6610collins3a

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  • Collaboration amongst learners is paramount in the creation of an ‘effective learning environment’. (Kennedy & Duffy, 2004)A sense of “community,” is also necessary to implementing online collaborative learning. (Tu & Corry, 2003)The online environment has great potential for fostering collaborative learning among distance learners who are separated in time and space. (Fung, 2004)Wikis enable students to collaboratively generate, mix, edit and synthesise subject specific knowledge within a shared and openly accessible digital space. (Wheeler, Yeomans, & Wheeler, 2008) 
  • This presentation presents a meta-analysis of fifteen studies on the theme of collaborative online learning.Thisis an important topic because as the advocates of collaborative online learning insist that learners in collaborative online learning environments achieve higher levels of understanding and retain information better than learners who work alone.This presentation will review the methods of the meta-analysis How the studies were synthesized and analysedA summary of journals selected The findings as a result of the meta-analysis of the studiesThe implications and limitations of the research presentedExamining the culminating evidence based on the findings
  • Inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis was selected based upon the evidence examined from fifteen studies on the theme of collaborative online learning .Criteria for this presentationincludes studies that focused on the subject and topic of collaborative online learning. Studies had to include examples of effective use of collaborative online learning and ways students and instructors could best utilize collaborative online learning. Inclusionary keywordsinclude collaborative online learning, discussion forum, online learning environments, learning community, teamwork, student learning, online collaboration, interaction, communication, collaborative learning, project-based collaborative learning, and group work.
  • Also included in the inclusion criteria are examples of critical thinking, knowledge construction, and active learning. Key concepts of collaborative online learning also included: student-generated content, online discussion and asynchronous discussion – These are found using social networking sites like wikis and blogsSocial networking is the future of collaborative online learning
  • The information presented in these tables is a synopsis of the fifteen journals presented in this meta analysisThe journals were selected, based in the year the journal was published, name of the journal, whether the journal is a free source or subscription service journal, Also journals were selected based on the keyword criteria from the initial search and finally keywords that were not included butare relevant to the theme of collaborative online learning.
  • seven of the fifteen studies came from journals published in 2009. In each of the years 2008, 2006 and 2004, there were two studies each year, for a total of 6 studies. Finally, in the years of 2001 and 2003 there was one study in each year. Additionally, eight of the fifteen studies came from open source journals along with the remaining seven of the fifteen studies came from subscription service journals.
  • The fifteen studies based on this theme were selected based on their relevance to the theme as well as overlapping concepts, how current the information is, keywords informationThe research presented from for these studies is amalgamated in these tables so that it is used in a meaningful way
  • The purpose of this meta-analysis examined the collaborative process essential to online learning, looking at the three components of online learning: communication, cooperation, and collaboration. These studies, listed in the preceding tables looked at how and why students utilize online discussion forums as well as the theories and practices for an interactive collaborative learning community in an online environment. This meta-analysis also explored the approaches and effectiveness of social networking sites to enhance traditional online learning situations, and how these types of online learning environments promote and support collaborative learning through the use of student created content.
  • The evidence gathered from these studies is consistent with theoretical framework based on Constructivist Theory. Social constructivism is where learners build upon their prior knowledge by interacting with their peers in the social environment. In such an environment, learners use their existing knowledge and apply what they know to solve real-world problems, and where learners are free to explore and create. Though most studies in this meta-analysisutilized constructivist theories, Kennedy and Duffy, Li, Dong, and Huang , Pozzi, and Tilchin used a communication model as a foundation for their research.
  • There were many overlapping methods of data collection. Often when a researcher conducted a survey or used a questionnaire they would do a follow up interview either with a focus group or a sample of the group studied. Tilchin based his information on a literature review there was no empirical data collectedWhile Tu and Corry’s information provided details as to how to develop strategies to promote effective collaborative online learning.Li, Dong, and Huang, Luckin et al,Wheeler, Yeomans, and Wheeler, and Zach and Agosto gathered data based on quantity and quality of the postings and threads of discussion boards and the participation when using wikis and blogs.
  • The studies conducted by Kennedy and Duffy, Lee, Magjuka, Liu, and Bonk, Levinsen, Tu and Corry, Philip and Nicholls, Tilchin, Wheeler, Yeomans, and Wheeler, and Zach and Agosto were based on qualitative research methods. Five of the fifteen studies, Frydenberg, Koh and Hill, Luckin, et al., Pozzi, and Wang, et al. used the mixed method of qualitative and quantitative research methods. And finally the remaining two studies, Fung and Li, Dong, and Huang were quantitative studies. Data collected was based on perceptions of the authors, transcripts from online postings, observations and survey results. Data was also collected using a communication model.Data based on quantitative research was complied in tables and graph. all studies were based on the perceptions of the authors based on either their research or their models.
  • Levinsen and Li, Dong, and Huang found a need for a more effective way for learners to collaborate online;meaningnot reading every posting to be engaged in the learning environment. Students preferred to spend less time browsing and searching, and more time utilizing valuable information for more effective collaboration and reflection. Collaborative learning was found to improve students’ learning by vastly improving organization of class and personal resources. If students feel confused or stressed by their learning situation they are less likely to participate in the collaborative learning experience and focus on their own learning and become less explorative and reflective. An overall finding was that the design of an online learning environment should meet the needs of the participants;
  • The participants in collaborative online learning must be aware of the expectations, while instructors should work to establish a sense of community with the members of the groupA proactive teacher is essential for the success of collaborative online learning; the development of a supportive community is a means of motivation and learning support for participants in online learning environments . sufficient training for instructors is needed to teach and learn using the technology as well as to help facilitate satisfactory synchronous and asynchronous discussion
  • Through the development of their communication models and theories Frydenberg Lee, Magjuka, Liu, and Bonk, Li, Dong, and Huang, Philip and Nicholls, Tu and Corry, and Wang, et al. concluded collaborate online learning can promote higher level thinking skills and promote cooperative learning skills. that if students were to become critical thinkers and independent worker using collaborative online software, this would prepare them for work in their future career choices, which will have a positive impact on how students collaborate as working professionals.
  • the success of collaborative online learning is based on effective and ongoing meaningful contributions by all participants. However, there needs to be a means for accessing the postings in a concise method. Participants become disinterested when they are forced to wade through countless posting that are irrelevant and one-sided. However there was little evidence of how this method of conciseness could be achievedthere was alsolittle evidence to support Wheeler, Yeomans, and Wheeler, and Tu and Corry’s claim that the instructor of online environments need to be adequately trained in order to meet the needs of all learners. Although it was evident that for the success of online learning environments the instructors must be very clear and concise of their expectations and should also monitor contributions to ensure that there is a balance discussion by all participants. Instructors must demonstrate organizational skills, as well as management and planning skills.
  • Lee, Magjuka, Liu, and Bonk, Levinsen, and Kennedy and Duffy examined how the use of technology encouraged and supported collaborative online learning, and how constructivist theory is directly linked to collaborative online learning. Wang, et al. Found a significant increase in the participants’ self-confidence and problem solving skills when participating in in collaborating online learning. Wikis when used as a means of collaborative online communication and learning added value to learning experienceand increased the potential of learners to succeed as futureworkers and technology professionals. A strong conclusion of this meta analysis is that there needs to be continuing research in the field on collaborative online learning.
  • A technology rich collaborative learning environment stimulates learning by allowing students to be active participants in their learning. Participants of online learning environments need guidance, support, and assistance from teachers and instructors and classmates to ensure that all members of an online work group contribute significant material as well as thoughts and opinions. There needs to be structure and accountability; for students to be engaged in their own learning process. Wang, et al. (2001) suggested participants improved communication skills, developed strong team work and presentation skills as a result of their participation in collaborative online learning communalities. In collaborative online learning organization, management and planning are essential.
  • Throughout all studies compiled in this meta-analysis, there was the strong connection between collaborative learning and social constructivist theory; the importance of students being a part of their own learning process and having responsibility in their own learning process is necessary for collaborative online learning. Online learning environments have the potential to thrive because of the constructivist nature
  • while collaboration and knowledge sharing is not always easy, it is far more achievable within online learning environments where students are able to share and learn from one another, while having a control of their learning environment. Collaborative online learning maximizes the opportunity for sharing knowledge, ideas and materials. While learnerswillingly support one another in their learning process. Koh and Hill (2009) believe that participants of online learning environments need guidance, support, and assistance to ensure all members of an online work group contribute significant material as well as thoughts and opinions.
  • Participants had improved communication skills and developed stronger team work and presentation skills as a result of their participation in online learning environments. There is a need for structure within online learning environments because allowing ‘free response’ can result low quality postings or no posting at all . lack of structure can also obstruct positive cooperation and communication. Wang, et al. concluded that the participation by student developed a greater understanding of collaborative online learning and how to use these tools in problem solving and communicating.
  • A technology rich collaborative learning environment stimulates knowledge acquisition by allowing students to be active participants in their learning process through group projects. Levinsen, Zach and Agosto and Tilchin confirmed the successful link between social constructivism and collaborative online learning.Traditionally online learning forums have attracted learners because it allowed the participants to discuss concerns freely and with flexibility and that online learning environments have the potential to thrive because of the constructivist nature.
  • The implications and limitations of this meta-analysis is very detailed, yet because all the concepts and topics are interconnected, they could not be separated.A prevailing theme through all studies examined in this meta-analysis was how the use of technology encouraged and supported collaborative online learning, which was based on constructivism. Collaborative online learning maximizes the opportunity for sharing knowledge, ideas and materials. The success of collaborative online learning is based on effective and ongoing meaningful contributions by all participants. However, there also needs to be a means for accessing online posting in a concise method. Participants become disinterested when they are forced to wade through countless posting that are irrelevant and one-sided, yet there was little evidence of how this method of conciseness could be achieved.. Instructors must demonstrate organizational skills, as well as management and planning skills. And both students and instructors need to be cognizant that traditional classroom practices do not always work in online learning environments.As a result of the evidence and data examined in this meta-analysis, it was concluded that collaborative online learning is an effective way to meet the needs of diverse learners by offering them the opportunity to work in an environment that allows them to work with their peers to share ideas and materials while, learning from one another. There is room for growth, as the traditional message board forum still has an important place in the structure of an online environment, but learners are embracing the use of wikis, blogs and other social networking tools to facilitate their learning in a more interactive manner; which is undoubtedly the future of collaborative online learning. For that reason, an in-depth examination of the social networking sites with relation to collaborative online learning would have been a more current and relevant theme to analysze.
  • Collaborative online learning involves two or more learners working together for a mutual learning goal, in an interactive workspace with one or more electronic tool or computer used to support collaboration activities.  For a collaborative online learning environment to be positive and successful, members must be willing to support one another in their learning process.
  • There needs to be interaction among participants within their own postings and in response to the postings of other group members.  participants improved communication skills and developed strong team work and presentation skills as a result of their participation in collaborative online learning environments.
  • Most online learners will have success when:  they are able to establish a relationship with their group membersreceive prompt feedback from their instructor and group membersAre able to work in a timely mannerinstructors understand to the benefits of online collaboration.
  • A review of the research concluded that the importance of students being a part of their own learning process and having responsibility in their own learning process as a necessity for collaborative online learning.
  • Based on the interpretation of the evidence from all studies examined in this meta-analysis, there is a connection between collaborative learning and social constructivist theoryOnline learning environments have the potential to thrive because of the constructivist natureTechnology rich collaborative learning environment stimulates learning by allowing students to be active participants in their learning.
  • There needs to be structure and accountability:for students to be engaged in their own learning process and in collaborative online learning organizationmanagement and planning are essential
  • Undoubtedly a consistent conclusion of the studies examined for this analysis stated the need for continued research.
  • 6610collins3a

    1. 1. A Meta-Analysis ofCollaborative Online Learning<br />Carrie Collins<br />In partial fulfillment of the requirements of Education 6610<br /> <br />Faculty of Education<br />Memorial University of Newfoundland<br />April 1, 2010<br />
    2. 2. Introduction<br />This presentation presents a meta-analysis of fifteen papers on the theme of collaborative online learning:<br /><ul><li>An overview of the methods of the meta-analysis
    3. 3. How the studies were synthesized and analysed
    4. 4. A summary of journals selected
    5. 5. The findings as a result of the meta-analysis of the studies
    6. 6. The implications and limitations of the research presented
    7. 7. Examining the culminating evidence based on the findings</li></li></ul><li>Introduction<br /><ul><li>Young people participate in collaborative online learning activities not only as individuals, but collaboratively and cooperatively as interest or purpose-driven communities of practice” (Luckin,et al., 2009).
    8. 8. Learners need to be able “to communicate at large to ask questions, articulate their thoughts, explain and justify their opinions, share ideas and resources, with collaborative contribution to the knowledge building within online discussion forum” (Li, Dong, and Huang 2009, p. 88). </li></li></ul><li>
    9. 9.
    10. 10. Methods<br /><ul><li>The evidence and information gathered in this meta-analysis was based on a summary of fifteen research studies encompassing the theme of Collaborative Online Learning
    11. 11. The fifteen studies based on this theme were selected on their relevance to the theme as well as overlapping concepts, keywords and information
    12. 12. The journals selected were based on the relevance to the theme, and also on how current the information
    13. 13. The research presented from these studies is based on an amalgamation of the information in a meaningful way </li></li></ul><li>Methods<br />
    14. 14. Methods (continued)<br />
    15. 15. Methods (continued)<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17.
    18. 18.
    19. 19.
    20. 20.
    21. 21.
    22. 22.
    23. 23.
    24. 24.
    25. 25.
    26. 26.
    27. 27.
    28. 28.
    29. 29.
    30. 30.
    31. 31. Conclusions<br /><ul><li>Collaborative online learning involves two or more learners working together for a mutual learning goal, in an interactive workspace with one or more electronic tool or computer used to support collaboration activities. </li></ul> <br /><ul><li>For a collaborative online learning environment to be positive and successful, members must be willing to support one another in their learning process. </li></ul> <br />
    32. 32. Conclusions<br /><ul><li>There needs to be interaction among participants within their postings and responses to postings. </li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Participants improved communication skills and developed strong team work and presentation skills as a result of their participation in collaborative online learning environments . Wang, et al. (2001) </li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br />Most online learners will have success when: <br /> <br /><ul><li>they are able to establish a relationship with their group members
    33. 33. receive prompt feedback from their instructor and group members
    34. 34. Are able to work in a timely manner
    35. 35. instructors understand to the benefits of online collaboration.</li></ul> <br />
    36. 36. Conclusion<br />A review of the research concluded that the importance of students being a part of their own learning process and having responsibility in their own learning process as a necessity for collaborative online learning. <br />
    37. 37. Conclusions<br />Based on the interpretation of the evidence from all studies examined in this meta-analysis, there is a connection between collaborative learning and social constructivist theory<br />Online learning environments have the potential to thrive because of the constructivist nature<br />Technology rich collaborative learning environment stimulates learning by allowing students to be active participants in their learning.<br />
    38. 38. Conclusions<br />There needs to be structure and accountability:<br /><ul><li>for students to be engaged in their own learning process and in collaborative online learning organization
    39. 39. management and planning are essential</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br />Undoubtedly a consistent conclusion of the studies examined for this analysis stated the need for continued research.<br />
    40. 40. References<br />Frydenberg, M. (2008). Wikis as a tool for collaborative course management. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching , 4 (2), 169 – 181.<br />Fung, Y. Y. (2004). Collaborative online learning: interaction patterns and limiting factors. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 19 (2), 135 — 149.<br />Kennedy, D., & Duffy, T. (2004). Collaboration—a key principle in distance education. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 19 (2), 203 — 211.<br />Koh, M. H., & Hill, J.R. (2009). Student perceptions of group work in an online course:Benefits and challenges. Journal of Distance Education / Revue de l'Éducation à Distance, 23 (2), 69-92.<br />Lee, S.-h., Magjuka, R., Liu, X., & Bonk, C. J. (2006). Interactive technologies for effective collaborative learning. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 3 (6), 17 - 32.<br />Levinsen, K. T. (2006). Collaborative On-line teaching: The inevitable path to deep learning and knowledge sharing. Electronic Journal of e-Learning , 4 (1), 41-48.<br />Li, Y., Dong, M., & Huang, R. (2009). Toward a semantic forum for active collaborative learning. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 71–86.<br />Luckin, R., Clark, W., Graber, R., Logan, K., Mee, A., & Oliver, M. (2009). Do Web 2.0 tools really open the door to learning? Practices, perceptions and profiles of 11-16-year-old students. Learning, Media and Technology, 34 (2), 87 -104.<br />Philip, R., & Nicholls, J. (2009). Group blogs: Documenting collaborative drama processes. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25 (5), 683-699.<br />Pozzi, F. (2009, December 14 ). Using jigsaw and case study for supporting online collaborative learning. Computers & Education, 1-9.<br />Tilchin, O. (2009). Stimulating collaborative learning by doing study projects. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 6 (9), 65-75.<br />Tu, C.-H., & Corry, M. (2003). Building active online interaction via a collaborative learning community . Computers in the Schools, 20 (3), 51-59.<br />Wang, M., Poole, M., Harris, B., & Wangemann, P. (2001). Promoting Online Collaborative Learning Experiences for Teenagers. Educational Media International, 38 (4), 203- 215.<br />Wheeler, S., Yeomans, P., & Wheeler, D. (2008). The good, the bad and the wiki: Evaluating student-generated content for collaborative learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39 (6), 987-995<br />Zach, L., & Agosto, D. E (2009). Using the online learning environment to develop real-life collaboration and knowledge-sharing skills: A theoretical discussion and framework for online course design. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5 (4), 590-599.<br />

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