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  • 1. China at Its Height
  • 2. Ming Dynasty <ul><li>1368- Mongol Dynasty was overthrown </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced by – Ming Dynasty (Ming Hong Wu) </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted until – 1644 </li></ul><ul><li>Extended CH rule – into Mongolia & central Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened – the Great Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Made peace – w/ nomadic tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Effective – government </li></ul><ul><li>                   Chosen by – civil service exam system </li></ul><ul><li>Nat’l – school system </li></ul><ul><li>Manuf.- goods </li></ul><ul><li>New- crops were introduced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inc. food production </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Voyages of Zheng He <ul><li>1406 – Yong Le began construction of Imperial City </li></ul><ul><li>1421 – he moved capital to Beijing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zheng He – Chinese explorer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explored – SE Asia, India & East Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to – enormous $$ (disliked by Confucian thinkers) </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. First Contacts with the West <ul><li>1514 – Portuguese fleet arrives in China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Port ships – carried goods between China & Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inc exchange of – ideas (more important than goods) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian missionaries – were aboard EU merchant ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesuits – highly educated men brought tech. that impressed Chinese officials </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. Fall of the Ming Dynasty <ul><li>Late 16th C- series of weak rulers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High taxes- led to peasant unrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1644- Li and his forces took over capital of Beijing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Last Ming Emperor- committed suicide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Manchus- farmers/hunters lived northeast of Great Wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquered – Manchus conquered Beijing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declared – new dynasty – Qing (Ching) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remained – in power until 1911 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. Qing Dynasty
  • 7. Qing Dynasty <ul><li>1st – Chinese resisted new rulers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebels seized – island of Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To id rebels – all men must wear dress Manchu style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Males – shave forehead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Braid – pigtail (queue) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If refused – executed (Lose your hair or your head!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manchus adopted – Chinese political sys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Were gradually – accepted as rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qing flourished – series of strong rulers </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Qing Adaptations <ul><li>Emperors  1. calmed the country </li></ul><ul><li>2. corrected social & eco probs. </li></ul><ul><li>3. restored peace & prosperity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major prob – Manchus were different from subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To deal w/: 1. tried to – preserve their distinct id. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ bannermen” chief fighting force of </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>empire </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. brought – Chinese into imperial gov’t </li></ul>
  • 9. Reign of Kangxi <ul><li>Kangxi, perhaps – greatest emperor in Chinese history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reigned for – 1661-1722 (61 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerant of – Christians (after his death future rulers suppress Christian activities) </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Westerners in China <ul><li>Qianlong – ruled from 1736-1795 another outstanding Qing ruler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st signs – of internal problems as Emperor grew older </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fell under – influence of corrupt officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inc pop – led to economic probs for peasants (White Lotus Rebellion 1796-1804) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>EU seeking – more trade </li></ul><ul><li>Confined – EU traders to island outside Guangzhou </li></ul><ul><li>End of 18th C – EU demanded more access and Chinese merchants demanded British manuf. goods </li></ul><ul><li>1793 – British led by Lord Macartney visited Beijing to seek more trade opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Qianlong – wrote letter to King George III that China did not want British goods and rejected the British request (they’ll pay for that later) </li></ul>

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