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  1. 1. Private speech: self-talk that guides thinking and action. Language is not onlyimportant in our social interactions, but it helps us to accomplish tasks. This is whymost people talk to themselves. Vygotsky Social Cognitive Development Language Interactions Cultural ContextSociocultural theory of development: emphasizes the crucial influence that socialinteractions and language, embedded within a cultural context, have on cognitivedevelopment. Remember: the word “sociocultural” has two words in it: “social” and“cultural.” These are the important influences on development that Vygotsky identified.
  2. 2. Co-construction of cognition Higher mental processes are co- constructed during shared activities between the child and another person. This means that a child and an older person (another child, a teacher, a parent) work together to solve a problem. During the process, they often talk and negotiate the solution.
  3. 3. Co-construction of cognitionThis child is learning to Soon, this child will be ablewalk with the help of a to walk and run by herself.parent. The parent holdsboth hands so the childdoesn’t have to focus onboth balance and movingher feet. As you might imagine, it takes a lot of brain power to walk. Children develop this skill with the help of other people. This is what Vygotsky is talking about with the idea of the co-construction of cognition.
  4. 4. Co-construction of cognition What are you writing? I’m writing a letter Father’s knowledge of letters: Child’s knowledge of Structure (date, letters: salutation, body, etc.) Mom and dad write and Purpose (friendly, formal, receive letters. etc.) Conventional spelling and grammarIn a conversation like this, the child can draw on the father’s experience to helpher to construct her letter. The father can ask questions to make sure he is helpinghis daughter reach the goals she has set for herself. She may not be able to writethe letter on her own, but through talking with her dad, she will be able toconstruct something satisfactory. At the same time, she is learning so she will bemore able to write a letter by herself the next time.
  5. 5. Cultural tools Higher order thinking is mediated through material tools and language
  6. 6. Mediation We speak language butThis means that while we are spoken by it.use language, the languagewe use limits our thoughts.If a language is not able toexpress a concept, we arenot able to think that Users of Roman numeralsconcept. had no concept of zero and were not able to think about or do mathematics we use in everyday life (multiplication and division of large numbers). English, which includes Jacques Lacan aspects of German, French, (French and Greek, is a rich language psychoanalyst) that can express many concepts—yet Greek has more ways of defining types of love than English.
  7. 7. Language and Cultural Diversity Every culture has the words it needs for its lifestyle. But many words cannot be translated into other cultures, because they do not have corresponding words for these functions.
  8. 8. Language and cultural diversityWestern cultures organize color by the spectrum. We have many different namesfor colors (think: avocado, puce, burnt sienna, and remember the 64 crayolas).But other cultures don’t organize colors in this way. They may think of two broadcategories (warm and cold colors) or they may organize colors in relation totexture.
  9. 9. Language and cultural diversityPeople who make their living on ice need lots of words to describe types of ice (variousforms of safe and unsafe ice). These concepts are foreign to anyone who has lived inFlorida all his or her life. Floridians don’t have the language available to think about ice.
  10. 10. Language and Private Speech Let’s see… I need to click on this link andPrivate speech: then type in theChildren’s self-talk, name of the file Iwhich guides their want…thinking and actions.Eventually, theseverbalizations areinternalized as silentinner speech. You are not crazy if you talk to yourself. According to Vygotsky, this is an important way we learn.
  11. 11. Vygotsky vs. Piaget on private speech Piaget called children’s talking to themselves “egocentric speech.” It is evidence of their immaturity (inability to see another’s perspective). Vygotsky sees private speech as a way of children learning to regulate themselves. They are controlled initially by parents’ speech (“NO!!”) and then they use that tactic to control themselves. Eventually, the speech becomes silent inner speech, mostly, although adults still talk to themselves when they are trying to solve a problem.
  12. 12. Private speech in the classroom I gotta go S is like a down, then up, sssssssnake. then down. There. N.Not only should you allow private speech in the classroom, but you can also modelthe type of private speech that is helpful for doing a task. This is called a “thinkaloud.” As a teacher, you demonstrate to students not only how to do somethingbut the things you say to yourself as you are doing it.
  13. 13. A range of tasks that an individual cannot yet do alone but can accomplish whenassisted by a more skilled partner. Zone of Proximal Development Zone of Proximal Development:The Known: The Unknown: What I can do with the helpWhat I can do by myself What I cannot do at all of someone else. THE LEARNING SPACEHow to remember the words: A WHEN YOU TEACH—you will want to usezone is an area. Proximal activities that are in students’ ZPD. Activitiesdescribes something that is next in the area of the known are too easy andto something. those in the area of the unknown are too hard.
  14. 14. The role of learning and development Piaget: development is the active construction of knowledge and learning is the passive formation of associations. Vygotsky: learning is an active process that does not have to wait for “readiness.” Learning is a tool in development—it drives development.
  15. 15. What???Development Piaget Learning Piaget: development precedes learning. Development is creating the schemes through adaptation and accommodation while learning is creating the associations within the schemes..
  16. 16. What???, continued Social Vygotsky Individual Vygotsky believed that development begins at the social level and moves towards individual internalization. Egocentric speech is seen as a transition between the childs learning language in a social communicative context, and attempting to internalize it as "private" or "inner speech" (i.e., thoughts). For Vygotsky, learning precedes development.http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/fas/shuell/CEP564/Lectures/CogDev.htm
  17. 17. What???, continued They both agree: development is driven by cognitive conflict—the inability to do something by oneself.http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/fas/shuell/CEP564/Lectures/CogDev.htm
  18. 18. Limitations of Vygotsky’s theory Maybe he went too far with the socio-cultural part of his theory Maybe people are “hardwired” for much of what we learn early on—that we are not always just learning from peers, teachers, or parents. Vygotsky never got to explore the details of his theory and much of the research of his students was repressed by the regime in Soviet Russia.
  19. 19. Implications for teachers: Piaget We need to understand and build on student thinking. Students need opportunities to construct their knowledge—to try things out for themselves. “Play is children’s work” (Montessori). Play helps children to develop their cognitive abilities.
  20. 20. Implications for teachers: Vygotsky Adults and peers are critical to the learning process through scaffolding (support for learning and problem solving. The support could be clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, proiding and example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner). Assisted learning: providing strategic help in the initial stages of learning, gradually diminishing as students gain independence. Teaching in the Zone—not too hard, not too easy, but JUST RIGHT.
  21. 21. Assistance that allows students to complete tasks they cannot complete independently. Scaffolding TeacherActivityLevelFor aTask Child TimeAs a child develops skills and confidence, he or she “takes over” the activity. The teacherdoes less and less.
  22. 22. Examples of scaffolds Modeling—students watch teacher do a task Think-alouds—teacher models helpful thinking and strategies while accomplishing a task (e.g., what to think while trying to read an unfamiliar word) Adapting—use simplified version of something Instructional materials—manipulatives help students to learn math Prompts and cues— “i before e except after c” or other ways of remembering information and processes.
  23. 23. Examples of scaffolds Math: manipulatives, graphing calculators Music: simplified notation, “ta and ti ti,” teacher bows violin while student notes fingerboard Reading: repetitive language books (child memorizes repeated phrase and can “read” it); these reading guides are scaffolds for understanding and applying difficult concepts in educational psychology Writing: teacher helps student to form alphabet letters; teacher provides forms for poems until students feel more confident about developing their own poetic forms Science: lab book guides students as they learn to write up experiments in scientific form
  24. 24. Funds of Knowledge There used to be an egocentrism about American schools: if a student came from the dominant culture he or she was all right. But if a student came from a non-dominant culture, he or she had deficits that had to be made up. These might be deficits of knowledge (e.g., coming from a family that didn’t read meant learning how to use a book on the first day of school) or deficits in language (speaking a non- standard dialect) or deficits in behavior that derives from cultural experiences.
  25. 25. Funds of Knowledge People treat people with perceived deficits differently from the way they treat people they perceive of as “normal.” People with deficits are thought of as people with “problems,” people who need to change something fundamental about themselves, people who are somehow “less than” the normal people.
  26. 26. Funds of knowledge Yet all children who come to school are blessed with “funds of knowledge”— knowledge that families and community members have in many areas of work, home, and religious life that can be a basis for teaching.
  27. 27. For example…  Children from non-dominant cultures may have a language (a variant of English or a foreign language) with a rich history and poetry. For example, Appalachian English is not “bad” English—it’s a form of Elizabethan English (the language of Shakespeare) that survived in the hills.Heritage language: the language spoken in a student’s home or by older members ofthe family. Students who “Americanize” or who strive to become part of the dominantculture can lose their heritage language and therefore their family history and culture.
  28. 28. Appalachian Dialect Features of Elizabethan English (the language used around Shakespeare’s time) “I reckon” for “I think.” “Ary” for “any.” Drop unaccented first syllables, add “r” to final syllables that end in –o. “Tobacco” becomes “backer,” “tomato” becomes “mater,” “potato” becomes “tater.” This is why some of those phonics worksheets don’t work for children from Appalachia (“tomato” begins with an “m” sound, not a “t” sound. If you want a “t” sound, try “tater”). Words ending in –a are pronounced to end in –y. “Martha” is pronounced “Marthy.” If a first syllable is typically unaccented but necessary, it becomes accented: Ja- PAN becomes JA-pan, umBRELLa becomes UMbrella, hoTEL become HOtel, poLICE becomes POlice. “I don’t care to” means “I’d like to,” NOT “I’d rather not.”
  29. 29. Advantages to Appalachian dialect “Rabbit in a log” in “Rabbit in a log” in Appalachian dialect: “school” English There’s a rabbit in a log There’s a rabbit in a log and I ain’t got no dog and I don’t have any dog.Artistically speaking, Appalachian dialect is perfectly appropriate for importantAppalachian art forms such as songs and story telling as well as for cultural eventssuch as family interactions. Students should celebrate their dialectical backgrounds,learn how to translate home dialect into school dialect, and learn how to operatecompetently in both dialects. It is helpful to bring in examples of home dialects andto translate between dialects. It is also a good idea to talk about when certaindialects are appropriate.
  30. 30. For example…, continued Children from non-dominant families may know important survival skills. If their parents are in the construction business, they may know a lot about tools and construction. If they don’t have a lot of money, they may know a lot about how to substitute one thing for another when something has broken down. If their parents aren’t able to read, they may know a lot about how to get necessary information without reading.
  31. 31. Funds of Knowledge The point of this idea is to start with students’ strengths and to bring the rest of their lives into the classroom as a means of engaging them in classroom learning. This means talking with students and their families and learning about what their lives are like. It means looking for their strengths rather than seeing them as a collection of weaknesses.
  32. 32. Concrete VocabularyAccommodation operational stage Funds of Neo-Piagetian Preoperational Social Adaptation Conservation knowledge theories stage development Adolescent Heritage Private Social Compensation Neurons egocentrism language speech experience Sociocultural Object Assimilation Cultural tools Holophrases Reversability theory of permanence development Assisted Decentering Identity Organization Scaffolding Synapses learning Over- Centration Development Lateralization generalization Schemes Syntax Personal Semiotic Systematic Classification Disequilibrium Maturation development function reasoningCo-constructed Metalinguistic Physical Sensori- Egocentrism Transformation process awareness development motor stage Cognitive Under- Equilibrium Myelination Plasticity Seriation development generalization Formal Zone of Collective Nativist Shared operational Pragmatics proximal monologue theory understanding stage development