A REPORT IN NED 201 Presented by:CARMINA F. GURREA, R.N.
TOPIC OUTLINE• LEVEL OBJECTIVES / COURSE OBJECTIVES – Goals &s Objectives – What are Objectives? – Types of Objective – Writing Objectives – Taxonomy of Objective in the Learning Domains• DETERMINING THE CONTENT FOR EACH COURSE – Selecting content – Organizing content
Goals & Objectives• Goals and objectives are similar in that they serve to direct teaching and learning. They describe the intended purposes and expected results of teaching activities and establish the foundation for assessment.
What is a Goal?• Goals are statements about general aims or purposes of education that are broad, long – range intended outcomes.• Goals are used primarily in policy making and general program planning.• Think of them as a target to be reached, or “hit.” Example: – The College of Nursing is committed to the development of critical thinking, caring, ethically responsive and professionally competent nurses.
What are Objectives? Statements describing what you expect students to know and or be able to do as a result of completing a particular degree or certificate program.
More on Objectives You can shoot your arrows (objectives) many ways. The important thing is that they reach your target (goals) and score that bulls-eye!
Types of Objectives• Objectives are used at different levels of a curriculum Terminal or Programme Objectives- Describe the general destination of the students in a specific programme to which all teaching/ learning is directed. It is the operationalization of the situation analysis and the philosophy of the school or programme.- It is also sometimes described as the „characteristics of graduates‟.- The statements are comprehensive, but also clear and attainable.
Types of ObjectivesLevel Objectives- Describe which goals should be achieved earlier, and which should be achieved later in the programme.- These are used to organize the content and learning experiences of a multi – level programme.- Level outcomes cut across and incorporate all the courses taken during that level of study.
Types of ObjectivesCourse Objectives- Are formulated for a specific course and indicate what the goals of that specific course are.- Course objectives in nursing may draw on knowledge gained from basic biomedical and social sciences, but are directed at nursing competence.
Types of ObjectivesUnit Objectives- Are the most specific type of objectives, and refer to learning within a course.- Unit outcomes are often formulated to be measurable.
• The South African Qualification Authority (SAQA, 2000) presented a useful format for comprehensive objective statements: A title which identifies the competence An element of competence (function), which is a significant role component Performance criteria: quality statements that stipulate how well a task should be done Range statements, which describe the context in which competence should be demonstrated.
• This comprehensive statement is not appropriate at all level of the curriculum, since objectives become more detailed as the curriculum moves from macro – to micro development.• Programme outcomes will usually have only the element of competence or the function, while at the course outline level all four components will be present.
• To promote a logical coherence in the curriculum, the Curriculum Committee should make sure that course objectives support level objectives, and that level objectives support programme objectives• All objectives in a programme should be convergent, working in the same direction, and form a harmonious whole.
What is the most effective way to state an objective?Teacher – focused vs Learner – focused Objectives• Teacher – focused: Demonstrate to students how to safely perform basic nursing procedures.• Learner – focused: The student will demonstrate safe performance of basic nursing procedures
What is the most effective way to state an objective?• A meaningful objective communicates desired outcome behavior of the learner.• Methods for writing objectives include general and specific formats.
What is the most effective way to state an objective?• Behavioral objectives describe what the learner will be able to do following a learning situation. (Bastable, 2003)• Behavioral objectives make use of the modifier behavioral or learning to denote that they are action-oriented rather than content oriented and learner-centered rather than teacher-centered
Writing behavioral objectives• According to Mager (1997), the format for writing concise and useful behavioral objectives includes the following three important characteristics:1. Performance: Describes what the learner is expected to be able to do or perform to demonstrate the kinds of behaviors the teacher will accept as evidence that objectives have been achieved. Activities performed by the learner may be visible, such as “writing” or “listing,” or invisible, such as “identifying” or “recalling.”
Writing behavioral objectives2. Condition: Describes the testing situation or constraints under which the behavior will be observed or the performance is expected to occur.3. Criterion: Describes how well or with what accuracy the learner must be able to perform for the behavior to be considered acceptable; the standard, quality level, or amount of performance defined as satisfactorily demonstrating mastery. It is the level of competence that a learner must achieve.
Writing behavioral objectives• The preceding characteristics translate into the following questions:1. What should the learner be able to do?2. Under what conditions should the learner be able to do it?3. How well must the learner be able to do it?
Writing behavioral objectives• Behavioral objectives are statements that communicate who will do what under what conditions and how well (Cummings, 1994).
Writing behavioral objectives• When writing objectives the following three steps are recommended:1. Identify the testing situation (condition). “Within 20 minutes in the skills laboratory2. State the learner and the learner‟s behavior (performance). the student will obtain an apical pulse on a client3. State the performance level (criterion). that is accurate to within 3 beats per minute
Tips for Writing Objectives• Objectives should specify four main things: – Audience - Who? Who is this aimed at? – Behavior - What? What do you expect them to be able to do? Use action verbs to describe an overt, observable behavior. – Condition - How? Under what circumstances will the learning occur? – Degree - How much?• This is often called the ABCDs of objectives, a nice mnemonic aid!
The three-part method of objective writing Condition Performance Criterion (Testing Situation) (Learner (Quality of Accuracy) Behavior) The learner will be able to:Without using a 5 out of 6 problemscalculator solve Using a model demonstrate the correct procedureFollowing group discussion list at least two reasonsAfter watching a video select with 100% accuracy
VERBALS WITH MANY OR FEW INTERPRETATIONS Terms with Many Terms with Few Interpretations Interpretations (Recommended) (Not Recommended)to know to apply to explainto understand to choose to identifyto appreciate to classify to listto realize to compare to orderto be familiar with to contrast to predictto enjoy to construct to recallto value to define to recognizeto be interested in to describe to selectto feel to demonstrate to stateto think to differentiate to verbalizeto learn to distinguish to write
TAXONOMY OF OBJECTIVES ACCORDING TO LEARNING DOMAINS• Bloom et al. (1956) and Knathwohl and associates(1964) developed a very useful taxonomy, known as the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, as a tool for systematically classifying behavioral objectives.• Taxonomy of Educational Objectives which became widely accepted as a standard aid for planning as well as evaluating learning, is divided into three broad categories or domains: cognitive, affective, psychomotor.
COGNITIVE DOMAIN• Learning in this domain involves the acquisition of information and refers to the learner‟s intellectual abilities, mental capacities, and thinking processes.• Objectives in this domain are divided into six levels, each specifying cognitive processes ranging from the simple (knowledge) to the more complex (evaluation)(Bloom et al., 1956).
Levels of Cognitive BehaviorI. Knowledge (1.00-1.99):• Recall of facts and specific information: Memorization of specifics.Ex. The student defines the term systole.II. Comprehension (2.00-2.99):• Understanding: Ability to describe and explain the material.Ex. The learner describes the circulation through the heart.
Levels of Cognitive BehaviorIII. Application (3.00-3.99):• Use of information in a new situation: Ability to use knowledge in a new situation.Ex. The student applies concepts of aging in developing interventions for the elderly.IV. Analysis (4.00-4.99):• Ability to break down material into component parts and identify the relationships among them.Ex. The student analyzes the organizational structure of the community health agency and its impact on client services.
Levels of Cognitive BehaviorV. Synthesis (5.00-5.99):• Ability to develop and combine elements to form a new product.Ex. The student develops a plan for delivering services to persons with dementia and their caregivers in the home.VI. Evaluation (6.00-6.99):• Ability to make value judgments based on internal and external criteria and determine the extent to which materials and objects meet criteria.Ex. The learner evaluates the quality of nursing research studies and their applicability to practice.
AFFECTIVE DOMAIN• The affective domain relates to the development of values, attitudes, and beliefs consistent with standards of professional nursing practice.• The affective domain is divided into categories that specify the degree of a person‟s depth of emotional responses to tasks.• There are two important dimensions in evaluating affective outcomes. The first relates to the student‟s knowledge of the values, attitudes, and beliefs that are important in guiding decisions in nursing.• The second dimension of affective evaluation focuses on whether or not students have accepted these values, attitudes, and beliefs and are internalizing them for their own decision making and behavior.
LEVELS OF AFFECTIVE BEHAVIORI. Receiving (1.00-1.99):• Awareness of values, attitudes, and beliefs important in nursing practice. Sensitivity to a patient, clinical situation, problem.Ex. The student expresses an awareness of the need for maintaining confidentiality of patient information.II. Responding (2.00-2.99):• Learner‟s reaction to a situation. Responding voluntarily to a given phenomenon reflecting a choice made by the learner.Ex. The student shares willingly feelings about caring for a dying patient.
LEVELS OF AFFECTIVE BEHAVIORIII. Valuing (3.00-3.99):• Internalization of a value. Acceptance of a value and the commitment to using that value as a basis for behavior. Ex. The learner supports the rights of patients to make their own decisions about care.IV. Organization (4.00-4.99):• Development of a complex system of values. Creation of a value system. Ex. The learner forms a position about issues relating to the cost effectiveness of interventions.
LEVELS OF AFFECTIVE BEHAVIORV. Characterization of a value (5.00-5.99):• Internalization of a value system providing a philosophy for practice.Ex. The learner acts consistently to involve patients and families in decision making about care.
Psychomotor Domain• Psychomotor learning involves the development of skills and competency in the use of technology.• This domain includes activities that are movement oriented, requiring some degree of physical coordination.• Motor skills have a cognitive base, which involves the principles underlying the skill. They also have an affective component reflecting the values of the nurse while carrying out the skill, for instance, respecting the patient while performing the procedure.• Evaluation of performance is done in the clinical setting and in learning and simulation laboratories; however, test items may be used for assessing principles associated with performing the skill.
Levels of Psychomotor BehaviorI. Imitation (1.00-1.99):• Performance of a skill following demonstration by teacher or through multimedia. Imitative learning.Ex. The student follows the example for changing a dressing.II. Manipulation (2.00 -2.99)• Ability to follow instructions rather than needing to observe the procedure or skill.Ex. The student suctions a patient according to the accepted procedure.
Levels of Psychomotor BehaviorIII. Precision (3.00-3.99):• Ability to perform a skill accurately, independently, and without using a model or set of directions.Ex. The student takes vital signs accurately.IV. Articulation (4.00-4.99):• Coordinated performance of a skill within a reasonable time frame.Ex. The learner demonstrates skill in suctioning patients with varying health problems.
Levels of Psychomotor BehaviorV. Naturalization (5.00-5.99):• High degree of proficiency. Integration of skill within care.Ex. The student competently carries out skills needed for care of technology- dependent children in their homes.
FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING IN PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN• The amount of practice required to learn any new skill varies with the individual, depending on many factors. Oermann (1990) and Bell (1991) have addressed some of the more important variables:1. Readiness to learn2. Past experience3. Health status4. Environmental stimuli5. Anxiety level6. Developmental stage7. Practice session length
DETERMINING CONTENT FOR EACH COURSE• The general guidelines for course content are usually prescribed by the curriculum of the school or institution for which the educator works.• The following questions are asked: How much information should be included?How much detail should go into the content?
Selecting Content• Several factors can guide the educator‟s decision:1. How much time is needed?2. What kind of background do students have?3. Is there a textbook selected for the course?
Organizing Content• There are several ways to structure content so that it follows a logical sequence. Simple to complex, e.g. Teaching sociological concepts before sociological theories Whole to parts e.g. Presenting a total case, and then looking at different aspects of it Parts to whole, e.g. Explaining how cells work, then tissues, and then organs
Organizing Content Chronological, e.g. Teaching growth & development by starting with the development from baby to elderly person Taxonomies, e.g. Using Bloom‟s taxonomy of cognitive development to diffentiate between what first year and second year student should be able to do Health to illness, e.g. Introducing students to healthy children and their development before reading about the care of sick children
ACTIVITY• Given a list of statement regarding asepsis, the student will select correct statements (performance not stated in measurable terms, criterion missing)• After watching a demonstration on gloving technique, the student will be able to correctly don gloves using aseptic technique. Well – written objective• The student will be able to list sources of contamination in the OR. (condition and criterion missing)• Following a discussion on hypertension, the student will be able to state three out of four causes of high blood pressure. Well – written objective• Upon viewing the video provided on the self breast exam, student will be able to express any concerns about the procedure. Not measurable; criterion missing• To demonstrate the proper handling of surgical instruments to the student (teacher-centered)