THE ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION IN THE EDUCATION PROCESS A Report in NED 204 Presented by: CARMINA F. GURREA
BASIC ELEMENTS OFCLASSROOM MANAGEMENTObjectives: 1. Define classroom management 2. Identify the basic elements of classroom management 3. Describe a classroom climate that is conducive for learning 4. Enumerate ways on how teachers and students can help create a conducive classroom environment
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Classroom management is an integral part of the teaching process. It suggests providing a classroom environment that is conducive to learning, such as appropriate time scheduling for various activities and an orderly placement of furniture and instructional materials. A clean and well lighted area, together with a comfortable seating arrangement, make the classroom an inviting place for promoting interaction and a much welcomed feeling of togetherness. Records of performance are well – kept and reported to keep track of progress. Discipline indicating complete behaviour control is well – established.
A. ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN1. Structured Classroom The learning activities in a structured classroom are well – planned ahead of time and the procedures follow accepted rules and regulations established by the school.2. Flexible Classroom In a flexible classroom there is allowance for free movement, time allotment and even in decision regarding modes of undertaking the learning activities.
A flexible classroom can allow different types of grouping, from a totally individualized set – up to one that is class – oriented or group – oriented.a. Individualized Approach• All instructional approaches are intended for each individual student considering ability, interests and needs.b. Group Set – up• Groups may be organized for a number of purposes: Ability grouping put together students of the same achievement level. Grouping facilitates such teaching strategies as cooperative learning, group experimenting or drama presentations.c. Combined approach• Some schools could opt to use a combination of both types of organization depending on conditions that warrant a switch from one to the other and vice versa
B. SCHEDULING Good time management is the key to a smooth flow of planned activities. On it would depend how much of the objectives could be accomplished. Proper timing could sustain motivation and interest, resulting in students’ active involvement in all class undertakings
Teachers must be able to plan thoroughly fortheir daily lessons and additional activities suchas:o parent – teacher conference after classeso working with other teachers during occasional school eventso preparing new teaching deviceso advanced requests for supplies and materials for the week’s lessons and for learning centerso supervising student s along the corridors and school ground or while eating in the canteen
Filler or Emergency Activities Examples of some easy and relevant activities: Ask for a brief story that is about or an extension of the lesson An anecdote that happened recently will surely be interesting Have a question box and let a student pick one and answer Role play about the lesson conclusion
Tips for maintaining good time management Schedule all activities with corresponding time allotment way ahead of time. Early preparations could avoid haste and confusion. Provide enough time for everything you expect to happen. Economy in time planning is learned from experience. Avoid rushing since you know you have carefully allotted required time for every activity. Quality may suffer. Anticipate difficulties or failure of some operations in order to be able to pursue alternative actions. Be flexible with time assignments. If students are observed to be very interested and eager to continue working, allow a little more time for them to complete and achieve the objectives with satisfaction. Use fillers in case you finish the lesson ahead of time. Set example by showing that you are time conscious. They will develop the same precision regarding time utilization.
3. RECORD KEEPING Among the school activities to be recorded are: 1. Daily Attendance 2. Students’ Progress
For you to keep track of each student’sperformance, you can be assisted by thefollowing:Have record book for recording daily performances such as quizzes, recitations and completed assignments, special assignments, reports, scores of major tests etc.Each student should have a portfolio to file actual records of scored tests, accomplished assignments.
D. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT • A physical learning environment has something to do with the condition of the classroom or the immediate environment of the learner. • A physical environment that is clean, orderly, well – ventilated, well – lighted, spacious that allows movements, and free from unnecessary distractions is conducive to learning.
1. Maintaining Cleanliness Regular cleaning of the floor Collecting immediately materials and supplies used in an activity Return used instruments and devices to their proper places. Erase the board after use. Place a wastebasket nearby for used pieces of paper.
2. Look after proper ventilation and lighting for comfort and ease3. Unnecessary noise due to careless closing and opening of doors and windows must be avoided.
4. Bulletin board and displays Students may assist in the preparation of the bulletin board: The contents and message must be connected with the lessons for a week or two. The information/ topics must be accurate and clearly informative. The choice of the color, size and the materials to be placed must be attractive and appropriate to the age group. Choose a neutral background. Upon completion of the unit, they must be replaced immediately. Displays must show correct relationships among the contents. Bulletin boards may include outstanding pieces of student’s work, well designed diagrams and illustrations about the topic, artwork etc.
5. Seating Arrangement How students are seated could make a difference in keeping them motivated and attentive, as when an activity is about to begin. In a whole class instructional plan, the seats are arranged in rows facing the front or the blackboard. In a group activity a circular arrangement is helpful. Working with computers or watching a film would depend on the electrical connections needed. Not to be forgotten is the choice of the right size of chair.
E. DISCIPLINE Discipline is controlled behaviour. It constitutes the next important concern of teachers as part of good classroom management. No matter how well – managed a learning environment is, students will occasionally misbehave. Teachers must be ready to deal with them with utmost care and consideration.
Causes of Disciplining Problems a) Overcrowded with more than the regular number of students in a class. This results in immobility or discomfort moving around especially when there is a need to operate instructional equipment and materials. b) With poor lighting facilities and inadequate ventilation. Attention will be difficult to sustain. c) With furnitures and storage cabinets disorderly positioned making the collection and retrieval of tools and materials less efficient. d) With inappropriate seating arrangement such that distraction of student’s concentration can easily occur. e) Near sources of noise which obstructs understanding of the lesson.
Common Ways of EstablishingDiscipline / Classroom Control Discipline is the students’ responsibility. They participate in formulating rules for their own behaviour and they are expected to observe them. If they misbehave, the teacher accepts no excuses. The must be ready for the consequences. Discipline is the teacher’s way of establishing a desirable student – oriented environment for learning. Teams of learners work and study together for a common goal, thus lessening the occurrence of discipline problems. The feeling of belonging and strength in their union prevails.
Common Ways of EstablishingDiscipline / Classroom Control Discipline is coupled with effective teaching strategies and techniques. A well – planned learning activity will go on smoothly with fewer interruptions caused by misbehaviour. Discipline is achieved through the effects of group dynamics on behaviour. Discipline is believed to be the exclusive responsibility of the teachers. They have the right to insist on proper behaviour. They announce the rules that students are expected to follow. Good behaviour is rewarded and bad behaviour is dealt with accordingly. It is termed “assertive discipline”.
Tips to be a Good Disciplinarian Be prepared to face a class with multi – behaviour tendencies. Each individual acts in a unique manner. Not one will react in the same way as the other. Know your students well – their names, family composition and socio – economic status. In cases of misbehaviour, you will understand them easily and an appropriate assistance will come in time. Show your sincere concern for their welfare. Knowing that you care will develop among them self – control and self – discipline. As they grow they will be more responsible for their own behaviour. Commendable behaviour is reciprocal. Your winsome manners and positive attitude will be watched and willingly duplicated in return.
Tips to be a Good Disciplinarian Be calm, poised and tactful in solving discipline problems. Refrain from unkind words and harsh punishments. At all times be firm and consistent in following classroom “dos” and “donts”. Students will likely test your patience and try how far they can go. Be enthusiastic and the students will match your enthusiasm instead of being drawn to trouble. Let out your good sense of humor. Laugh with your students and sometimes at yourself. It will reduce tension from all. Speak with a good voice volume, not too loud to become noise nor too soft to be heard. Be humble in words and actions. It could produce a magnetizing effect.
Common Ways of Dealing with Discipline Problems Acceptable and effective: Use verbal reinforcers that encourage good behaviour and discourage bad tendencies. Use non verbal gestures, frown or a hard look to dissuade them from mischiefs. Dialogues could help in discovering problems and agreeing on mutually beneficial solutions. Focus attention on one who is unruly and is about to disturb neighbours. Lead him/ her to a secluded area and nicely convince him/ her to be quiet. Award merits for good behaviour and demerits for inconsistencies and lapses. A private, one – on – one brief conference could lead to a better understanding of mistakes that need to be remedied or improved. Allow students the freedom to express or explain agitated feelings and misgivings rather than censure them right away.
Common Ways of Dealing with Discipline Problems Unacceptable and ineffective: Scolding and harsh words as a reprimand will have a negative effect on the entire class. Nagging and faultfinding, together with long “sermons” are repugnant and nasty. Keeping a student in a “detention area” during or after classes as a penalty for misbehaviour is a waste of time and occasion for learning. The shameful experience is not easy to forget. Denying a student some privileges due to unnecessary hyperactivity could all the more encourage repetitions. Assignments of additional homework compared to the rest could make the students dislike the subject. Use of ridicule or sarcasm could humiliate and embarrass a student.
F. ESTABLISHING A ROUTINE • Routine is a regular procedure or a normal practice that is to be followed. It is a schedule of activities that is mostly time – paced and is attuned to the lesson objectives. Following routine efficiently contributes to a good classroom management.
Advantages: The advantages of sticking to a routine are: It helps in accomplishing everything that is planned. It serves as a guide in controlling behaviour Students feel secure since they know every step in the procedure It builds a teacher’s confidence in following a well – planned procedure.
Ways of Establishing a Routine Routine could be scheduled on a weekly or monthly instead of a daily basis. This practice gives leeway in spending a little more time for an activity that the students are so eagerly pursuing. Adjustments can be made in the next activity. In the end, the lessons for a week shall have been completed. Plan a routine for an entire class rather than for an individual or a group. It is easy to accomplish the sequence of the activity to lessen possible interruptions due to differences in the group’s pacing. Plan a procedure for the whole unit with a corresponding time allotment for each topic. You may allow flexibility in the time to be spent in – between. Stick to the block of time when the unit is expected to be completed.
Ways of Establishing a Routine You might find the class in a situation when the interest and concentration is at its peak. Though beyond the time limit, you may continue for the sake of additional learning and experiences being achieved. Cutting the procedure could cause disappointment and wastage of momentum. Give clear and direct instructions to avoid guessing on what to do next. Dilly – dallying wastes time and effort. Practice some signals that would mean the class is about to start and they must be ready.
Ways of Establishing a Routine Model time – consciousness. Let them see that you are following the planned routine. Examples of routine in connection with lessons are: Going on a field trip Inviting resource speakers Viewing a film Downloading information Performing procedures Forming groups for an activity
Ways of Establishing a Routine Other room routines are: Keeping tables and chairs in order before leaving Returning borrowed stools and materials after use Cleaning chalkboard to be ready for next topic Transferring from one room to another on time Order in waiting for ones turn in borrowing books Cleaning stains or drops after the lesson
THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Objectives: At the end of this module, the learners will be able to: 1. Describe a teacher – student interaction that is fosters an atmosphere conducive to learning. 2. Describe an ideal learning environment that facilitates learning.
• The classroom climate is more a product of the interaction between and among teacher and students than that of the physical condition of the classroom. The physical condition of the classroom may exert an influence on the social interaction among the personalities in the classroom but it may not contribute as much as the classroom social interaction does.
Teacher – Student Interactions A diverse situation may exist in the classroom at any given time. Students differ in abilities and interests while teachers likely employ different strategies. Teachers must be sensitive to positive or negative interactions and must immediately undertake an instant revision or adjustment in the methodology when necessary. The primary goal is to be able to motivate them to work harmoniously, thereafter, inculcate the values of cooperation and congeniality. Despite differences in characteristics, their collective driving force and natural incentive to learn coupled with the teachers unending task of preparing a suitable learning environment makes teaching and learning worthwhile and gratifying.
A Facilitative Learning Environment • Pine and Horne (1990) described the learning environment that facilitates learning. It is an environment: which encourages people to be active which promotes and facilitates the individual’s discovery of the personal meaning of idea which emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of learning in which difference is good and desirable. which consistently recognizes people’s right to make mistakes which tolerates ambiguity in which evaluation is a cooperative process with emphasis on self – evaluation which encourages openness of self rather than concealment of self in which people are encouraged to trust in themselves as well as external sources in which people feel they are respected in which people feel they are accepted
ENVIRONMENT OF THECLINICAL SETTING Objectives: At the end of this module, the learners will be able to: 1. Describe a good clinical setting. 2. List steps in selecting an appropriate clinical setting 3. Identify criteria for assessment of potential clinical agencies. 4. Discuss the areas of preparation that the nurse educator must prepare for the teaching and learning activities that will take place in the clinical setting. 5. Discuss the implementation of actual clinical experience of the students in the clinical area 6. Identify areas of performance for evaluation of learning in the clinical setting.
The Clinical Setting/ Laboratory 1. It is in the clinical laboratory that many skills are perfected. 2. Problem solving, decision – making and critical thinking skills are also refined in the clinical laboratory. 3. Learners gain organization and time management skills in clinical settings. 4. Cultural competence can also be learned in the clinical laboratory. 5. Learners become socialized in the clinical laboratory in the sense that they learn about which behaviours and values are professionally acceptable or unacceptable.
•Assessing and Selecting the Clinical AgencySteps in Teaching in the Clinical Setting Evaluation of Learning Implementation of Actual Clinical Experience of the Students Preliminary Planning for the Experience Assessing and Selecting the Clinical Agency
When selecting clinical sites, the following questions must be asked: What learning experiences are available? Will it be possible to obtain clinical experiences that will correlate to the theories discussed in the classroom? Will learners have a variety experiences? Is there enough room around the nurses’ station or office for learners to use patient’s charts Are there role models for learners? What are the educational credentials and experience levels of staff who will serve as role models?
• In addition, assessment of potential clinical agencies or selection of clinical sites should address the following criteria: o Opportunity to achieve learning outcomes o Level of the learner o Degree of control by faculty o Availability of role models for students o Geographical location o Physical facilities o Staff relationships with teachers and learners o Orientation needs o Costs o Agency requirements o Agency licensure and accreditation o Opportunity for interdisciplinary activities
When selection of the clinical site or sites iscomplete, the nurse educator must prepare forthe teaching and learning activities that will takeplace there.Areas of preparation that must be addressed include 1) Clinical Competence 2) Familiarity with the clinical environment 3) Preparation of the clinical staff 4) Orientation to the agency or setting 5) Preparation of the Learners
PREPARATION OF CLINICALAGENCY STAFF Role Clarification Level of Learners Learning Outcomes
Implementation of Actual ClinicalExperience of the Students Preconference The Practice Session The Postconference
The following pedagogies are found to be effective in many clinical settings: 1. Observation Assignments 2. Nursing Rounds 3. Shift Report 4. Technology Use 5. Journal Writing 6. Learning Contracts
Journal WritingThe following instructions could be given for clinical journal entries: Describe a critical event or case that took place in your clinical days Why was this event or case important? What did you learn in this situation? What nursing theory helps you understand what happened? What might you do differently if you encountered the situation again?
Evaluation of Learning • Learners in the area need feedback and judgment of their work that evaluation gives them. They need to know how they are doing at one level before progressing to the next. Clinical instructors must evaluate learners to determine how well they are meeting the objectives.
The following areas of performance areusually evaluated: Use of the nursing process Use of health – promoting strategies Psychomotor skills Organization of care Maintaining patient safety Ability to provide rationale for nursing care Ability to individualize care planning and intervention Therapeutic communication Ability to work with a professional team Professional behaviours Written documentation of care.
Sources of Evaluation Data Information about the learner behaviour should come from other sources than just the instructor’s observation. Patients who have been cared for by the learner can be asked some broad questions that will elicit date; for example “How was your day Mrs C?” “Is there anything else the student-nurse could have done for you? Data may also be gathered from the staff. Nursing care plans, teaching plans, concept maps, critical thinking papers, quizzes, skills test can all be used as clinical evaluation data as long as they meet the objectives of the clinical experience.