10 3a&B
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10 3a&B 10 3a&B Presentation Transcript

  • 10.3 THE IMPACT OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT
    • The Arts- were also impacted by ideas of Enlightenment
      • Palaces modeled – Italian baroque style of 1500s & 1600s
      • Balthasar Neumann – architects - Church of the Fourteen Saints & the Residence
      • Rococo – new artistic style
        • Emphasized – grace, charm, and gentle action
        • Highly – secular
        • Sense of – enchantment and enthusiasm
    • Music – greatest period of EU music in 18th C
      • Bach – renowned organist & composer
        • Composed – Mass in B Minor
        • Reputation – one of the greatest composers of all time
      • Handel – German musician
        • Best known – religious music
        • Messiah – been called a masterpiece of the highest order
          • Both perfected – baroque musical style
    • Hayden – musical director for wealthy Hungarian prices
      • 2 great works – The Creations & The Seasons
      • Mozart – child prodigy
      • 3 great operas 1. The Marriage of Figaro
    • 2. The Magic Flute
    • 3. Don Giovanni
    • Literature, dev of – EU novel attractive to middle class readers
  • ENLIGHTENMENT & ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM
    • Philosophes believed – natural rights for all people
    • Incl. 1. equality before the law
    • 2. freedom of religion
    • 3. freedom of speech
    • 4. freedom of press
    • 5. the right to assemble
    • To be preserved by – enlightened rulers
    • Enlightened rulers:
      • Allow – religious toleration, freedom of speech, press & right of private property
      • Nurture – arts, science & education
      • Obey – the laws
      • Enforce – laws fairly for all subjects
    • Enlightened Absolutism – rulers tried to govern by enlightened principles
  • Prussia
    • Frederick Wm I strove – maintain a highly efficient bureaucracy of civil service workers
      • Valued – obedience, honor, and above all service to king
      • Major concern – the army
      • 1740 – he doubled the size of the army
      • 4th – largest army
    • Frederick II – or Frederick the Great
      • 1 of – best educated and most cultured monarchs in 18th C
      • Well versed – in ideas of Enlightenment
      • Enlarged – the Prussian army
      • Strictly watched – over bureaucracy (gov’t workers not elected by vote)
      • Enlight reforms 1. abolished – use of torture except for treason & murder cases
      • granted – limited freedom of speech & press, religious toleration
      • But kept – Prussia’s serfdom and rigid social structure intact
  • Austria
    • Difficult – to rule
      • b/c – large & made up of diff. nationalities, languages, religions & cultures
    • Maria Theresa – Empress 1740
      • Worked to – centralize the empire & strengthen the power of the state
      • Not open to – philosophes’ calls for reform
      • Worked to – alleviate the condition of the serfs
    • Joseph II – son of Theresa
      • Abolished – serfdom
      • Eliminated – death penalty
      • Est – principle of equality of all before the law
      • Enacted – religious reform including religious toleration
      • Largely – failed in his efforts
        • Alienated 1. nobles by freeing surfs
    • 2. Church by religious reforms
      • Successors – undid almost all of Joseph II’s reforms
  • Russia
    • had series of weak rulers
      • Peter III – was murdered by a group of nobles
      • New ruler – his German wife became ruler
      • Catherine the Great – Catherine II
        • Ruled – 1762 to 1796
        • Favored – enlightened reforms
        • Recognized – considered principle of the equality of all people in the eyes of law
        • In end – did nothing
        • b/c – did not want to anger nobles
    • Favoring – landed nobility
      • Led to – worse conditions for peasants
      • Eventually – led to rebellion (led by Emelyan Pugachev)
      • Took stronger – measures against peasants
        • All rural – reform was stopped
        • Serfdom – was expanded to newer parts of empire
        • RU spread – southward to the Black Sea
      • Defeated – Turks
      • To West – gained 50% of Poland’s territory
  • 10-3B Enlightened Absolutism
    • Only – Joseph II sought truly radical changes
      • Both – Frederick II & Catherine II liked to talk about enlightened reforms
        • Even – attempted some
        • But – their interest in strengthening the state was their priority
      • Inc powers used to – collecting taxes
      • Creating – armies
      • To – gain more power
    • 18th C monarchs concerned w/ - balance of power (doesn’t mean peace)
      • States should – have equal power
      • To prevent – any one from dominating others
    • War of Austrian Succession (1740-48)
      • Aust Emp – war breaks out in 1740 when Charles VI dies
      • Succeeded by – his daughter, Maria Theresa
      • Fred II of PR – invaded Austrian Silesia
      • FR – then entered the war against Austria
      • Maria Theresa – made an alliance with Great Britain
    • In Eur, PR – seized Silesia
      • FR – occupied the AU Netherlands
      • In Far East, FR – took Madras in India
      • In N Am, BR – captured the FR fortress of Louisbourg (St. Lawrence River)
      • 1748 – Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
        • Guaranteed – returned of all occupied territories except Silesia to original owners
        • PR – refusal to return Silesia
        • Meant – war between Prussia & Austria
    • 7 Years War
      • Maria Theresa – refused to accept loss of Silesia
      • Built – army
      • 2 new rivalries: 1. Britain & France (over colonial empires)
    • 2. Austria & Prussia (over Silesia)
      • FR – abandoned Prussia
      • Allied w/ - Austria
      • RU – saw Prussia as a threat
        • Joined – new alliance of France & Austria
      • BR – allied with Prussia
      • 3 areas of conflict 1. Europe
    • 2. India
    • 3. North America
    • War in Eur
      • BR & PR vs – Austrians, Russians & French
      • 1763 – EU war ended
      • All – occupied territories were returned
      • Aust – recognized Prussia’s control of Silesia
    • War in India btw – Britain vs France
      • Known as – Great War for Empire
      • BR – ultimately won not because they had better forces but because they never gave up
    • 1763 FR – Treaty of Paris – FR withdrew & left India to British
    • War in N Am – greatest conflict of Seven Years’ War
      • BR & FR fought over: two areas
      • 1. Waterways of the Gulf of St. Lawrence
      • 2. Unsettled area of Ohio River Valley
    • Fr gained – support of Indians (Native Americans) because they were traders not settlers
    • William Pitt the Elder (BR PM) focused all resources in North America used
    • BR Navy to cut off FR supplies
    • Treaty of Paris 1763 – French were forced to make peace
      • Eng got – Canada and lands east of Mississippi
      • SP gave – Florida to England
      • FR gave – Louisiana territory to Spain
    • By 1763 – Great Britain had become the world’s greatest colonial power