• Poem: a literal and figurative space, comprised of words, lines and stanzas, created on a page or pages in which the poet, through the poem’s speaker, explores the nature of reality and expresses its metaphorical observations (its truths) to its reader.
Poetry• Meaning – Metaphor and extended metaphor – Simile – Analogy• Rhythm• Meter
Poetic Devices• Sounds of words• Meanings of words• Arranging the words• Images of words• (semiotics)
Scansion• Analyzing the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry to determine its meter. – Stressed syllables: labeled with accent mark: / – Unstressed syllables: labeled with a dash: — – Metrical feet may be two or three syllables in length, divided by slashes: |
Scansion: Basic RhythmsPattern Name Example —/ Iamb/Iambic /— Trochee/Trochaic ——/ Anapest/Anapestic /—— Dactyl/Dactylic / / Spondee/Spondaic —— Pyrric
Meter• Measured by the number of feet in a line – Common line lengths are • Monometer: one foot • Dimeter: two feet • Trimeter: three feet • Tetrameter: four • Pentameter: five • Hexameter: six • Heptameter: seven • Octameter: eight
Elements of a Poem• Word.• Line: corresponds to a series of metrical feet – Usually indented to indicate continuation.• Verse: one single line arranged in metrical pattern. May be free verse (irregular or no pattern), blank verse (unrhymed iambic pentameter), fixed verse (pattern: rhyming schemes – ABA BAB CBC – and forms like sestina, villanelle, haiku) – Traditional verse forms determine line length (and rhyme pattern) by convention, modern poetry uses more latitude. Line length determined by the poet’s choice (rhyming is considered passé).
Elements of a Poem• Stanza: division of a poem by arranging lines into a unit, often repeating same pattern or meter throughout. A unit of poetic lines similar to a paragraph. Stanzas are separated by blank lines.• Stanza forms: names describing the number of lines in a stanza • Couplet (2), tercet (3), quatrain (4), quintet (5), sestet (6), septet (7), octave (8)• Some stanzas follow set rhyme schemes in addition to the number of lines – Ballad meter, ottava rima, rhyme royal, terza rima, Spenserian stanza
Point of View• The vantage of the speaker or “teller.” Also called the poem’s “voice.” Sometimes referred to as the poem’s persona. – 1st person: the speaker is a character and speaks from his or her perspective (uses the “I”). – 3rd person limited: the speaker is not a character in the poem, and speaks about the other characters through limited perception of one other person – 3rd person omniscient: the speaker is not part of the poem but knows and describes with all characters are thinking.
Allusion• An allusion is a literary device that stimulates ideas, associations, and extra information in the readers mind with only a word or two. Allusion means “reference”. It relies on the reader’s ability to understand the allusion and on his familiarity with all of the meanings hidden behind the words.