It is a system that filters wastes from the blood and excretes the waste products in form of urine. It is responsible for maintaining a stable internal environment for the body. In order to achieve this state, the urinary system removes waste products, adjusts water and electrolyte levels, and maintains the correct PH.
A sample of urine is kept under conditions that allow bacteria and other organisms to grow. If only a few organisms grow the test is negative. On the other hand if organisms grow in large numbers it indicates an infection. Therefore the culture is positive. Then the type of organisms causing the infection are identified with a microscope or by chemical tests.
It is a diagnostic x-ray. It involves a procedure in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, uterers, and renal pelvis. The flow of contrast (up from the bladder to the kidney) is opposite the usual flow of urine, hence retrogade.
It is used in combination with a cytoscopy to determine the presence of stones, tumors, or other obstructions in the kidneys and ureters.
It is the visual examination of the urinary bladder using an instrument called a cytoscope. It is usually done to either look at the bladder for abnormalities or to help with surgery being performed in the urinary tract.