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8 1b 2
 

8 1b 2

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Ottoman Safavids

Ottoman Safavids

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    8 1b 2 8 1b 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Ottoman Rule
      • Labeled- gunpowder empire
        • Formed by outside conquerors who unified after conquering
        • Success based on mastery of fire arms
      • Sultan- head of Ottoman system
        • Position hereditary
        • Not necessarily to eldest son
        • Led to struggles for power
      • Harem- “sacred place” sultans private quarters
      • Sultan controlled- bureaucracy w/ imperial council
        • Grand Vizier- chief minister, led meetings
      Topkapi Divan; center area for grand vizier; Sultan behind screen  
      • Ottomans were – Sunni Muslims
        • Sultans claimed title caliph
        • Resp- guiding flock & maintaining Islamic law
      • Ulema- sultan’s religious advisors
        • Administered legal system & school for education of Muslims
        • Islamic law applied to all Muslims in empire
        • Tolerant of non-Muslims
      • Non-Muslims- paid a tax
        • Allowed to practice own religion
      Religion in the Ottoman World
    • Ottoman Society
      • Subjects divided by occupation
        • Ruling class top of society
        • 4 occupation groups 1. merchants - just below ruling class in status
        • 2. artisans - org. by craft
        • 3. peasants -farmed land
        • 4. pastoral -sep. group w/ own laws
      • Women somewhat better off than other Muslim societies
        • Allowed to own/ inherit property
        • Couldn’t be forced to marry
    • Problems in Ottoman Empire
      • Began during Suleyman the Mag.’s rule
        • Succeeded by Selim II, his only surviving son
      • 1699 began to lose some territory
      • Local officials grew corrupt, taxes
      • Wars emptied the treasury
      • Western ideas spread through Empire
    • Ottoman Art
      • Produced pottery, rugs, silk, textiles, jewelry, arms & armor
      • Greatest contribution – architecture (especially mosques)
        • Sinan greatest Ottoman architect
        • Mosques topped dome
          • Framed with 4 towers (minarets)
        • Flourishing textile & rug industry
      Mosque of Suleyman the Magnificent
    • The Rule of Safavids
      • Rise of Safavid Dynasty
        • Early 15 th C- area from Persia into central Asia fell into anarchy
        • Safavids- took control at beginning of 16 th C
          • Ardent (devoted)- Shiites
          • Founded by- Shah Ismail
          • 1501- Ismail seize Iran & Iraq
          • Called self- Shah (King)
          • 1508- killed Sunnis when he conquered Baghdad
      • Shah Abbas- ruled from 1588-1629
        • Safavids- reached high point under his rule
        • Early 17 th C- moved against Ottoman to regain territories
        • 1629- Abbas dies (rulers that followed weak)
        • Shiites began to Inc their influence in gov’t and society at large
          • Pressure to conform to Shiite beliefs
          • Women lost many freedoms
    • Shah Gov’t workers (bureaucracy) & Landed Elite Common People
      • Pol & Soc Structure
        • Shah direct successor of Muhammad
        • Controlled power of aristocracy
        • Gov’t positions merit
      • Safavid Culture
        • 1588-1629 rule of Shah Abbas (golden age in arts)
        • Capital Isfahan was grand city
        • Silk weaving new technique brilliant colors
      • Carpet weaving encouraged by demand by West
    • Sister weaving carpets in Iran Modern Weaving Machine