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  1. 1. Observational learning Social learning theory: theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others.
  2. 2. This theory examines the processes involved as people learn fromobserving others and gradually acquire control over their own behavior. Social Cognitive Theory We learn by watching other people.
  3. 3. Social Cognitive TheoryLearning: a change in mental structures that creates the capacity todemonstrate different behaviors.
  4. 4. Modeling The tendency of individuals to imitate the behaviors they observe in others. (Think of the effect of popular sports figures on youngsters—that’s modeling). Cognitive modeling—where teachers deliberately model strategies they want students to use. Vicarious learning—we watch others and adjust our own behavior based on what happens to them.
  5. 5. Modeling This is a hard word, so I’m going to sound it out. The first letter is a B and that sounds like /b/…Now I am going to check to see if that word makes sense inCognitive modeling: the sentence. makes your thinkingprocess “visible” tostudents so they canuse it also. This is agreat way to teachstrategies. You canmodel thinking at thelevel of yourstudents. Forexample, adults don’ttypically “sound out”words but students infirst grade should beable to do this. Bymodeling it, youencourage studentsto try the strategy.This is also called a“think aloud.”
  6. 6. Modeling: Vicarious learning Vicarious learning: occurs when people observe the consequences of another person’s behavior and adjust their own behavior accordingly. If you watch another student get punished for raising his/her hand, you are much less likely to raise your hand.Vicarious reinforcement: increasing the chances that we will repeata behavior by observing another person being reinforced for thatbehavior.
  7. 7. Modeling: Effects Learn new behaviors—watch an expert serve a tennis ball and then try it yourself. Facilitate existing behaviors—one student’s outrageous behavior may cause others to act out as well. Change inhibitions. An inhibition is a self-imposed restriction on one’s behavior. If you go to a new place, you watch other people’s behavior. If their behavior is more reserved than yours normally is, you will increase your inhibitions. If their behavior is wilder than yours, you will reduce your inhibitions. Arouse emotions. The emotions of models affect the emotions of those watching. Ripple effect: “contagious” spreading of behaviors through imitation.
  8. 8. Television and modeling Theories of modeling were based on research involving television watching, back when watching television was new and different entertainment. Television is a powerful modeling system for children. The more violent television they watch, the more aggressive they are likely to become. Now video games have introduced a whole new set of influences, with the addition that the watcher is also a participant…
  9. 9. Television guidelines Limit television. Avoid using TV as a reward or punishment Model healthy viewing—critique what is being seen with children. Be an authoritative parent—as a counter model to what is on TV. Basically, similar rules apply to video gaming.
  10. 10. Learning from Models Attention: You have to pay attention Students are more to the model likely to follow models that they think are like Motivation: themselves, You expect the same reward competent, and with that the model got. This high status. motivates you to pay attention, to retain, and to reproduce the behavior. Retention: Reproduction: You have to You do what the remember model did what the model did.
  11. 11. Self-reinforcement:Self-Regulation controlling your own reinforcers. Self- Set Goals Teaching your Reinforcement students to be self-regulating learners means that they may become life- long learners and they will be able to work independently in your classroom. Self-Assessment Self-Observation The process of accepting responsibility and control for one’s own learning.
  12. 12. Also called: self-management: use of behavioral learning principles tochange your own behavior. More about self regulation  Cognitive behavior modification: the modification of overt behavior through the manipulation of covert thought processes.  “Manipulation” is a poor word in this definition. It implies that teachers get students to do something without the students realizing it, the way television ads try to manipulate us into buying what we don’t need, and that’s not what is going on here.  This process is actually teaching metacognition— thinking about how to achieve goals and using strategies to do so. Self-efficacy: a person’s sense of being able to deal effectively with a particular task.
  13. 13. Self-modeling Behavioral changes result from people observing and reflecting on their own behaviors. When you get video taped during your field experiences, that is an opportunity for self- modeling. This is a highly effective form of learning.
  14. 14. Cognitive Behavior Modificationand Self Instruction Cognitive behavior modification: procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive learning principles for changing your own behavior by using self-talk and self- instruction. Self-instruction: talking oneself through the steps of a task.
  15. 15. Process1. Adult model performs task while talking out loud to him/herself.2. Child performs the same task under direction of model’s instruction.3. Child performs task while talking out loud to him/herself.4. Child whispers instruction to self while performing task.5. Child performs task using private speech (internal rather than external).
  16. 16. Productive Conditioned General- Neutral learning Self-Antecedents Reprimands Time out stimulus ization stimulus environ- modeling ment Applied Good Operant Self- Token Rein- Conse- behavior behavior condition Prompts Respondents regula- forcement quence analysis game ing tion system Group Self- Uncondition Aversive Contiguity Conse- Operants Punishers Response reinforce ed quences ment response Behavior Contingency Observational Response Uncondition Inhibition Punishment Shapingmodification contract learning cost ed stimulusBehavioral Continuous Intermittent Positive Social Ratio Ripple Vicarious learning reinforceme reinforceme behavioral cognitive schedule effect learning theories nt schedule nt schedule supports theory Positive Vicarious Classical Interval Reinforce- Social Cues reinforce- Satiation reinforce-conditioning schedule ment isolation ment ment Cognitive Reinforce- Social Discrim- behavior Learning Potency ment Self-efficacy Learning inationmodification schedule theory Cognitive Premack Self- Extinction Modeling Reinforcer Stimulus modeling principle instruction Presenta Functional NegativeConditioned tion Removal Self- Stimulus behavioral reinforce response punishm punishment management control assessment ment ent