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1 sociology update 6.11

1 sociology update 6.11



Introduction to Sociology: Chapter 1

Introduction to Sociology: Chapter 1



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1 sociology update 6.11 1 sociology update 6.11 Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to SociologyChapter 1Sociology: Perspective, Theory,and Method
  • What is Sociology?• Word origin– Socius– Logus– Ology• Definition– Scientific study of patterns of human socialinteractions, causes of those interactions, andsolutions to negative consequences
  • Origins of Sociology• Rapid social change in the 18th and 19thCenturies…– European and North American IndustrialRevolution
  • Sociology as a Science• Social Science• Based on the use of the Scientific Method– Patterned Regularity– Empiricism– Objectivity
  • • PatternedRegularity
  • The Sociological PerspectiveSeeing the “General in the Particular”People often think they areindividuals who make uniquedecisions, but people areactually products of awhirlwind of social forces!
  • The Sociological Imagination• C. Wright Mills
  • The Sociological ImaginationAbility to see public issues (the general) inpersonal troubles (the particular)…PERSONALTROUBLESFixing personal troubles doesnot solve public issues. PUBLICISSUESYou must solve public issues tosolve personal troubles.
  • Likelihood of Embracing theSociological Perspective• Social Marginality– Racial/ethnic minorities– Women– Immigrants– People with disabilities– The elderly– LGBTQ Community– Etc… Thesecategories ofpeople are morelikely to acceptthe SociologicalPerspectivebecause theyexperience theconsequences
  • Major Areas of SociologyMACRO: large groups, main focusMICRO: individual levels and small groups(also called Social Psychology)Purposes of SociologyApplied/PracticingPure/Basic/Academic
  • Theoretical Foundersand Grand Theory
  • August Comte (1798-1857)• French Philosopher and father ofSociology– Coined “Sociology” in 1838– Stages in understanding society1. Theological2. Metaphysical3. Scientific- positivism
  • Herbert Spencer (1820 – 1903)• British Philosopher and Scientist– First Sociology textbook in 1876– Introduced “Social Evolution” (“SocialDarwinism”)Good Adapters Bad Adapters
  • Karl Marx (1818 – 1883)• German Philosopher, Economist & Activist• What determines poverty and other socialpatterns?– ECONOMIC DETERMINISM– Based on two dimensions of society• Infrastructure/Substructure• Superstructure
  • Karl Marx: Economic DeterminismSuperstructureInfrastructure/SubstructureValuesFamilyPoliticsReligionMedicineEtc…ECONOMIC MODEEverything up here depends onwhatever isdown here 
  • Karl Marx: Communism• COMMUNISM– Complete equality, no poverty– Collective ownership of the means ofproduction– Most advanced/sophisticated economicsystem– End of all further economic transition
  • Karl Marx: Social Evolution• DIALECTICAL PROCESS (adapted from Georg Hegel)– Hegel: Social change is the product ofconflicts among opposing views.– Marx: Communism will be the product ofconflicts among opposing capitalistclasses.Thesis  Antithesis  SynthesisThesis  Antithesis  SynthesisThesis  Antithesis  Synthesis…
  • Max Weber (1864 – 1920)• German Economist, Philosopher & Historian• What determines poverty and other social patterns?– IDEOLOGICAL DETERMINISM– E.g., “The Spirit of ModernCapitalism”–Based on Calvinism: thrift,investment, hard work, etc…
  • Max Weber: Ideological DeterminismSuperstructureInfrastructure/SubstructureValuesFamilyPoliticsMedicineEconomyEtc…IDEOLOGIESEverything up here depends onwhatever isDOWN HERE 
  • Max Weber: Social Evolution• Rationalization of Society– Transition from traditional to rational– Pre-industrial societies: traditional– Modern society: Rational
  • Emile Durkheim (1858 – 1917)• French Sociologist• What holds society together?• Patterns of social solidarity– Mechanical Solidarity: strongsharing of beliefs, values, customs,traditions, with a pressure to conform– Organic Solidarity: Interdependence based ona complex division of labor
  • William Edward Burghardt DuBois(1868 – 1963)• First African American toreceive Ph.D. from Harvard• Heard Weber speak inBerlin• Founded NAACP• Started 2nd Sociologyprogram in U.S. at AtlantaUniversity in 1897• Studied race relations
  • Harriet Martineau (1802 – 1876)• First female sociologist• Born to prominentfamily in England• Never married• Advocate for VotingRights, HigherEducation for Women,Gender Equality
  • Jane Addams (1860 – 1935)• Founder of Hull Housein Chicago• Social Reform• Research platform forsociologists atUniversity of Chicago
  • Hull House
  • ForgottenSociologists
  • Grand TheoryTheory: a statement of logical ideas, facts, orassumptions that explains a situationGRAND Sociological Theories1. Structural Functional2. Social Conflict Symbolic3. Interactionism
  • Structural Functionalism• Talcott Parsons• Assumption: Society is a system ofinterdependent parts working together tomaintain stability• Underpinning assumptions:– Stability– Harmony– Slow Change
  • Structural Functionalism• Functional Analysis developed by Robert MertonFunctions DysfunctionsManifest ManifestLatent Latent
  • Conflict Theory• Ralph Dahrendorf and Lewis Coser• Assumption: Change and order are due todialectical forces• Underpinning Assumptions:– Social structures createinequality– Inequality causes activism– Conflicts arise– Change andreorganization occur
  • Feminism and Gender-Conflict• Feminist Theory: the study of society thatfocuses on inequality and conflict betweenwomen and men• Linked to feminism: support for socialequality for men and women
  • Race-Conflict• The study of society that focuses oninequality and conflict between people ofdifferent racial and ethnic categories– Whites have social advantage over non-whites• Higher incomes, more schooling, greater jobopportunities, better health, longer lifeexpectancies
  • Symbolic Interactionism• George Mead, W.I. Thomas, Charles Cooley• Assumption: Human behaviors and socialexpectations are subjectively determinedthrough symbolic interactions…
  • Symbolic Interactionism• Underpinning Assumptions:– Human interactions are based on symbols– We share meaning for symbols– Shared meaning determines social reality• W.I. Thomas: “The Definition of theSituation”– Social reality determines social expectationand behavior
  • Doing Sociological Research1. Select a topic2. Define theproblem3. Review theliterature4. Formulate ahypothesis5. Choose aresearch method6. Collect thedata7. Analyze results8. Share theresults
  • Research• Surveys– Population– Sample– RandomSample– StratifiedRandomSample
  • Research• Participant Observation– Fieldwork• Case Studies• Secondary Analysis• Experiments– Cause and effect– Independent Variable– Dependent Variable
  • Research Ethics• Stanford Prison Experiment• Milgram Experiment• Humphreys’ Tea Room Trade