, Health, User Quality, and performance levels, countries have developed a series of energy performance Long Term Value. It allows visualising the effect of every measure on the labels (EPL). In the absence of European standards, they have developed their sustainability and gives achieved CO2 reduction. At the moment “GPR Building” is own national standards which are not directly comparable. This is because being extended so it can be used internationally. countries aggregate different components in the building’s total allowed energy budget (i.e. some countries ignore domestic hot water, equipment, lighting, or ITACA Protocol fans), they control different stages of the energy chain (e.g. net energy demand, The ITACA Institute (Federal Association of Italian Regions) in Italy, developed the delivered energy or primary energy) and have divergent assumptions on system ITACA protocol as a tool for the certification of the residential public building. efficiencies (e.g. boilers) and primary energy factors. Moreover, areas and volumes Indicators used are: Site, Consumption of resources, Environmental loads, are calculated in different ways in different countries, which complicates simple Environmental indoor quality, Quality of the service and Socio- economic aspects. comparison of requirements that are normalized in relation to floor area or facade It helps providing a common baseline for all stakeholders (property owners, builders, areas, such as energy use [kWh/m².year] or air tightness. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  17. 17. 32 33 Also the climate conditions in different countries and regions are different. Some European examples of EPL, based on reducing the long term consumption of the EXAMPLES from partners buildings, are: • Passivhaus, in Germany, with less than 15 kWh/m2.year of energy consumption -Renovation approach: for heating and the same for cooling, • Low Energy Consumption Building (BBC), in France, for buildings with primary Rhone-Alpes Regional Council energy renovation plan for energy consumption of 50 kWh/m2.year (level A) for new building and of 80 kWh/ social housing, France m2.year for renovated buildings or Effinergie integrating the concept of Starting with the challenge of national EE targets set in the new French Environment bill airtightness. ‘Grenelle 2’, of 80 000 renovations by 2020 in Rhône-Alpes region with an energy Initiatives as the European EPLabel project proposes to harmonise this framework consumption performance level 150kWh/m•/year), CASH partner Rhône-Alpes in public buildings across Europe. Whereas the level of Passivhaus is achievable Regional Council (RARC) has adopted an ambitious regional energy renovation plan in in renovation, the question of impacts on way of living due to building air-tightness favour of social housing, both public and private, for the 2011-2013 period. This plan, constraint should be raised. built around the regional partnership between RARC, the French Agency for Energy and Environment Management (ADEME) and the regional association of social housing Renovation approach organisations (ARRA-HLM), will provide technical assistance and financial support to Which are the EE renovation targets to achieve by social landlords or public social landlords and co-properties. co-properties or private owners and what should be the approach: global or Objectives of this plan are to generalise the target of high energy performance and to step-by-step? While minimum performances are advocated by the European develop a project management integrating a multi-criteria approach (architecture, Directive, specific targets to be achieved through renovation vary from ventilation, comfort, eco-materials, etc.). Energy requirements have been set up so that country to country and are defined by their legal framework which will be flexibility and capacity of adaptation are guaranteed to operators. There are thus 2 presented in the second CASH mini-guide. approaches sharing the common goal of a minimum energy saving of 35%: Regarding the approach, the answers from CASH partners vary: 1. a “step by step” approach reaching at least a level • atabanya (Hungary), favours achieving the best available and most complete T 150kWH/m•/year, based on technical solutions or “work packages” compatible with building energy refurbishment rather than proceeding to a renovation reaching low-energy buildings standard (BBC renovation level 80kWh/m 2/year), which will not minimum requirements, since these energy operations are long-term interventions kill future energy saving potential. Priority is given to the enveEnergy lope/shell and most often the unexecuted works are never achieved later on. (a minimum of two actions), with safeguards to satisfy (e.g.: minimum thermal • hône-Alpes Regional Council (France), has developed (with key stakeholders) R resistance) and some technical consistency to respect (e.g.: mandatory intervention on a ‘step-by-step’ approach for Rhône-Alpes region which concentrates on the ventilation if works programme implies replacement of windows); means (work package) more than on the goals. This progressive approach, not 2. a global approach reaching the BBC low-energy consumption level (80 kWh/m²/ focusing on reaching immediately ‘BBC renovation level’ but remaining year) and obtaining the French label BBC Effinergie Renovation. compatible with it, allows social landlords investing in renovation operations even It is a progressive plan, with a pilot operation during the first year (2011), on which basis if they don’t have the financial means to reach high targets. the activities for the next two years will be revised and optimised. The Rhone-Alpes • chirolles (France), until now has favoured the global approach with renovation E example shows that high goals can lead to new ways of working and the development integrating all the elements of the envelope, the energy production and the and implementation of new technologies. technical installations (e.g.: recent ‘Village 2’ district rehabilitation program with For more information on technical requirements, see : new and renovated buildings at BBC levels). However, given the present difficult financial context, the assets of a step by step approach are being discussed in the ► frame of Echirolles – URBACT CASH Local Action Plan. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  18. 18. 34 35 Decision making tool: Shared energy skill center - Les Mureaux, France renovation in a portfolio strategy - Mitros, Netherlands The city of Les Mureaux plans to set up a special energy training facility for craftsmen. The Dutch housing corporation Mitros uses a decision model for its housing stock, The city has identified a shared interest with several training / research organizations based on return on investment from EE renovation. The principal goal is not to in the sector for a common technical platform. The project partners want to realise minimise the costs, but to try to raise the value of the housing stock. Next to the a new building with the newest energy efficiency technologies so that the technical market value of the houses, it is also the value for renting them out and the value solutions of the building or equipment can be used for educational purposes and for the quality of living (‘social return’). Return on investment gained through training. The building is planned for realisation in 2014. increased life span and value of the house, is a management criterion too. The returns from renovation can be summarised as follow: Returns for tenant: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS lower ‘cost of accommodation’ better climate (health) Technological possibilities for energy efficient renovation are developing fast. more comfort/safety (well-being) Availability of techniques is not a guarantee that they always will be used in the best Returns for the house owner: and most effective way. To cope with this rapidly evolving environment and with this extension of exploitation (direct + indirect) constraint, it is recommended to pay a special attention to the labels and types of increase in rent (direct) equipment and materials, as well as to the installation techniques, in particular for lower risk of future utilization (direct) heritage buildings. Certification can be a guide to perform the appropriate choices. The renovation approach, whether global or on a step by step, is also a major value increase (indirect) issue. Many stakeholders, in particular communities and social landlords, often ask themselves if they should act on a limited number of buildings to achieve expected Making such future oriented calculations urges house owners, tenants and EE renovation targets (80 kWh/m².year) or if they should intervene on few of the landlords, to search for the latest techniques and technologies for energy renovation. components (i.e. insulation and glazing or energy supply and equipment, etc.) over With such model, a rational decision can be made between “Continuation of a large number of buildings. Careful decision should be taken so as to keep along Utilization”, “Disposition”, “Renovation” or “Demolition / rebuilding”. with the municipal energy reduction goals, available financial resources, other obligations to fulfil, as well as the time lag between major renovation operations (average of 20 to 30 years). Moreover, a renovation plan, aside from including the choice of approach, target, energy sources, technical installations, devices and their adequate sizing, requires the implication of stakeholders throughout the process, in particular the tenants, so as to optimize usages and energy efficiency (integrated participative design process). This subject will be covered in one of the following five CASH mini-guides, as well as legal framework, financial engineering, energy production and EE project management. 2nd conference on Energy efficiency, Les Mureaux, France, May 2011. CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  19. 19. 36 37 MORE TO LEARN ► ► or General (ASIEPI EP: Comparing Energy Performance Requirements over Europe: Tool and The CASH website with all presentations of the Thematic seminar in Utrecht: Method, 2010) ► ► (French norms and Grenelle bill) State of the art ►[_id_inhalt]=102231 Main reference used for the overview of technologies for housing renovation: Leitfaden: „Energetische Sanierung von Gründerzeitgebäuden in Frankfurt“; • Energieeffizienz im Wohngebäudebestand; Techniken, Potenziale, Kosten und Herausgeber: Stadt Frankfurt am Main, Energiereferat. Wirtschaftlichkeit; Institut Wohnen und Umwelt. ► ► IWU_QBer_EnEff_Wohngeb_Nov2007.pdf ► • W/E Advisers’ presentation: “Energy saving technology, state of the art” on CASH ► Website. (Hungarian climate policy institute. Energiaklub concentrates on energy efficiency, • La rénovation à très basse consommation d’énergie des bâtiments existants. renewable resources, climate protection, energy policy.) Olivier Sidler, France, 120 p., 2010. ► Further website sources (A Hungarian on-line and downloadable publication for owners about energy performance certificate of buildings, energy efficiency interventions and renewable ► energy sources.) ► (England) ► (Germany) ►; ► (all about eco-labels) ► ► CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  20. 20. 38 LEGAL FRAMEWORK • hich key energy efficiency topics are most covered? W • here are the gaps? W • re enabling factors appropriate and sufficiently A covered? • hat are the barriers to implementing? W • ome interesting bottom-up approaches S • ecommendations for an effective EE legal framework R CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING
  21. 21. 40 41 Content Introduction subject significance This edition, covering the theme of legal framework for energy efficient renovation is the 2nd in a series of 6 mini-guides for the CASH project. STATE-OF-THE-ART 42 Availability of affordable and energy efficient housing is not only a technical or financial matter. European Directives, national / regional / local laws, decrees, European policy regulation ordinances and policies are forming the framework for cities to work within. This Cash partner legal framework mini-guide describes the existing legal playing field for CASH partners from 9 Key topics most covered by legal instruments European countries at the local level and shows how they can manoeuvre within Topics less covered by legal instruments the given possibilities to enhance energy performance of affordable housing for Specificities and strengths of CASH partners social landlords, low income owners or tenants. It also highlights the gaps, barriers, local needs and the potential solutions for a bottom-up approach more in line with KEY ISSUES DISCUSSED 48 local context. Enabling factors Barriers to implementing Needs required outcomes EXAMPLES FROM PARTNERS 51 Orca-apulia region, italy Brindisi tenants union, italy Apulia cluster for sustainable buildings, italy Heating source regulated in urban planning Voluntary agreement on local level CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS 53 ‘Brindisi manifesto’ MORE TO LEARN 55 CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING CITIES’ ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE HOUSING