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Presentation the rationale, role and working methods of oa

Presentation the rationale, role and working methods of oa



Key note address given for meeting of the International Society of Addiction Journal Editors (ISAJE), 25-26 September 2009, Trieste, Italy.

Key note address given for meeting of the International Society of Addiction Journal Editors (ISAJE), 25-26 September 2009, Trieste, Italy.



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    Presentation the rationale, role and working methods of oa Presentation the rationale, role and working methods of oa Presentation Transcript

    • The rationale, role and working methods of open access journals
      Caroline Sutton, Publisher
      Co-Action Publishing
      ISAJE Meeting , Trieste; 25-26 September 2009
    • Co-Action Publishing
      • Founded in 2007 as a Swedish limited liability company
      • Currently publish 5 journals and 2 books
      • In process of launching/taking over 7 journals
      • Offer consulting and support services through Open Access Solutions
      • Founding member and current President of Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, OASPA
    • www.OpenAccessSolutions.com
    • www.oaspa.org
    • Some statistics
      • Today there are over 4300 journals listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals. (www.doaj.org)
      • A recent study conducted by Public Knowledge Project found that a majority of the 1000 journals who replied to a survey (out of 4000) were not in the DOAJ.
      • In 2008 Scopus listed over 90 000 OA articles, amounting to 6% of the Scopus content.
      • Much of the new (title) growth within the publishing industry is taking place within Open Access journals
    • Open Access Publishers
      Open Access Publishing Houses
      Mixed model publishers
      University Presses
      Scholar Publishers
    • The Rationale: Why open access?
    • Suggested benefits
      High Impact
      Easy Archiving
      Democracy/Reduce the digital divide
      Re-use of one’s work
    • 10/12/2010
      ”serials crisis”
      Reproduced under CC Attribution Share Alike 2.5 license; Image by Nino Barbieri, Jan 2004, Wikimedia Commons
    • 10/12/2010
      Price per Page Increases over 7 year period:
      T&F 75,0 %
      Blackwell 36,3 %
      Springer 26,5 %
      Elsevier 16,5 %
      Wiley 8,4 %
      Sage 104,4 %*
      Average price per page for medicine in GBP
      Ref: ”Trends in Scholarly Journal Pricing 2000-2006” Sonya White and Claire Creaser, March 2007. Commissioned by Oxford University Press
      * On SSH, medical publishing from 2007
    • Reports
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      *Reproduced from Wikemedia under the conditions of the GNU General Public License Exquisite-network.png
      Google Planet
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      *Reproduced from Wikemedia under the conditions of the GNU General Public License Exquisite-network.png
      THE ROLE:
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      ”There is a need to change the metaphor behind our understanding of what knowledge is.”
      .....John Wilbanks, Director Science Commons
    • Knowledge as ”paper”
      Knowledge as ”product” and ”property”
      Created by scientists
      Owned by publishers
      Archived by libraries
      -- John Wilbanks, Science Commons, presentation at IATUL, June 2007
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      Licensing fees
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      Copyright (does not allow the re-use of text freely)
    • Knowledge = NETWORK
      Knowledge = infrastructure
      ”A better reflection of the reality of knowledge”
      -- John Wilbanks, Science Commons, presentation at IATUL, June 2007
    • ”A social network diagram”, Screenshot taken by Darwin Peacock, accessed through Wikimedia; distributed under a CCL 3.0.
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      ”Your OA publisher helps you connect and share with the researchers in your life.”
      And the ones you don’t even know about!
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    • WORKING METHODS: Open Access in Practice
    • OPEN ACCESS = Free Access + Re-use
      Libre Open Access
    • Creative Commons Licenses
      Most common:
      • Attribution 3.0
      • (CCBY or CCAL)
      • Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0
      • (CCBY-NC)
    • Copyright Notice
      Authors contributing to Global Health Action agree to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear.
      Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to Co-Action Publishing. However, authors are required to transfer copyrights associated with commercial use to the Publisher. Revenues from commercial sales are used to keep down the publication fees. Moreover, a major portion of the profits generated from commercial sales is placed in a fund to cover publication fees for researchers from developing nations and, in some cases, for young researchers.
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      Paying for Open Access
      • Article Processing Charge/Publication Fee
      • Submission fees
      • Grants
      • In-kind support
      • Patronage
      • Advertising revenue
      • Membership dues
      • Secondary publications
      • Future consortia deals?
      No one model at present
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      Impact :
      What does this mean with Open Access?
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      We judge the worth of a paper on the basis of the impact factor of the journal in which it was published.
      Recommended reading:
      Adler, R., Ewing, J. Taylor, P. Citation statistics. A report from the International Mathematical Union. http://www.mathunion.org/publications/report/citationstatistics/
      Browman, H. I., Stergiou, K.I.Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, Theme Section. The Use and misuse of bibliometric indices in evaluating scholarly performance., Vol. 8, no. 8
      * Slide borrowed from Mark Patterson, PLoS
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      • Many OA journals are new
      • Many still do not have an impact factor
      • Other OA journals have achieved very high impact factors
      • Research has investigated whether there is an ”OA advantage” with mixed results
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      Measuring Impact
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      Measuring Impact
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      If the impact factor is how we have defined impact because of the tools available to us, how CAN we measure impact today? What tools are available?
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      Measuring Impact
      Article-level metrics
      • Usage data
      • Page views
      • Citations from Scopus
      • Citations from CrossRef
      • Social networking links
      • Press coverage
      • Comments
      • User ratings
      Not an alternative metric : ”Our idea is to throw up a bunch of metrics and see what people use.” (Binfield in The Scientist)
    • Example
      Food & Nutrition Research
      OA from Jan 2008
    • Case – Swedish Nutrition Foundation
      • Swedish Nutrition Foundation (SNF) owned Swedish Journal of Food & Nutrition, which was published in partnership with one of the large traditional publishing houses.
      • Manuscripts submissions were modest.
      • Few subscriptions outside the society subscriptions.
      • Journal was regarded as a member benefit.
      • The society felt that it was time to either try something radical or drop the journal altogether.
      • They chose to drop the journal as it was and re-launch a new OA journal with a new and more international title.
    • Universe of a Subscription Journal
      Access only for those who have a subscription – for Food & Nutrition Research, approx. 700-800
    • Universe of the OA Journal
      Researchers from related fields
      Healthcare Workers – esp Physicians & Nutritionists
      Nutrition advocates
      Related professions
      General citizens interested in their own nutrition
      Industries with links
      Gov’t agencies &
      Pharmaceutical Co
      (e.g. Novartis Medical Nutrition)
      Print and online magazines
    • Usage Increased
      During first six months:
      • Over 42 000 full text article requests
      • Over 32 000 full pages viewed by over 6 000 different visitors to the website
      Visitors were from 120 different countries while subscriptions had been from 14 countries
      Over first year:
      • Over 118 000 full page views by over 35 000 unique visitors
      • 113 662 downloaded articles
      Visitors were from 176 countries, with the US accounting for 20% of traffic.
    • Are Some Journals Better Suited to OA than Others?
      Ideally any journal is a candidate for OA. But there are some opportunities and challenges associated with some scenarios.
      • Good manuscript flow, few subscriptions – Very good candidate for OA.
      • Few subscriptions, poor ms flow – OA can give the journal a lift if OA is marketed as an advantage of publishing with the journal. May need to choose an economic model that subsidizes publication costs for at least an interum period.
      • Multi-disciplinary journals – Good OA candidates. These have traditionally been very difficult to build subscription bases for and are better suited to OA.
      • Currently many OA journals are in STM fields (due to pressures from funding agencies and the launch of the commercial publishers that focus only on STM), but there is no reason why SS and HUM can’t be OA. University presses seem to be focusing on these. STM journals seem to have an advantage due to wider array of funding sources.
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      THANK YOU!
    • 10/12/2010