10 3a&B

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10 3a&B

  1. 1. 10.3 THE IMPACT OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT <ul><li>The Arts- were also impacted by ideas of Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palaces modeled – Italian baroque style of 1500s & 1600s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balthasar Neumann – architects - Church of the Fourteen Saints & the Residence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rococo – new artistic style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized – grace, charm, and gentle action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highly – secular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of – enchantment and enthusiasm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Music – greatest period of EU music in 18th C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bach – renowned organist & composer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composed – Mass in B Minor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation – one of the greatest composers of all time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handel – German musician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best known – religious music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Messiah – been called a masterpiece of the highest order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both perfected – baroque musical style </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Hayden – musical director for wealthy Hungarian prices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 great works – The Creations & The Seasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mozart – child prodigy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 great operas 1. The Marriage of Figaro </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. The Magic Flute </li></ul><ul><li>3. Don Giovanni </li></ul><ul><li>Literature, dev of – EU novel attractive to middle class readers </li></ul>
  4. 4. ENLIGHTENMENT & ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM <ul><li>Philosophes believed – natural rights for all people </li></ul><ul><li>Incl. 1. equality before the law </li></ul><ul><li>2. freedom of religion </li></ul><ul><li>3. freedom of speech </li></ul><ul><li>4. freedom of press </li></ul><ul><li>5. the right to assemble </li></ul><ul><li>To be preserved by – enlightened rulers </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Enlightened rulers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow – religious toleration, freedom of speech, press & right of private property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurture – arts, science & education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obey – the laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce – laws fairly for all subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enlightened Absolutism – rulers tried to govern by enlightened principles </li></ul>
  6. 6. Prussia <ul><li>Frederick Wm I strove – maintain a highly efficient bureaucracy of civil service workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valued – obedience, honor, and above all service to king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major concern – the army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1740 – he doubled the size of the army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4th – largest army </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Frederick II – or Frederick the Great </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 of – best educated and most cultured monarchs in 18th C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well versed – in ideas of Enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlarged – the Prussian army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strictly watched – over bureaucracy (gov’t workers not elected by vote) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlight reforms 1. abolished – use of torture except for treason & murder cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>granted – limited freedom of speech & press, religious toleration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But kept – Prussia’s serfdom and rigid social structure intact </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Austria <ul><li>Difficult – to rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b/c – large & made up of diff. nationalities, languages, religions & cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maria Theresa – Empress 1740 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked to – centralize the empire & strengthen the power of the state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not open to – philosophes’ calls for reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked to – alleviate the condition of the serfs </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Joseph II – son of Theresa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished – serfdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated – death penalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Est – principle of equality of all before the law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enacted – religious reform including religious toleration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely – failed in his efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alienated 1. nobles by freeing surfs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Church by religious reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successors – undid almost all of Joseph II’s reforms </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Russia <ul><li>had series of weak rulers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter III – was murdered by a group of nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New ruler – his German wife became ruler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catherine the Great – Catherine II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled – 1762 to 1796 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Favored – enlightened reforms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognized – considered principle of the equality of all people in the eyes of law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In end – did nothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b/c – did not want to anger nobles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Favoring – landed nobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to – worse conditions for peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually – led to rebellion (led by Emelyan Pugachev) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took stronger – measures against peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All rural – reform was stopped </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serfdom – was expanded to newer parts of empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RU spread – southward to the Black Sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated – Turks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To West – gained 50% of Poland’s territory </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 10-3B Enlightened Absolutism <ul><li>Only – Joseph II sought truly radical changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both – Frederick II & Catherine II liked to talk about enlightened reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even – attempted some </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But – their interest in strengthening the state was their priority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inc powers used to – collecting taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating – armies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To – gain more power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>18th C monarchs concerned w/ - balance of power (doesn’t mean peace) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States should – have equal power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent – any one from dominating others </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>War of Austrian Succession (1740-48) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aust Emp – war breaks out in 1740 when Charles VI dies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Succeeded by – his daughter, Maria Theresa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fred II of PR – invaded Austrian Silesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FR – then entered the war against Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maria Theresa – made an alliance with Great Britain </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>In Eur, PR – seized Silesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FR – occupied the AU Netherlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Far East, FR – took Madras in India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In N Am, BR – captured the FR fortress of Louisbourg (St. Lawrence River) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1748 – Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteed – returned of all occupied territories except Silesia to original owners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PR – refusal to return Silesia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meant – war between Prussia & Austria </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>7 Years War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maria Theresa – refused to accept loss of Silesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built – army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 new rivalries: 1. Britain & France (over colonial empires) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> 2. Austria & Prussia (over Silesia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FR – abandoned Prussia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allied w/ - Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RU – saw Prussia as a threat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joined – new alliance of France & Austria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BR – allied with Prussia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 areas of conflict 1. Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li> 2. India </li></ul><ul><li> 3. North America </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>War in Eur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BR & PR vs – Austrians, Russians & French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1763 – EU war ended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All – occupied territories were returned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aust – recognized Prussia’s control of Silesia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>War in India btw – Britain vs France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as – Great War for Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BR – ultimately won not because they had better forces but because they never gave up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1763 FR – Treaty of Paris – FR withdrew & left India to British </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>War in N Am – greatest conflict of Seven Years’ War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BR & FR fought over: two areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Waterways of the Gulf of St. Lawrence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Unsettled area of Ohio River Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fr gained – support of Indians (Native Americans) because they were traders not settlers </li></ul><ul><li>William Pitt the Elder (BR PM) focused all resources in North America used </li></ul><ul><li>BR Navy to cut off FR supplies </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Treaty of Paris 1763 – French were forced to make peace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eng got – Canada and lands east of Mississippi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SP gave – Florida to England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FR gave – Louisiana territory to Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1763 – Great Britain had become the world’s greatest colonial power </li></ul>

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