LIFE IN THE ROARING 2OS. Fashion 11. Automobile/Its Social Impacts. Beauty 12. Telephones/ Urbanization,. Women: Married vs. Single 13. Jazz & Dance. Women in the Workforce 14. Fun & Recreation, Movies, Star. Women in Education 15. Basketball. Women in Politics 16. Travel/Aviation
Fashion entering the 1920s• The 1920s is the decade where fashion hit a turning point and entered the modern era• Men and women broke out of the old sophiesticated ways of dressing with floor length dresses and fancy suits• They began to wear more comfortable and relaxed clothing
Change of Womens fashion• Womens fashion changed with their changing roles in society• Women started to wear shorter skirt with pleats or slits and cut their hair in to short bobs to fit under their tight fitting cloche hats• Undergarmets also began to transform, the corset was discarded and replaced with a camisole and bloomers• Some women in society of a certain age did not agree with the change in fashion and continued to wear conservative dresses
Change of Mens Fasion• Men started to wear short suit jackets, and short trousers so their socks showed• By 1925 wide trousers called “Oxford Bags” came into style• Men wore hats depending on their class, upper class- top hats, lover or middle class- fedora or trilby hat
Impact of Fashion onCanadian society in the 1920s• Fashion had a huge impact of Canadian society• Men and womens fashion started to change with the changing of society after WW1• After the war society was experiencing many changes women got the right to vote, new modern technologies were being used and as a result fashion started to become more modern too
Beauty in the 20’s MakeupBoldmakeupwas thestaple.Dark lips,darkeyes.
A NEW ERA BROUGHT NEW OPPORTUNITIES (SORT OF) Post War most women did not keep there jobs in factories andhad to go back to their job as women in the home…ALTHOUGHWomen were able to work as nurse and teachers These jobs paid poorly Allowed these jobs because they seemed as the more feminine jobs therefore it seemed only natural a women would have them More and more women were going to universities and for the first time the amount of women working as domestics dropped to below 20% Most women did not become lawyers, doctors, professors or engineers Women who did work in business and industry held jobs as secretaries, telephone operators, or sales clerks
UPSIDE & DOWNSIDE UPSIDE DOWNSIDE Single women were Men were paid a lot now able to make a more then women and better living for some workplaces werethemselves and remain not equipped formore independent from women to work there.men and helped lead to Making it hard for a women having their women to make a ver y own voice good living of f of their job or jobs
THIS AFFECTED…WOMEN:They were now able to work more freely, frequently, and in better jobs then before the war. There were new “female” jobs such as librar y work, social work, and physiotherapy.MEN:They had to get used to women in the workplace being a more common thing where as before it was mainly a male dominated section of life in Canada.
IMPACT ON CANADIAN SOCIETY Women becoming more regular in the Canadian workforce had a huge impact on Canadian society.Because it helped create the domino ef fect of women working more and more through out the countr y, leading up to what it is today. It was a small step in the right direction creating a huge impact on Canadians lives for many years to come.
EducationBefore :• women were not excepting for collegeeducation• women were seen as homemakers and dontneed much educationAfter :• Education opportunities were increasing forwomen• winning the right to attend university orcollege
Changed womens lives•higher education means women gain morerights in society.• womens role in society is becoming moreand more important.women had accessImpacts on soceity• growing respectability of post-secondaryeducation and employment for women• more and more people are more educated.
WorkBefore :• -Women were mainly seen ashomemakers.•-If women worked they worked until theywere married.• -They held traditional jobsNew :• More and more woman were beingemployed, as stenographers in businessoffices and as factory workers
Changes for women :• lives changed• Society now accepted that women could beindependent and make choices forthemselves• Attained the political equalityBoth women and men had access• men can not seek women as housekeepersonly anymore• women gained more rightsImpacts on Canadian Society• women started to play an important part inCanadian Society
The first federal election in which women were able to vote and run as candidates was1921. In that election, four women ran for office and Agnes Campbell MacPhail (1890-1954) made history as the first woman elected to the Canadian House of Commons.July 1, 1920 - The Dominion Elections Act, uniform franchise is established and the rightfor women to be elected to parliament is made permanent.1921 - Mary Ellen Smith (1863-1933) is appointed to the provincial legislative Cabinetin British Columbia. The first woman Cabinet minister in the British Empire.1921 - The first ladies 5 pin bowling league is stated in TorontoMarch 8, 1923 - Winnifred Blair, Miss Canada, is the first woman to sit on the floor’ of aCanadian parliament when she attends the opening of the New Brunswick Legislature,sitting just off to the side of the Throne’.The Famous Five or The Valiant Five were five Canadian women who askedthe Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, “Does the word ‘Persons’ inSection 24 of the British North America Act, 1867, include female persons?”
March 14, 1928 - The "Famous Five", Emily Murphy, Nellie McClung, IreneParlby, Henrietta MuirEdwards and Louise McKinney, ask the Supreme Courtof Canada if the word "person" in Section 24 of the British North America Actincluded persons that were female.April 24, 1928 - The Supreme Court of Canada unanimously decides in thefamous "Persons Case" that women were not "persons" who could hold publicoffice as Canadian senators.October 18, 1929 - The British Privy Council reverses the decision of theSupreme Court of Canada in the "Persons Case" and Canadian women become"Persons" with all rights accorded to the definition of persons including theright to sit in the Senate of Canada.1929 - Agnes Macphail (1890-1954) is sent to Geneva, Switzerland asCanadas first woman delegate to the League of Nations.1930: Cairine Wilson was the first woman to be named to a senate seat .
• What was new about it (your topic)? How was it different than what came before?• How did it change peoples lives? upsides? downsides? (did some people not like it?)• Who had access/who did not? (i.e. who did it affect/who not?)• What was impact on Canadian society? explain and assess (small impact? moderate? huge impact??)• Women were involved in politics. Before, they were not allowed to. Woman now were “persons” in the eyes of the law.• Women’s lives became better because they achieved what they were asking for: right to be involved in politics. Many men didn‘t agree because they said no woman was a "person”. They said “person” was only referred to men.• Over the years, woman asked the Prime Minister to appoint women into the senate. The BNA act stated that qualified persons could receive appointment.• This was a huge impact on the Canadian society because finally woman had a new role and this was the beginning of a new era. Now, women are a lot more involved in politics, and all thanks to those strong women who claimed for their rights. Men and women are the same and have the same rights!
http://famouscanadianwomen.com/timeline/timeline1920-1929.htm FAMOUSCANADIAN WOMENhttp://www.sfu.ca/~aheard/elections/women.html ELECTIONShttp://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=vot&dir=bkg&document=ec90785&lang=eELECTIONS CANADAhttp://historyclass.tripod.com/id12.html HISTORY CLASS
Birth of consumerism andadvertising in 1920s Social Studies 11 Sebastian Moll
Reasons: Consumerism and advertising Roots can be found in the industrial expansion of the 1880s 1. mass production 2. the lowering of prices 3. construction of the transcontinental railroads national market 4. new inventions (radio, automobil) Post-World War I American society became increasingly standardized as automobiles, electric appliances and mass entertainment became available to ordinary Americans
Consumerism Consumerism arised in post WW1 America American industry needed new market to sustain the productions of goods. Production had expanded through the conflagration Advertising industry made these markets available, creating and maintaining the need for a variety of modern products and services But encouraged to waste and triggered an economic downslope movement
Advertising in the 1920s Advertising changed from simply announcing to persuade public they needed and deserved to own the product Improving print techniques allowed publishers to drop prices readership soared to After the war, general circulation magazines pickedHenry Luce up on the culture of consumerismbegan publishing“Tim e ” in 1923 Advertisers hired movie stars and sports figures to persuade
What type of electricity?- 97% of all Canadian electricity in 1920’s was hydro powered.- Most of this power in 1921 was traded between Canada and the U.S.- In that same year Ontario opened the largest power plant in the world.- Edmonton Power installed one of the worlds first 10 MW turbo-generator, running at 3,600 rpm.
Electrical advancements in 1920’s - Cooking appliances boomed in the 20’s and 30’s because they were electrical powered and didn’t have smoke to get rid of. - One of the best inventions from electricity was the refrigerator because food could now last longer than a couple days. - All of this technology was diminished when the depression hit north America.
Household Appliances in the 1920s By: Amy Jones
∗ Many new inventions were built in the 20s and changed the modern world as they knew it∗ These new appliances made women very happy in these times ∗ Lots of propaganda was used and electricity was nicknamed “the housewife’s little helper” ∗ Pollution before electricity came out
Washing Machines:Made washing much easier and efficientVacuums:Greatly reduced the amount of time spent cleaning rugsand carpets.Electrical Stoves and Hotplates:Easier to cook and serve meals. Different stoves andhotplates were invented.
The invention of the assembly line in 1913 by Henry Ford meant that cars could be mass produced inexpensively and quickly . In 1920s, Cars were finally affordable for the public, the Ford model T was the benchmark in the automotive industry because of its mass production and price. The car’s price tag was less than three hundred dollars and came in only one color, black.
In 1920 Canada had only 1600 km of top rated highways a figure that increased tenfold by the end of the decade. the Canadian Shield and the rocky mountains were physical barriers that delayed the construction of the Trans- Canada highway. as a result most of the better roads ran south to the united states. these closer north-south connections led British Columbia to change from driving on the left-hand side of the road (the British system) to the right-hand side (the U.S system) in 1927.
» Can go anywhere in town» Drive in movies, drive thru’s were created.» Date doesn’t need to end on the porch, can end in the backseat
» Life seen as an “open road”» People are getting lazy.» Live out of town» LOTS of pollution!» Lots of new jobs! » Fast food, gas stations, auto repair shops etc.
» Before seatbelts were mandatory, 4283 people died annually!» The car is one-eighth of the populations greenhouse gas emissions» Bridget Driscoll was the first person to be killed by getting hit by a car
April 6 1889::The National ElectricTramway and Lighting Company Limited was established in Victoria. December 5 1938 BC Electrics franchise to provide Victoria transportation was set to expire.
City of Toronto places the largest streetcar order in history!Bombardier is well-known worldwide as a manufacturer of aircraft,snowmobiles, and personal watercraft. Canadas largest city plans to replace its aging streetcar fleet with these next generation, low-floor vehicles. The new streetcars will provide improved reliability and lower operatingcosts for the TTC.
Regina’s first streetcar run took place on July 28, 1911. Take the streetcar for 5 cents, Monday to Saturday. The price went up to 10 cents by 1920,but during the depression years the price returned to 5 cents to encourage usage. The streetcars were very noisy, but attempts to replace the streetcars with diesel buses failed during the war years because rubber and gas were rationed.
What was new about telephones? How was it different than what came before?• Before the telephone was a telegraph. It was a device that used smoke signals to transmit messages• With the telephone you could now use your voice to communicate to other people without the use of signals
How did it change peoples lives?• People could now contact each other faster than ever before• Telephone lines were shared by many neighbors so there could be eavesdroppers (Became a big source of entertainment)
Who had access/who did not?• The first dial telephone appeared in Toronto in 1924• The handset with a mouthpiece and earphone first came into use in 1927• When the telephone was first introduced it could only be afforded by the rich• By the 1920’s the telephone had become a standard household appliance
What was impact on Canadian society?• Now Canadians could simply use their phone and ask the operator to speak to whoever they wanted as long as they had a telephone in their area• It had a large impact on society, and made business more efficient• It led to instant communications around the world and even led to the Internet
UrbanizationThe act or fact of urbanizing, or taking on the characteristics of a city By Robyn Willmer
Jazz Music in the 1920’s By Brett Smith-Daniels
A New IdeaThe 1920’s sparked a revolution in theway music was played, in New Orleans,black musicians started to use ‘impropermusical technique’, by improvising, andabandoned almost all of the rules ofclassical music, to create Jazz.Unlike classical music Jazz was loud, fast,and exciting, and many Jazz musiciansdidn’t read music, or understandtraditional musical theory.The previous generation didn’t appreciatethe fact that Jazz pushed the boundaries!Jazz Orchestra’s were assembled to suitthe likes of composers, they would rangefrom as little as 3, to as many as 20 or 30musicians!
Pictured below:Eddie Lang – A 1920’s Jazz guitarist Changing times The Idea that only a few musicians could make a big sound, was something that originally spawned from the early blues music of the Mississippi Delta region! When adapted to the musical stylings of the new Jazz sound, the idea of smaller musical groups became popular because of the fact that it was easier to fill dance halls, and earn money from performing, when there were less people!
Effect on CultureThe Jazz era was one of the first examples of youthcounter-culture, and rebellion! Before the 1920’s,teenagers did everything by the law, and followedtheir parents advice on everything. The 1920’s sawthe first instances of recreational drugs, and musicinfluencing the way things were done. Women cuttheir hair short and began openly smoking anddrinking, and listening to Jazz.Many Jazz musicians in Harlem used Heroin,Cocaine, Marijuana, and drank excessive amounts ofalcohol before performing. When paired with thesuggestive dancing seen in a typical Jazz venue, thenegative connotations created a subculture thatparents, and churches demonized, claiming it wasthe music of Satan!
Dance in the 1920’sBy Jessica Duncan and Robyn Willmer
Fun! People did many things for fun in the 20’s. Some of these things include:-Listening to the radio-Visiting with friends-Dancing-Drinking-Playing cards-Reading-Listening to live music-Going to the beach-Watching silent films/movies
Fun Continued-Going for drives-Doing art-Watching sporting events-Playing musical instruments-Spending time with families-Throwing parties-Crossword Puzzles-Board Games
Recreation! Recreation was becoming more popular in the 1920’s. Some recreational activities people enjoyed were:-Walking-Cycling-Dancing-Sports
• The growth of Canadian nationalism around the First World War promoted Canadian production and other aspects of the industry.• At the beginning of the decade, silent films used to exaggerate actions and they were colorless. It had a low price. And it was for all social classes.• In 1922 The Canadian Motion Picture Distributors Association (CMPDA) was formed. Although Canadian in name, the association consisted of the Canadian offices of the American distribution majors and was in essence a branch of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association of America. For the purposes of calculating domestic gross revenue, American distributors have always included Canada in their bottom line. In 1923, American-born N.L. Nathanson, owner of the Toronto-based Famous Players Canadian Corporation (FPCC), a company in turn owned by Adolf Zukors Paramount Pictures, bought all 53 of the Canadian-owned Allen Bros. theatres, making FPCC the largest owner in Canada. Then through his holding company, Zukor acquired direct control of FPCC.
• The most successful producer was Ernest SHIPMAN, who had already established his reputation as a promoter in the US when he returned to Canada in 1919 with his author/actress wife, Nell SHIPMAN, to produce Back to Gods Country in Calgary.• During the next 3 years Shipman established companies in several Canadian cities and made 6 more features based on Canadian novels and filmed not in studios, as was then common, but on location. Though these films - Gods Crucible (1920), Cameron of the Royal Mounted (1921), The Man from Glengarry (1922) and The Rapids (1922) - were not as profitable as his first, they were not failures.• In 1927, Warner released The Jazz Singer, the first sound feature to include limited talking sequences.
• 1913 Evangeline• 1919 Back to Gods Country• 1920 The Great Shadow• 1924 Big Timber Blue Water
History of basketball in Canada Basket ball was invented by a Canadian P.E teacher in Springfield Massachusetts in 1891
Basketball in Canada• Even though it took place in the United States, at least ten of the players who participated in the first-ever game were university students from Quebec.• The National Basketball Association also has origins in Canada.• The NBAs first game was played in Toronto over fifty years ago.• Canada has participated in Olympic Games since 1936 and in the World Championships since 1954.
Canadian basketball teams in the 20’s• Edmonton Commercial Graduates (Grads), a group of Canadian women who dominated the sport in the 1920s, 30s and 40s. the Grads played 522 games at home and abroad, against both womens and mens teams. The Grads accomplished a record-breaking winning streak of 147 games and throughout their basketball tenure won a remarkable 502 times.• Toronto Huskies played New York Knickerbockers and lost 66-68• The Toronto Raptors• Vancouver Grizzlies• The Toronto Raptors and Vancouver Grizzlies joined the NBA. Becoming the first non-U.S. cities to join the league since the Toronto Huskies were one-year members of the BAA.
AviationOn the first World War, aviation suffered severalchanges and advances due to the fact that they werevery important on the fight; On the twenties, thistechnology was used as a transportation method, first formail but then for passengers. It was in this decade thatthe world saw aviation take it first steps through thecommercial and international use, and also long distanceflights such as the flight across the Atlantic that wasperformed in 1919 by Captain John Alcock andLieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown, departing fromnewfoundland.
Important eventsJune 1919: Fist cross-Atlantic flight departing from newfoundland.August 1919: First flight over the RockiesOctober 1920: First flight across CanadaApril 1924: Royal Canadian Air force was born1926: Western Canada Airways established in WinnipegJune 1928: First woman, who was Canadian, flew across the Atlantic, from Harbour Grace to Wales.
Changes in people’s livesThe biggest change aviation brought to the Canadian society was the way it revolutionized mailing and people transportation; the mail could now go through the air, which was faster, and it was on this decade that the first airport with a waiting room and structure to receive passengers was established, making it possible to people to travel faster, which made intercontinental daily travels possible.
Images Picture below: The Boeing B-2 Mail Plane at Vancouver in thRazorback” model being shown by The Canadian Aviation Heritage Centre
• From 1920 the U.S.A. began a prohibition of alcohol and lasted until 1933.
• Smuggling alcohol become part of everyday life. Salmon Trawlers from British Columbia, speed boats from Ontario both transported booze as fast as they could.
• Rum-running was extremely profitable, Canadians looked on it with tolerance and admiration for the way they flouted the U.S. authorities.
• One of the more famous bootleggers was Rocco Perri. He was the leading figure of organized crime in Southern Ontario.• A famous rum-running boat was the Nellie J. Blanks. It was the last rum runner seized off Atlantic Canada.
Canadian Military after WW1Canada avoided overseas military commitments,either to Britain or the League of Nations. By themid-1930s, the government began slowly tomodernize and re-equip the armed forces. Thedefense of Canada’s seacoasts was its toppriority.
Canada Between the WarsThroughout the 1920s and most of the 1930s,the Canadian governments kept militaryspending to a minimum. Many people believedthat the First World War had been the ‘war toend all wars’. This view, combined withbudgetary restraints, led Canada to reduce itsmilitary forces to fewer than 5000 full-timemilitary personnel. For a time, the RoyalCanadian Navy consisted of only two ocean-going ships.
Canada Between the Wars (continued)The Royal Canadian Air Force, created in 1924,performed mainly civilian duties such as aerialmapping and forestry protection. There was littlepay and even less equipment for part-time militaryreservists. During the economic catastrophebrought by the Great Depression of the 1930s,Canadians worried more about their jobs andfamilies than the state of the armed forces.Without obvious enemies, the government decidednot to spend scarce resources on the military.
1920-30s ARCHITECTURE Social Studies 11 – Power point James Letkeman -Block 7 1920s architecture was characterised by improved standards in residential homes, commercial buildings and also the proliferation of the skyscraper. By the mid-1920s the post-war culture of the industrialized world had started a series of unified styles which affected design and architecture. There was widespread interest in new sources of inspiration and architecture began to glorify new and/or enhanced technological marvels. Designs were simplified; composition more geometric and there was a general trend towards abstraction.
CHANGING The face of ARCHITECTURE The fallout of the First World War resulted in additional experimentation and ideas throughout the world Skyscrapers became more common due to the development of steel, reinforced concrete, water pumps and most importantly the enhancements of the commercial elevator. Large urban centers experimented with Art Deco and Modernism through their mass development of skyscrapers. These buildings were influenced by the changing culture of the society and were considered by many to be visual representations of expressions such as the modern jazz and music movement America was experiencing at the time.
EARLY 1920s in CANADA Victorian styles of architecture dominated in Canada from the mid-nineteenth century up to the First World War. After the First World War, Canadian nationalism encouraged attempts to create unique Canadian architecture, distinct from that of Britain and the United States. While the United States embraced Art Deco, Canadian architects returned to the Middle Ages for inspiration Gothic architecture had become closely associated with Canada A distinct Canadian style was the Château Style, also known as Railway Gothic. For public and commercial buildings, classical forms remained the style of choice .However, by the 1930s the classic styles were simplified almost to the point of abstraction
MODERNIZING CANADIAN ARCHITECTURE Toronto closely followed American cities such as Chicago and New York. Torontos influence on other Canadian cities meant that Western Canadian cities, particularly Vancouver, fallowed Toronto’s architectural path. Modern homes of the 1920’s in America upgraded the standard of low cost housing and made other housing more affordable. Houses were created to obtain beauty of design, functionality, practicality and convenience while considering the price. The bungalow in British Columbia became widespread in local house design, and styles of housing such as Arts and crafts, and other distinctly western North America styles also became common.
What was new about it?• The Group of Seven had paintings that broke with traditional Canadian art• These artists were in tune with the new post war national confidence, instead of realistic standard styles• Used bold, broad, and brilliant colours
• Some of the group of seven’s work was criticized however they gained a huge acceptance at the end of the 1920s• It was the same with Emily Carr, she had very little recognition for her work but when her art was shown at the National Museum in Ottawa this all changed
What was the impact on Canadian Society?• Art in the 1920s and early 1930s in particular the group of seven was extremely influential• Their legacy still resonates to this day• There is a university named after Emily Carr• Made Canadians look and appreciate art in a different way
Emily Carr• Best known painter on Pacific coast• Her paintings were scenes of Aboriginal life and West Coast forests• Wrote Klee Wyck stories about her life with BC’s Aboriginal people
Penicillin In The 1920’s By L Hunts Mc Big Dog And Marcy Mark
Discovery of Penicillin• Canadian bacteriologist Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928• Fleming discovered it by accident• Mold had formed on his experiments – Exuded penicillin
What is Penicillin?• Certain collections of antibiotics• They eliminate infectious bacteria• Known in short as PCN
Effects of Penicillin On The World• General – Heralded as a “miracle drug – Could cure people of once-fatal infections• World War II – War forced companies to find a way to produce on an industrial scale – Especially effective on gangrene – Skyrocketed survival rates
So… Why do they call them the ‘roaring’ 20s?n what ways did society, culture, technology and the economy“roar”??? Make a list together and discuss.hinking of what you’ve seen here and your readings, who do youthink ‘missed’ the roar of the 20s? Look at your roar list to help youthink about the question… then discuss.hat do you think are the three most important changes of the 1920s?Brainstorm. Choose 3. Be prepared to defend your choices.
THIS ROARING PRESENTATIONreated by the brilliant students of: SS11 Class, Block 7, 2012, Oak Bay High.