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Crisis&AbsolutisminEUsections1&2
 

Crisis&AbsolutisminEUsections1&2

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Crisis&AbsolutisminEUsections1&2 Crisis&AbsolutisminEUsections1&2 Presentation Transcript

  • Who or what would you die for?
  • EUROPE IN CRISIS: THE Wars of Religion
  • A Divided Europe! What do you notice about these five religions?
  • 7-1 French Wars of religion
    • 1560- Calvinism & Catholicism confrontational
    • trying to- win people to their “team”
    • Also- economic, social, political probs.
    • French Wars of Religion
    • King- persecuted Prot.
    • Huguenots- French Prot. (Calvin)
      • Only 7% of pop.
      • But almost 50% nobility, House of Bourbon
      • Cath. Out #ed Hug. & Valois monarch Cath.
      • Other factors townspeople supported nobles in fight against King
  • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Pg. 211
  • Henry of Navarre
    • Leader of Hug. & part of Bourbon
    • Dynasty
    • 1589- succeed throne Henry IV
    • Realized- wouldn’t be accepted as a Prot so converted to Cath.
    • 1594- crowned King
    • Issued- Edict of Nantes which recog. Cath. as official religion but gave Hug. the right to worship and be involved in politics
  • Spain Philip II & Militant Cath.
    • King Philip II great support of militant Cath.
    • 1556-1598
    • Age of Political & Cultural greatness in SP.
    • 1 st goal- unite SP., Netherlands, possessions in Italy & Americas
    • Insisted- on strict conformity to Cath. and King’s power
    • Nicknamed “Most Catholic King”
    • SP Netherlands (Netherlands & Belgium)
      • Richest $$ part of empire
      • Nobles resented- lost of privileges
      • Opposed Philip
      • Philip tried to crush Cal. in Netherlands
      • 1566 Cal. Nobles destroy statues in Cath. churches
      • Philip sent 10,000 troops
      • Dutch led by William the Silent (Orange)
      • 1609- Truce called
        • N. prov. Called United Provinces of the Netherlands
    • 1598- Philip’s reign ended
    • SP most populous empire
    • seemed to be a “superpower”
    • Reality- not the power it appeared to be
      • Treasury- bankrupt
      • Army- outdated
      • Govt- inefficient
    • England & France real “superpowers”
    What is the definition of a “superpower” today? Is the U.S. a “super power” or do we just look like one?
  • SuperPower?
    • A superpower is a state with a leading position in the international system and the ability to influence events and project power on a worldwide scale.
    • After the Cold War, the most common belief held is that only the U.S. fulfills the criteria to be considered a superpower
    • Matter of debate if the U.S. is losing its superpower status, or whether it is currently a superpower at all.
    • China, the European Union, and to some extent India and Russia are also thought to have the potential of achieving superpower status within the 21st century.
      • Wikipedia
  • GAME TIME!
    • Get into groups
    • One sheet a paper for group
    • One person to write for group
    Queen Elizabeth’s Problems and tell them what they’ll win…….. Their HEAD!!
  • The England of Elizabeth
    • Eliz Tudor took throne 1558
    • During reign- Eng became leader of Prot nations & begin to transform into a world empire
    • Repealed -laws favoring Cath.
    • Act of Sup.- Eliz head of church & govt
    • Church of Eng.- moderate Prot.
    • Feared- war would be bad for Eng and own rule
    • Tried to keep FR & SP from becoming to powerful and supported the weaker one.
  • The Queen’s Pirate
    • Allowed Francis Drake (Privateer) - to plunder SP ships in Caribbean after gold & silver
    • Philip II- thought about invading Eng.
    • Successful invasion- restore Cath.
    • 1588- ordered an armada (fleet of warships)
    • Outdated ships no match for Eng.
    • Many ships sank on way home
  • Spanish Armada
  • Compare/Contrast Philip II B (2) Henry of Navarre A (4) Elizabeth Tudor C (2) D (1) E (1)
    • Protestant
    • Catholic
    • Converted to Cath.
    • Supported Militant Cath.
    • Moderate Policies
    • Cath. State Religion
    • Gave Huguenots Rights
    • Moderate
    • Kept Cath. as State Re.
    • Moderate in Re. & Pol.
  • Answers
    • Henry of Navarre
    • 1. conv. Cath.
    • 2. moderate
    • 3. Kept Cath. State rel.
    • 4. Gave Hug. rights
    Elizabeth Tudor 1. Protestant 2. Moderate in rel. & pol. Philip II 1. Catholic 2. Supported Mil. Cath. Henry & Philip 1. Catholicism state rel. Henry & Elizabeth 1. Moderate policies
  • U.S. NATIONAL DEBT CLOCK
    • as of 09 Sep 2008:
    • The estimated population of the United States is 304,692,871 so each citizen's share of this debt is $31,755.97 .
    So why don’t we just print more money???
  • 7-2 Social Crisis, War & Revolution
    • 1560-1650 severe eco. & social crisis in EU
    • 1 big prob. – inflation (rising prices)
      • 1. flood of gold & silver from Americas
      • 2. growing pop. $ land & food
    • 1600- Eco. Slowdown
    • 1640- SP eco. Failing dependent on silver
      • Mines less silver (Pirates)
    • Italy- also declining
    • 1500- 60 million
    • 1600- 85 million
    • 1620- pop. Leveled off
    • 1650- declining
      • Warfare, plague & famine
  • Witchcraft trails
    • Witchcraft- magic
    • Rel. zeal- that led to Inq. extended to witchcraft
    • More than- 100,000 charged
    • Targeted- common, poor
    • 75%- women
    • Most- single, over 50
    • Under- intense torture they’d confess
    • 1650- W/C hysteria lessened
  • 30 years war
    • Peace of Augsburg??
    • Pg. 175
    • Calvinism not recog. by peace settlement
    • Begin- 1618 In- HRE
    • btw- Cath. Hapsburg & Prot. Bohemia nobles
    • Soon- became a political conflict
  • 30 Years War cont.
    • Cardinal Richelieu- Louis XIII’s adviser
    • Had Cath. FR- join Prot. Sweden in fight against Cath. Haps.
    • Most- destructive conflict
    • All major- battles fought in Germany (1/3 pop. ½ $)
    • 1648- Peace of Westphalia ends war
    • FR- emerged a dominate nation
    • Peace stated- all Ger. States (inc. Cal.) could choose religion
    • Brought end- HRE
    German Pike Square pg. 218
  • 7-2B English civil war
    • Struggle- between King & Parliament
      • Determine what role each should play
    • 1603- Queen Elizabeth dies
    • Tudor- dynasty ends
    • Stuart- dynasty begins
      • James I = King of Scotland
        • Believed- in divine right of kings
        • Parl. assumed- they would rule Eng. w/ King
  • Stewart Dynasty Clashes with Parliament
    • Puritans- English influenced by Calvin
      • Didn’t like King defending Church of Eng.
      • Wished Church of Eng. was more Prot.
      • Pur. gentry made up House of Commons
    • Charles I-
      • Also believed in divine right of kings
      • 1628 Parl. passed law concerning taxes
        • initially Charles accepted law
        • later he changes his mind/ understands he loses some of his power
        • tried to impose more ritual on Church of Eng. (move angered Prot. more)
    Charles I w/ son
    • to Puritans- this was a return to Cath. practices
      • 1000s head for the Americas
    • 1642- civil war
      • Btw- King (supporters) & Parl. (supporters)
        • Cavaliers – Supported Kings
        • Roundheads- Supported Parl.
    vs
    • Parl.- victorious
    • Oliver Cromwell- military genius
      • Created New Model Army
      • Made up of Extreme Puritans
      • Known as Independents
    • Cromwell purged- Parl. of non-supporters
      • Jan. 30, 1649 executed Charles I
      • Abolished the Monarchy & House of Lords
      • Declared Eng. republic / Commonwealth
      • Set up military dictatorship
  • Cromwell, Charles II & John Locke
  • The Restoration
    • 1658- Cromwell dies
    • Parl- restored monarchy
      • Charles II crowned king
        • Sympathetic- to Cath.
        • Brother- James
          • Was a Catholic
    • Parl intro.- Exclusion Bill
      • Would have barred James
      • Created pol parties
        • 1. Whigs (wanted to excluded James)
        • 2. Torries (did not want to interfere)
    • 1681- Charles dismisses Parl.
    • 1685- Charles dies
    • James II- Catholic crowned king
      • Named Cath. to high gov’t positions
      • Parl. objected to his actions
      • 1688 James has a son
        • Possibility of a Catholic monarchy
  • Glorious Revolution
    • William of Orange- James’ son-in-law
      • Invited by Eng. Nobles to save the people from their King
    • 1688- “invaded” England
      • James let with his wife & son (no bloodshed)
    • Jan 1689- King William & Queen Mary
      • Accepted throne & Bill of Rights
        • Set Parl. had right make laws & tax
        • Stated armies can only be raised w/ permission of Parl.
        • Helped create “rule of law” in England
        • Laid foundation Constitutional Monarchy
    • Toleration Act of 1689 – free worship
  • Glorious Revolution and the English Bill of Rights
  • 7-2B Review
    • What provoked England s first Civil War?
    • 2. John Locke believed all of the following EXCEPT:
    • Government cannot be directly controlled by the people.
    • Government is a contract between the ruler and the ruled.
    • People agree to limit their rights by establishing government.
    • All people are born with natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
    3. Under what provision did William and Mary take the English throne?