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10-4

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  • 1. 10.4 A COLONIAL EMPIRES & THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
    • Col Emp in Latin Am
      • Port – dominated Brazil
      • SP – colonies in North America, Central America & South America
        • Mestizos – EU & Native Americans
        • Mullatoes – EU & Africans
      • 1 source of wealth – supplies of gold & silver
  • 2.
    • Farming – source of prosperity
      • Large landowners – created immense estates
      • Native Am – worked on large estates or on marginal (small) farms
    • Trade – another source of profit
      • # of – natural products were shipped to EU (sugar, tobacco, diamonds, animal hides)
    • Mother countries – supplied colonists with manufactured goods
      • SP & Port – closely regulated the trade of American colonies
      • BR & FR – wanted in Latin American markets
  • 3.
    • SP & Port determined to – Christianize the native peoples
      • Gave – Catholic Church an important role in the Americas
      • Missionaries – brought Native Americans together into villages, converted them, taught them a trade, and encouraged them to grow crops
      • Cath Church built – cathedrals, hospitals, orphanages & schools
      • Allowed women – enter convents and become nuns
  • 4. BRITAIN & NORTH AMERICA
    • 1707 – England & Scotland were united
      • BR – refer to both the English & Scots
      • BR monarch – shared power with Parliament
      • Parl – gradually gained more power
        • Had power – to make laws, levy taxes, pass the budget, influence ministers of the monarch
    • 1714 – new dynasty - Hanoverians
  • 5.
    • Robert Walpole – head of cabinet (PM) 1721-1742
      • Pursued – peaceful foreign policy
      • Wm Pitt the Elder – head of cabinet 1757
        • Expanded – British Empire by acquiring Canada & India
      • Col supposedly run by – British Board of Trade, the Royal Council, & Parliament
        • Actually – ran by local legislatures
        • Col merchants did not – want British to run their affairs
  • 6. 10-4B American Revolution
    • After 7 Years War – British leaders wanted new $ from colonies
      • Used to – cover war cost, army to defend the colonies
      • 1765 – Parliament imposed the Stamp Act on colonies
        • Required – printed materials carry a stamp showing tax had been paid
        • Opposition – was widespread and often violent
      • 1766 – act was repealed
  • 7.
    • 1770s – crisis after crisis
      • Col org – First Continental Congress
        • Met – Philadelphia
        • Urged col 1. take up arms
    • 2. organize militias
      • April 1775 – colonist vs British army – Lexington & Concord
      • 2nd Cont Congress – met
        • Formed – army – Continental Army
        • With – George Washington as commander in chief
  • 8.
    • July 4, 1776 – 2nd Cont Congress approved declaration of independence
      • Written by – Thomas Jefferson
      • Based on – John Locke’s ideas
      • Am Rev – has begun
      • War – with Great Britain was a huge gamble
      • FR – supplied arms & money to rebels – also FR soldiers served in Wash. army
        • 1778 – following a BR defeat FR recognize American state
  • 9.
    • SP & Dutch – also enter war against Great Britain
      • BR faced – war against much of EU and America
      • Yorktown – General Cornwallis surrender to American & French forces under Washington
      • BR – decided to end the war
      • Treaty of Paris 1783 – recognized independence of the American colonies
        • Granted Am – control of western territory from Appalachians to Mississippi River
  • 10. Birth of a New Nation
    • Former col – were now states
      • Feared – concentrated power
        • Little enthusiasm – for creating a united nation with a strong central gov’t
      • Articles of Confederation – nation’s first constitution
        • Lacked – power to deal with new nation’s problems
  • 11.
    • Summer of 1787 – delegates met to revise the Articles
      • Known as – Constitutional Convention
      • Decided to – write a plan for an entirely new national gov’t
      • The Constitution
    • Created – a federal system (share of power between national and state governments)
  • 12.
    • Nat’l powers 1. levy taxes
    • 2. raise army
    • 3. regulate trade & national currency
    • Divided into – 3 branches
    • 1st – executive branch
    • Pres – chief executive
    • Power to 1. execute laws
    • 2. veto legislature’s act
    • 3. supervise foreign affairs
    • 4. direct military forces
    • 2nd – legislative branch
    • Consisted of – 2 houses (Senate & House of Representatives)
    • 3rd – judicial branch
    • Courts would – enforce the Constitution (supreme law of the land)
    • Must be ratified – approved by 9 of 13 states
  • 13.
    • Bill of Rights – 1789
      • Guarantee:- freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, assembly - right to bear arms - protection against unreasonable searches & arrest- guaranteed trail by jury & due process of law- protection of property rights
    • Many derived – rights came from natural rights
      • Eur intellectuals – saw the American Revolution as the picture of the Enlightenment’s political dreams