9 3

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9 3

  1. 1. Tokugawa Japan & Korea
  2. 2. Three Great Unifiers <ul><li>End of 15th C – Japan in chaos </li></ul><ul><li>Shogunate – collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>Diamyo – heads of noble families, contr. own land & warred w/ neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Unification under 3 rulers </li></ul><ul><li>1. Oda Nobunaga </li></ul><ul><li>Seized – imperial capital, Kyoto </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to – consolidate his rule in the central plains </li></ul><ul><li>2. Toyotomi Hideyoshi </li></ul><ul><li>Moved capital – to Osaka </li></ul><ul><li>By 1590 – got most daimyo to accept his authority </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tokugawa Ieyasu </li></ul><ul><li>Daimyo of – Edo (Tokyo) </li></ul><ul><li>1603 – Ieyasu took title of shogun </li></ul><ul><li>Completed – restoration of central authority </li></ul><ul><li>Tokugawa shoguns – remained in power @ Edo until 1868 </li></ul><ul><li>Brought – “Great Peace” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Europeans in Japan <ul><li>1543 – PORT traders arrive </li></ul><ul><li>At 1st – welcomed </li></ul><ul><li>JP fascinated – by tobacco, clocks, eyeglasses </li></ul><ul><li>Daimyo – want weapons </li></ul><ul><li>1549 – Francis Xavier, Jesuit missionary arrived </li></ul><ul><li>By end of 16th C – thousands of Japanese are Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuit practices – destroy shrines </li></ul><ul><li>1587 – Hideyoshi banned Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Next to go – European merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch – community in Nagasaki allowed to stay </li></ul>
  4. 4. Tokugawa Rule <ul><li>Tokugawa est – control of feudal system </li></ul><ul><li>State divided – into 250 hans (domains) </li></ul><ul><li>Each ruled – by a daimyo </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretically – daimyo independent </li></ul><ul><li>Actually – controlled by shogunate w/ hostage system </li></ul><ul><li>Daimyo – required to have 2 residences </li></ul><ul><li>1. own land </li></ul><ul><li>2. in Edo (when D left - family stayed) </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai – ceased being warrior class </li></ul>
  5. 5. Economic & Social Changes <ul><li>Under Tokugawa – big econ. Changes – trade & industry boom </li></ul><ul><li>Most peasants – declining profits & rising taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Many forced – become tenants or hired help </li></ul><ul><li>7000- peasants revolt </li></ul><ul><li>4 Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Top – Emperor & Imperial Court families </li></ul><ul><li>1. Warriors (inc. shogun, daimyo, samurai, ronin) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Peasants (farmers) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Artisans (crafts people) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Eta or Burakumin (outcast) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Marriage – btw classes forbidden </li></ul><ul><li>Shogun – Supreme ruler below Emp & distributor of rice </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers are Often – poor but were actually respected in society </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants – distributed food & essential goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>@ bottom b/c – made $ from others labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laws regulated – Eta residence, dress, hairstyle, etc. (considered unclean) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Role of Women <ul><ul><li>Women- restricted under Tokugawa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents- arranged marriages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valued for- roles as child bearers & homemakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tokugawa Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kabuki- theatre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized- action, music & dramatic gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbade- women to appear on stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So created- professional class of males actors to portray women </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Korea <ul><li>14 th C- Yi dynasty founded (1392-1910) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital- Hanyang (currently Seoul) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society patterned- after Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tried to keep- country isolated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickname- Hermit Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1630s- Manchu army invaded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced Yi dynasty to become subjects of China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remained- untouched by EU merchants & Christian missionaries </li></ul>

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