Erikson’s Psychosocial theory Psychosocial is a description of the relation between an individual’s emotional needs and the social environment around him or her. According to this theory, at critical ages, people experience developmental crises, specific conflicts whose resolution prepares the way for the next stage.
Erikson’s Psychosocial theory Person First conflict: trust vs. mistrust. A baby in a supportive environment (whereEnvironment parents are dependable and responsive to the child), learns to trust people. A baby in a chaotic, non-supportive environment learns that people cannot be trusted. The baby learns this lesson because babies must depend on other people to survive. At no other time in our lives are we normally so dependent. This is why we learn this lesson at this stage of life. What we learn about trust at this early age influences how we deal with people for much of the rest of our lives.
Erikson’s Psychosocial theory Person Adolescents deal with “identity vs. role confusion.” At this point in their lives,Environment adolescents have developed many of the cognitive skills they will use as adults and their bodies have become adult. Thus, they need to learn “who they are” in the world. Their environment (parents, teachers, etc.) can be supportive of this process or restrictive in some significant way. Adolescents who successfully resolve this conflict develop a strong sense of self. Adolescents who don’t will struggle with their identity for many years.
Erikson’s Theory of Personal DevelopmentLife eventsBorn: Ages 1-3 Ages 3-6helpless & Learn basic self Beginning to learndependent on care, including about the world andothers for toilet training how to operate in it.survivalTrust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Initiative vs. GuiltCaregivers help Children’s mistakes in learning to Explorations are(trust) or they don’t care for self are either considered either supported by(mistrust) normal or they are excessively caregivers or punished thwarted.Erikson stages Initiative is willingness to begin Autonomy means independence. new activities and explore new ideas.
Erikson’s Theory of Personal Development, continuedLife eventsAges 6-12 Ages 12-18 Young adulthoodBegins school, Adolescence, Choosesdevelops academically puberty, beginning permanentand intellectually to become adult relationshipsIndustry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Confusion Intimacy vs. IsolationLearns how to work and Develops own identity Chooses to be insucceed academically separate from family or significant relationshipsor else does not learn else fails to do this. or else may not bethese skills emotionally able to sustain intimate relationshipsErikson stages Industry is eagerness to engage in productive work.
Erikson’s Theory of Personal Development, continuedLife eventsMiddle adulthood Old ageWorking (either on a Facing death,job or at home raising assessingchildren) one’s lifeGenerativity vs. Integrity vs. DespairStagnation Feels as if life hasFeels like one’s work been well-lived—or notis a contribution ornotErikson stages Generativity: sense of concern for future generations Integrity: sense of self-acceptance and fulfillment
Remembering Erikson’s stages Remember the positive term and something about the age. Then connect the negative term. Baby, TRUST (when kids are born they have to trust that others will care for them) opposite is MISTRUST Toddler, AUTONOMY (toddlers are working at becoming independent. When they are scolded in potty training, they feel SHAME & DOUBT) Preschooler, INITIATIVE (preschoolers want to learn about the world. When they are held back, they feel GUILT). Elementary, INDUSTRY (kids learn how to work at school or else they feel INFERIORITY) Teens, IDENTITY (teens develop own identity or else confusion— IDENTITY CONFUSION) Twenties, INTIMACY (young adults choose relationships or become ISOLATED) Mid life, GENERATIVITY (middle adults feel their life work is worthwhile or feel STAGNATED) Old age, INTEGRITY (can be peaceful about death because life was well lived or else DESPAIR)
This is the evidence you will see in a person’s life for how they resolved each of thesestages. Resolutions to Erikson’s stages Positive Negative Trust vs. Mistrust: trust in Trust vs. Mistrust: see the themselves and others. world as inconsistent and Relaxed positive attitude. threatening. See life as not predictable, and view good things as temporary. Autonomy vs. shame and Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: good sense and doubt: fear being exposed as command of their will power. inadequate. Attempt to hide Feel free to be themselves. their feelings of powerlessness. Initiative vs. guilt: believe they Initiative vs. guilt: fear of being know how the world works. inadequate and of making Clear sense of what they want mistakes. Self-restrictive and in life. sometimes overconscientious. Continued, next slide
Resolutions to Erikson’s stages Positive Negative Industry vs. inferiority: relish Industry vs. inferiority: feel achievement and like to tackle inadequate, incapable, and challenging tasks. estranged. Lack ambition. Identity vs. confusion: know Identity vs. confusion: see who they are, what their goals conflict in who they are and are, and where they’re going. what they would like to be. Intimacy vs. isolation: commit Intimacy vs. isolation: self- to partnerships and have the absorbed. Identity is too ethics to abide by the fragile to maintain the commitments to friends and uncertainties of intimacy. significant others. Continued, next slideHow can you, as a teacher, help students toresolve these conflicts positively?
Resolutions to Erikson’s stages Positive Negative Generativity vs. Generativity vs. stagnation: concern for stagnation: lack long- creation of better world. term goals and Focus on service to commitments. Live for others. short-term gratification. Integrity vs. despair: feel Integrity vs. despair: view their lives have meaning life as filled with missed and significance opportunitiesWhat should a person do when a conflict has been resolved negatively? This is whereexploring the past through journaling and talking with a trusted person (friend, counselor,pastor, etc.) can help a whole lot. When we have information about our past and itseffects, we can make decisions so that it no longer has as much influence on us.
Comparing Erikson & Piaget Piaget EriksonMechanism for Drive for equilibrium Crises at critical ages (when a person’sgrowth (assimilation & accommodation) social & emotional tasks change) Brain developmentFocus of theory Cognitive Development Emotional DevelopmentInfancy Sensorimotor Trust vs. MistrustToddler Preoperational Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (this stage begins a little earlier than preoperational)Pre-school Preoperational Initiative vs. GuiltElementary school Concrete Operational Industry vs. InferiorityAdolescence Formal Operations Identity vs. ConfusionYoung Adulthood Formal Operations Intimacy vs. IsolationMiddle Adulthood Formal Operations Generativity vs. StagnationElderly Formal Operations Integrity vs. Despair
Erikson in the classroom Be aware of the stage(s) your students are in. Offer opportunities to engage with aspects of that stage. Pre-schoolers need support for taking initiative. Elementary students need support for learning how to work effectively. Adolescents need opportunities to explore their own identities. Scaffold the opportunities you offer so students can experience success. For example, if a child has a hard time working independently for an hour, cut back on the time until the child can succeed and then start extending the time.
Erikson in the classroom Encourage initiative in pre-school students. Give them choices, provide opportunities and support for them to succeed, and help them learn how to deal with their mistakes in a positive way. Encourage industry with elementary and middle school students. Help them to work independently by giving them short assignments and then longer ones. Give them opportunities to demonstrate and use their sense of responsibility. Provide extra support for students who seem to be struggling with this.
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