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Congress of Vienna

Congress of Vienna

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12 2 12 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Reaction & Revolution 12-2 What/Who are they Reacting to?
  • Europe under Napoleon, 1812
  • The Congress of Vienna & The Concert of Europe (1815-1816)
  • The Big Players Clockwise: Russia’s Tsar Alexander I, Austria’s Metternich, Britain’s Lord Castlereagh, France’s Talleyrand, Prussia’s King Frederick William III
  • Their Goal No More War!
  • The Main Issues France? Austrian Netherlands? Poland? Saxony? German States? Finland & Sweden?
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  • General Principles Balance of Power Nationalism Conservatism Legitimacy Compensation Liberalism
    • After Nap, EU rulers – tried to restore the old order
    • Goal of – Great Powers
      • Incl- GB, Aust, PR, RU
    • Met @- Congress of Vienna
    • To- arrange final peace settlement
    • Led by- Prince Metternich
      • Claimed guided by – principle of ligitimacy
        • Meant- restore rightful pre-Napoleon monarchs
  • The Conservative Order
    • Conservatism, based on- trad & soc. Stability
      • Favored- obed to pol auth
      • Hated- revolutions
      • Unwilling- to accept demands (ind. rights, rep. gov’t)
    • To maintain bal of power- GB, PR, RU (later FR)
      • Agreed to- meet reg. to make steps to maintain peace in EU
      • Meeting known as- concert of EU
      • Adopted- principle of intervention
        • Great powers- right to send armies to stop revolutions
        • BR- refused principle
  • Liberalism
    • Based on– Enlightenment principles
    • Believe ppl should- be safe as possible from gov’t restraint
    • Common set- of pol beliefs
      • Incl- protection of civil liberties
    • Believe should be guaranteed- by written document (Bill of Rights, etc)
    • Most wanted- religious toleration
    • Right to- peacefully oppose gov’t
    • Laws should be made- by rep. assembly
    • Favored gov’t ruled- by constitution
    • Did not believe- in democracy
      • Right to vote- only men of property
    • Tied to- middle class men
  • Nationalism
    • Arose out of- ppl’s awareness of being part of community (common lang, etc.)
      • Community- called a nation
      • Ppl owe- pol. loyalty to nation not dynasty/empire
    • Nat’list believe- each nationality has own nation
      • German wanted- German nation state
      • Hungarians wanted- own gov’t
        • Rather- than be subject of Aust. Emp.
    • Threat to- existing pol. order
  • Outcomes
  • France Bourbons restored with Louis XVIII frontiers pushed back to those of 1790 3-5 year occupation indemnity of 700 million francs
  • German Confederation
  • Poland
  • Saxony, and other Prussian gains
  • Austrian Netherlands
  • Finland & Sweden
  • Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815
  • Forces of Change
    • 1. liberalism
    • 2. nationalism
    • Began to- break conser. Domination of EU
    • FR- libs overthrew Bourbon monarch Charles X
      • Est- constitutional monarchy
      • New monarch- Louis Philippe (cousin of Charles X)
        • Supported by- upper middle class
      • Nationalism’s chief force- 3 Revs
        • In 1. Belgium
        • 2. Poland
        • 3. Italy
  • Revolutions of 1848
    • France
    • Severe- economic problems
    • Middle class- want right to vote
    • Louis-Phillippe- refused to make changes
      • Opposition- grew
    • Monarchy- overthrown 1848
    • Group of Rep- set up provisional (temp) gov’t
      • Called for- election of reps to a Const. Assembly – new const.
      • Election- by universal male suffrage
      • Set up- nat’l workshop for unemployed
      • Emptied- treasuries
        • June 21- closed workshops
      • Workers- refused to accept decision to – rebelled in streets
      • Gov’t forces- crushed working class revolts
    • Nov 4 – 1848- set up 2 nd Republic
      • Had a- single legislature
        • Elected by- universal male suffrage
      • President- chosen by male voters
        • Served- 4 yr term
      • Dec 1848- Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte elected (Nap’s nephew)
  • German States
    • Congress of Vienna- recog. 38 indep. German states
      • Called- German Confederation
    • Frankfort Assembly- all German Parliament
      • Held to- fulfill liberal & nat’list dream
      • Prepared- of a const for a unified Germany
      • Deputies- elected by universal male suffrage
      • Ultimately- Failed
      • No means- of forcing German rulers to accept it
  • Austrian Empire
    • Multinat’l state- collection of different ppl
      • Incl- Ger, Czechs, Hungarians, Pols
      • Only- bonded by Hapsburg Empire
      • Germans- ¼ pop – leading role in gov’t
    • March 1848- protests in major cities
      • Led to- Metternich’s dismissal
      • Rev forces- took capital demand liberal const
      • Gov’t gave- Hungary own leg.
    • By Oct- rebels in Vienna defeated
    • W/RU- Hungary subdued
    • Revolution- in Aust Emp failed
  • Italy
    • Congress of Vienna- set up 9 states in IT
    • Lombardy & Venetia- part of Aust. Emp
    • 1848- revolt against Aust in Lombardy & Venetia
    • Sought to- create liberal const & unified IT
    • By 1849- Aust. re-est control of Lombardy
    • Old order- prevailed