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Congress of Vienna

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  • 12 2

    1. 1. Reaction & Revolution 12-2 What/Who are they Reacting to?
    2. 2. Europe under Napoleon, 1812
    3. 3. The Congress of Vienna & The Concert of Europe (1815-1816)
    4. 4. The Big Players Clockwise: Russia’s Tsar Alexander I, Austria’s Metternich, Britain’s Lord Castlereagh, France’s Talleyrand, Prussia’s King Frederick William III
    5. 5. Their Goal No More War!
    6. 6. The Main Issues France? Austrian Netherlands? Poland? Saxony? German States? Finland & Sweden?
    7. 10. General Principles Balance of Power Nationalism Conservatism Legitimacy Compensation Liberalism
    8. 11. <ul><li>After Nap, EU rulers – tried to restore the old order </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of – Great Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incl- GB, Aust, PR, RU </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Met @- Congress of Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>To- arrange final peace settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Led by- Prince Metternich </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed guided by – principle of ligitimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meant- restore rightful pre-Napoleon monarchs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 12. The Conservative Order <ul><li>Conservatism, based on- trad & soc. Stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored- obed to pol auth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hated- revolutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwilling- to accept demands (ind. rights, rep. gov’t) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To maintain bal of power- GB, PR, RU (later FR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed to- meet reg. to make steps to maintain peace in EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting known as- concert of EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted- principle of intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great powers- right to send armies to stop revolutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BR- refused principle </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 13. Liberalism <ul><li>Based on– Enlightenment principles </li></ul><ul><li>Believe ppl should- be safe as possible from gov’t restraint </li></ul><ul><li>Common set- of pol beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incl- protection of civil liberties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Believe should be guaranteed- by written document (Bill of Rights, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Most wanted- religious toleration </li></ul><ul><li>Right to- peacefully oppose gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Laws should be made- by rep. assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Favored gov’t ruled- by constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Did not believe- in democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to vote- only men of property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tied to- middle class men </li></ul>
    11. 14. Nationalism <ul><li>Arose out of- ppl’s awareness of being part of community (common lang, etc.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community- called a nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ppl owe- pol. loyalty to nation not dynasty/empire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nat’list believe- each nationality has own nation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German wanted- German nation state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hungarians wanted- own gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rather- than be subject of Aust. Emp. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Threat to- existing pol. order </li></ul>
    12. 15. Outcomes
    13. 16. France Bourbons restored with Louis XVIII frontiers pushed back to those of 1790 3-5 year occupation indemnity of 700 million francs
    14. 17. German Confederation
    15. 18. Poland
    16. 19. Saxony, and other Prussian gains
    17. 20. Austrian Netherlands
    18. 21. Finland & Sweden
    19. 22. Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815
    20. 23. Forces of Change <ul><li>1. liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Began to- break conser. Domination of EU </li></ul><ul><li>FR- libs overthrew Bourbon monarch Charles X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Est- constitutional monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New monarch- Louis Philippe (cousin of Charles X) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by- upper middle class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism’s chief force- 3 Revs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1. Belgium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Poland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Italy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 24. Revolutions of 1848 <ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Severe- economic problems </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class- want right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Louis-Phillippe- refused to make changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition- grew </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monarchy- overthrown 1848 </li></ul><ul><li>Group of Rep- set up provisional (temp) gov’t </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called for- election of reps to a Const. Assembly – new const. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Election- by universal male suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up- nat’l workshop for unemployed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emptied- treasuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>June 21- closed workshops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers- refused to accept decision to – rebelled in streets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t forces- crushed working class revolts </li></ul></ul>
    22. 25. <ul><li>Nov 4 – 1848- set up 2 nd Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had a- single legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elected by- universal male suffrage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President- chosen by male voters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Served- 4 yr term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dec 1848- Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte elected (Nap’s nephew) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 26. German States <ul><li>Congress of Vienna- recog. 38 indep. German states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called- German Confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frankfort Assembly- all German Parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held to- fulfill liberal & nat’list dream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepared- of a const for a unified Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deputies- elected by universal male suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimately- Failed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No means- of forcing German rulers to accept it </li></ul></ul>
    24. 27. Austrian Empire <ul><li>Multinat’l state- collection of different ppl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incl- Ger, Czechs, Hungarians, Pols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only- bonded by Hapsburg Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans- ¼ pop – leading role in gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><li>March 1848- protests in major cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to- Metternich’s dismissal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rev forces- took capital demand liberal const </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t gave- Hungary own leg. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By Oct- rebels in Vienna defeated </li></ul><ul><li>W/RU- Hungary subdued </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution- in Aust Emp failed </li></ul>
    25. 28. Italy <ul><li>Congress of Vienna- set up 9 states in IT </li></ul><ul><li>Lombardy & Venetia- part of Aust. Emp </li></ul><ul><li>1848- revolt against Aust in Lombardy & Venetia </li></ul><ul><li>Sought to- create liberal const & unified IT </li></ul><ul><li>By 1849- Aust. re-est control of Lombardy </li></ul><ul><li>Old order- prevailed </li></ul>
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