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12 2

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Congress of Vienna

Congress of Vienna

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Reaction & Revolution 12-2 What/Who are they Reacting to?
    • 2. Europe under Napoleon, 1812
    • 3. The Congress of Vienna & The Concert of Europe (1815-1816)
    • 4. The Big Players Clockwise: Russia’s Tsar Alexander I, Austria’s Metternich, Britain’s Lord Castlereagh, France’s Talleyrand, Prussia’s King Frederick William III
    • 5. Their Goal No More War!
    • 6. The Main Issues France? Austrian Netherlands? Poland? Saxony? German States? Finland & Sweden?
    • 7.  
    • 8.  
    • 9.  
    • 10. General Principles Balance of Power Nationalism Conservatism Legitimacy Compensation Liberalism
    • 11.
      • After Nap, EU rulers – tried to restore the old order
      • Goal of – Great Powers
        • Incl- GB, Aust, PR, RU
      • Met @- Congress of Vienna
      • To- arrange final peace settlement
      • Led by- Prince Metternich
        • Claimed guided by – principle of ligitimacy
          • Meant- restore rightful pre-Napoleon monarchs
    • 12. The Conservative Order
      • Conservatism, based on- trad & soc. Stability
        • Favored- obed to pol auth
        • Hated- revolutions
        • Unwilling- to accept demands (ind. rights, rep. gov’t)
      • To maintain bal of power- GB, PR, RU (later FR)
        • Agreed to- meet reg. to make steps to maintain peace in EU
        • Meeting known as- concert of EU
        • Adopted- principle of intervention
          • Great powers- right to send armies to stop revolutions
          • BR- refused principle
    • 13. Liberalism
      • Based on– Enlightenment principles
      • Believe ppl should- be safe as possible from gov’t restraint
      • Common set- of pol beliefs
        • Incl- protection of civil liberties
      • Believe should be guaranteed- by written document (Bill of Rights, etc)
      • Most wanted- religious toleration
      • Right to- peacefully oppose gov’t
      • Laws should be made- by rep. assembly
      • Favored gov’t ruled- by constitution
      • Did not believe- in democracy
        • Right to vote- only men of property
      • Tied to- middle class men
    • 14. Nationalism
      • Arose out of- ppl’s awareness of being part of community (common lang, etc.)
        • Community- called a nation
        • Ppl owe- pol. loyalty to nation not dynasty/empire
      • Nat’list believe- each nationality has own nation
        • German wanted- German nation state
        • Hungarians wanted- own gov’t
          • Rather- than be subject of Aust. Emp.
      • Threat to- existing pol. order
    • 15. Outcomes
    • 16. France Bourbons restored with Louis XVIII frontiers pushed back to those of 1790 3-5 year occupation indemnity of 700 million francs
    • 17. German Confederation
    • 18. Poland
    • 19. Saxony, and other Prussian gains
    • 20. Austrian Netherlands
    • 21. Finland & Sweden
    • 22. Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815
    • 23. Forces of Change
      • 1. liberalism
      • 2. nationalism
      • Began to- break conser. Domination of EU
      • FR- libs overthrew Bourbon monarch Charles X
        • Est- constitutional monarchy
        • New monarch- Louis Philippe (cousin of Charles X)
          • Supported by- upper middle class
        • Nationalism’s chief force- 3 Revs
          • In 1. Belgium
          • 2. Poland
          • 3. Italy
    • 24. Revolutions of 1848
      • France
      • Severe- economic problems
      • Middle class- want right to vote
      • Louis-Phillippe- refused to make changes
        • Opposition- grew
      • Monarchy- overthrown 1848
      • Group of Rep- set up provisional (temp) gov’t
        • Called for- election of reps to a Const. Assembly – new const.
        • Election- by universal male suffrage
        • Set up- nat’l workshop for unemployed
        • Emptied- treasuries
          • June 21- closed workshops
        • Workers- refused to accept decision to – rebelled in streets
        • Gov’t forces- crushed working class revolts
    • 25.
      • Nov 4 – 1848- set up 2 nd Republic
        • Had a- single legislature
          • Elected by- universal male suffrage
        • President- chosen by male voters
          • Served- 4 yr term
        • Dec 1848- Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte elected (Nap’s nephew)
    • 26. German States
      • Congress of Vienna- recog. 38 indep. German states
        • Called- German Confederation
      • Frankfort Assembly- all German Parliament
        • Held to- fulfill liberal & nat’list dream
        • Prepared- of a const for a unified Germany
        • Deputies- elected by universal male suffrage
        • Ultimately- Failed
        • No means- of forcing German rulers to accept it
    • 27. Austrian Empire
      • Multinat’l state- collection of different ppl
        • Incl- Ger, Czechs, Hungarians, Pols
        • Only- bonded by Hapsburg Empire
        • Germans- ¼ pop – leading role in gov’t
      • March 1848- protests in major cities
        • Led to- Metternich’s dismissal
        • Rev forces- took capital demand liberal const
        • Gov’t gave- Hungary own leg.
      • By Oct- rebels in Vienna defeated
      • W/RU- Hungary subdued
      • Revolution- in Aust Emp failed
    • 28. Italy
      • Congress of Vienna- set up 9 states in IT
      • Lombardy & Venetia- part of Aust. Emp
      • 1848- revolt against Aust in Lombardy & Venetia
      • Sought to- create liberal const & unified IT
      • By 1849- Aust. re-est control of Lombardy
      • Old order- prevailed