Technological advancements


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I can identify key technological advancements that helped in making our knowledge of space expand. My research will show the past, but I will also predict what future advancements may stretch our limits even more.

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Technological advancements

  1. 1. I can identify key technological advancements that helped in making our knowledge of space expand. My research will show the past, but I will also predict what future advancements may stretch our limits even more.
  2. 3. The Space Race <ul><li>The race was between United States and the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>During the Cold Race </li></ul><ul><li>Half Century Long </li></ul><ul><li>Called a “Crucial Arena” between the to rivalries </li></ul><ul><li>In the end of the space race, they both decided to create one space station </li></ul>
  3. 5. 1957 <ul><li>Oct. 4 - USSR launches Sputnik 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 3 - USSR launches Sputnik 2 which carried a small dog named Laika into orbit. </li></ul>
  4. 6. 1958 <ul><li>Jan. 31 - Explorer 1, the first American satellite to reach orbit, is launched. It carried scientific equipment that lead to the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belt. </li></ul><ul><li>Mar. 5 - Explorer 2 is launced but it fails to reach orbit.  </li></ul><ul><li>Mar. 17 - The Vanguard 1 satellite is launched. It continues to function for 3 years.  </li></ul><ul><li>May 15 - Sputnik 3 is launched. </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 1 - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is formed, it replaces the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA). </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 11 - Pioneer 1 is launched to a height of 70,700 miles. </li></ul>
  5. 7. 1959 <ul><li>Jan. 2 - Luna 1 is launched by the USSR. It is the first man made object to orbit the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Mar. 3 - Pioneer 4 is launched on a Earth-Moon trajectory. It passed within 37,000 miles of the Moon before falling into a solar orbit.  </li></ul><ul><li>Apr. 2 - The &quot;Mercury Seven&quot; astronauts are selected by NASA. </li></ul><ul><li>Sep. 12 - Luna 2 is launched. It impacts the Moon on September 13, becoming the first man-made object to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 4 - Luna 3 orbits the Moon and photographs 70% of its surface. </li></ul>
  6. 8. 1920 <ul><li>Apr. 1 - Tiros 1, the first successful weather satellite, is launched. </li></ul><ul><li>Aug. 18 – The US launches Discoverer XIV, its first camera equipped spy satellite. </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 8 - John F. Kennedy is elected the 35th President of the United States. </li></ul>
  7. 9. 1961 <ul><li>Apr. 12 - Yuri Gagarin orbits the Earth once and becomes the first man in space.  </li></ul><ul><li>May 5 - Alan B. Shepard becomes the first American in space. </li></ul><ul><li>May 25 - President John F. Kennedy addresses Congress and challenges the nation to go to the Moon before the end of the decade. </li></ul><ul><li>Jul. 21 - Gus Grissom is launched on a sub-orbital flight. His Liberty-Bell capsule is lost when it fills with water and sinks after splashdown. </li></ul><ul><li>Aug. 6 - Gherman Titov spends a day in space aboard Vostok 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 7 - NASA announces the Gemini Program. </li></ul>
  8. 10. 1962 <ul><li>Feb. 20 - John Glenn orbits the Earth three times. </li></ul><ul><li>May 24 - Scott Carpenter repeats John Glenn's flight aboard &quot;Aurora 7&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Sep. 12 - President Kennedy gives a speech at Rice University reaffirming the importance of the Moon program. </li></ul><ul><li>Sep. 17 - NASA selects its second group of astronauts.  </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 3 - Walter Schirra orbits the Earth six times.  </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 14 - Mariner 2 flies past Venus and enters a solar orbit. </li></ul>
  9. 11. 1963 <ul><li>May 15 - L. Gordon Cooper spends 34 hours in space. He is the last American to fly in space alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Jun. 16 - Cosmonaut Valentia Tereshkova becomes the first woman in space. </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 17 - A third group of NASA astronauts is selected. </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 22 - President Kennedy is assassinated. </li></ul>
  10. 12. 1964 <ul><li>Jul. 31 - Ranger 7 transmits the first close range images of the Moon. </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 31 - Astronaut Theodore Freeman dies in a plane crash. </li></ul>
  11. 13. 1965 <ul><li>Mar. 18 - Alexei Leonov spends 12 minutes outside of his Voskhod spacecraft performing the first spacewalk. </li></ul><ul><li>Mar. 23 - Gus Grissom and John Young fly the first manned Gemini spacecraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Jun. 3 - Ed White performs America's first spacewalk. Jim McDivitt remains in the Gemini capsule. </li></ul><ul><li>Jul. 14 - Mariner 4 returns close ranger images of Mars. </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 16 - Venus 3 is launched. It becomes the first man made object to impact Venus on March 1, 1966. </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 4 - Frank Borman and James Lovell begin a two week stay in Earth orbit aboard Gemini 7. </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 15 - Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford, in their Gemini 6 spacecraft, make the first space rendezvous with Gemini 7. </li></ul>
  12. 14. 1966 <ul><li>Feb. 3 - Luna 9 becomes the first spacecraft to soft-land on the Moon.  </li></ul><ul><li>Feb. 28 - Astronauts Charles Bassett and Elliott See die when their plane crashes in bad weather.  </li></ul><ul><li>Apr. 3 - Luna 10 becomes the first satellite to orbit the Moon. </li></ul><ul><li>Jun. 2 - Surveyor 1 soft-lands on the Moon. </li></ul><ul><li>Aug. 14 - Lunar Orbiter 1 enters orbit around the Moon and takes the first picture of the Earth from that distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 11 - Gemini 12, the last flight of the Gemini Program, launches with James Lovell and Edwin &quot;Buzz&quot; Aldrin aboard. </li></ul>
  13. 15. 1967 <ul><li>Jan. 27 - Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee are killed when a fire ignites in their Apollo 1 capsule while performing a test on the launch pad. </li></ul><ul><li>Apr. 24 - Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov is killed when the parachutes of his Soyuz 1 capsule fail to open properly following re-entry. </li></ul><ul><li>Jun. 6 - Astronaut Edward Givens is killed in an automobile accident. </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 5 - Astronaut Clifton Williams is killed in a plane crash. </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 18 - Venera 4 transmits data about the atmosphere of Venus. </li></ul>
  14. 16. 1968 <ul><li>Mar. 27 - Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space, dies in a plane crash. </li></ul><ul><li>Sep. 15 - Zond 5 is launched. It carried a biological payload (including two turtles) around the Moon and returned to Earth six days later. </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 11 - The crew of Apollo 7 begin a 10 day mission to study the new spacecraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 21 - Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders begin the first manned journey from the Earth to the Moon. On Christmas Eve they take turns reading Genesis in a broadcast heard around the world. </li></ul>
  15. 17. 1969 <ul><li>Jan. 16 - Soyuz 4 & 5 perform the first Soviet spacecraft docking. </li></ul><ul><li>Jul. 20 - Neil Armstrong and Edwin &quot;Buzz&quot; Aldrin become the first men to walk on the Moon while crewmate Michael Collins orbits around the Moon alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 19 - Pete Conrad and Alan Bean perform the first precision lunar landing, touching down just 600 feet from the Surveyor 3 probe that arrived two years earlier. </li></ul>
  16. 18. What does the space race mean? <ul><li>The Space race showed that the USSR had the power to lunch rockets and missiles to the US. They had the power to control and “kill” America. We couldn’t do anything to stop it, we were so the year before. A year later, we were right back in it. Trying to get our technology back up, so that we would have a defense. But it is kind of like when you get a text and you take it in the wrong way, just like how the US thought that Sputnik 1 was a missile but truly it was something to go in space. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Who were the people that had all the theories of the universe?
  18. 20. Claudius Ptolemy <ul><li>Theory that the earth was the middle of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Ptolemaic theory </li></ul><ul><li>Sun revolved around the earth </li></ul>
  19. 21. Galileo Galilei <ul><li>Made a telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Looked at Jupiter's moons and phases of the moons </li></ul><ul><li>The sun was the center of the universe- heliocentric model </li></ul>
  20. 22. Nicolaus Copernicus <ul><li>Sun centered universe </li></ul><ul><li>Earth revolved around the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Copernican revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Proved the heliocentric model </li></ul>
  21. 23. Johannes Kepler <ul><li>Three Laws of Planetary Motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planets moved in a ellipse around the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planets move faster when they are closer to the sun and slower when they are farther away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It takes longer for the outer planets to orbit than the inner planets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assistant of Tycho Brahe </li></ul><ul><li>Kept doing Tycho's work </li></ul><ul><li>Announced that the planets are all around the sun </li></ul>
  22. 24. Sir Isaac Newton <ul><li>The laws of Gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Found/saw gravitational force/pull </li></ul><ul><li>Identified the cause of orbit (inertia and gravity) </li></ul>
  23. 26. 1 st telescope <ul><li>The very first telescope was in 1609 </li></ul><ul><li>Made my Galileo Galilei </li></ul><ul><li>Now kept in a one-a-half thick lens </li></ul><ul><li>Saw earth’s moons </li></ul><ul><li>Sunspots </li></ul><ul><li>Nearby planets into focus </li></ul><ul><li>Help the heliocentric model be true </li></ul>
  24. 27. The first Refracting telescope <ul><li>Made in 1670 </li></ul><ul><li>Made by Johannes Hevelius </li></ul><ul><li>150 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>Held up in the sky by ropes </li></ul>
  25. 28. Telescope that found Uranus <ul><li>Made in 1786 </li></ul><ul><li>By Sir William Herschel </li></ul><ul><li>Found Uranus in 1781 </li></ul><ul><li>40 foot telescope </li></ul><ul><li>To heavy that is was less effective </li></ul><ul><li>Last observation in 1814 </li></ul>
  26. 29. First Picture of the Moon <ul><li>IN 1840 </li></ul><ul><li>BY John William Draper </li></ul><ul><li>Took the first picture of our moon </li></ul>
  27. 30. 2 nd reflecting telescope <ul><li>IN 1845 </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Rosse </li></ul><ul><li>Found the first spiral nebulae </li></ul>
  28. 31. Yerkes Observatory <ul><li>IN 1897 </li></ul><ul><li>40 inch telescop </li></ul><ul><li>Largest refracting ever </li></ul>
  29. 32. The Hooker <ul><li>1917 </li></ul><ul><li>100 inch telescope </li></ul>
  30. 33. 13 inch telescope <ul><li>1930 </li></ul><ul><li>Clyde Tombaugh discover the dwarf planet Pluto </li></ul><ul><li>With a 13 inch telescope </li></ul>
  31. 34. Hubble Space Telescope <ul><li>First telescope in space </li></ul><ul><li>Takes many pictures daily </li></ul><ul><li>Tells about the deaths of stars </li></ul><ul><li>Best telescope ever </li></ul><ul><li>Many repairs in space </li></ul>
  32. 35. Kim’s opinion <ul><li>I think that telescopes are pretty cool. They let us see space in almost another dimension. Are space program has been growing so much thanks to all the telescopes. We have found planets, stars, galaxies and so much more. It is been amazing, from the space race when we didn’t have anything to now… the leaders of space. We proved that the sun was the center of the solar system. In years to come there will be more discovers. I can’t wait to see history unroll itself. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Bibliography <ul><li>Works Cited </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Studying Space .&quot; Holt science & technology: astronomy . S.l.: Holt McDougal, 2007. 5-6. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Telescopes Timeline — National Geographic Magazine .&quot; National Geographic Magazine . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; - Timeline of Space Exploration.&quot; . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>MLA formatting by </li></ul>