Diagnostic Procedures Of The Urinary System


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Diagnostic Procedures Of The Urinary System

  1. 1. Diagnostic Procedures of the Urinary System By: Carmen Ortiz
  2. 2. The Urinary System
  3. 3. The Genitourinary (Urinary) System <ul><li>It is a system that filters wastes from the blood and excretes the waste products in form of urine. It is responsible for maintaining a stable internal environment for the body. In order to achieve this state, the urinary system removes waste products, adjusts water and electrolyte levels, and maintains the correct PH. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Diagnostic Procedures <ul><li>Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) </li></ul><ul><li>Urine Culture (UC) </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys, Uterers, Bladder (KUB) </li></ul><ul><li>Retrograde Pyelogram (RP) </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoscopy (cysto) </li></ul><ul><li>Abbreviations are commonly used in the medical profession as a way of saving time. The use of correct abbreviations is extremely important. Whenever in doubt spell it out! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) <ul><li>It is a blood test done </li></ul><ul><li>to see: </li></ul><ul><li>1.) If your kidneys are working normally. </li></ul><ul><li>2.) If your kidney disease is getting worse. </li></ul><ul><li>3.) If treatment of your kidney disease is working. </li></ul><ul><li>4.) If severe dehydration is present. </li></ul><ul><li>It measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product Urea. If your kidneys are not able to remove the urea from the blood normally your level of BUN rises. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Results <ul><li>Normal Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) </li></ul><ul><li>10-20 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) or 3.6-7.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Urine Culture (UC) <ul><li>It is laboratory test used </li></ul><ul><li>to find germs (bacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>that may be causing a </li></ul><ul><li>urinary infection. Urine </li></ul><ul><li>is sterile and does not </li></ul><ul><li>have any bacteria, but </li></ul><ul><li>bacteria can enter the </li></ul><ul><li>urethra and cause an </li></ul><ul><li>infection. </li></ul><ul><li>A sample of urine is kept under conditions that allow bacteria and other organisms to grow. If only a few organisms grow the test is negative. On the other hand if organisms grow in large numbers it indicates an infection. Therefore the culture is positive. Then the type of organisms causing the infection are identified with a microscope or by chemical tests. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why? <ul><li>A urine culture is done: </li></ul><ul><li>1.) To find the cause of a urinary tract infection (UTI) </li></ul><ul><li>2.) To make decisions about the best treatment for a UTI (sensitivity testing) </li></ul><ul><li>3. ) To find out whether treatment for UTI worked. </li></ul><ul><li>If the urine culture is positive, other tests (sensitivity testing) may be done to help choose which antibiotic will work the best in treating the infection. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Kidneys, Uterers, Bladder (KUB) (flat-plate of the abdomen) <ul><li>It is an x-ray that uses </li></ul><ul><li>radiation to take a </li></ul><ul><li>picture of structures </li></ul><ul><li>inside the abdomen, without using </li></ul><ul><li>any contrast dye. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>You will lie flat on your back under </li></ul><ul><li>the x-ray machine and remain </li></ul><ul><li>still while the x-ray is taken. You </li></ul><ul><li>may be asked to shift to other </li></ul><ul><li>positions for more x-rays. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a test done when </li></ul><ul><li>there is concern of a </li></ul><ul><li>problem within the </li></ul><ul><li>abdomen. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain or side pain </li></ul><ul><li>Bloating </li></ul><ul><li>Blood in the urine </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation or diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Bloody or dark black stools </li></ul>
  10. 10. Kidneys, Uterers, Bladder (KUB)
  11. 11. Retrograde Pyelogram (RP) <ul><li>It is a procedure in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, uterers, and renal pelvis. The flow of contrast (up from the bladder to the kidney) is opposite the usual flow of urine, hence retrogade. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used in combination with a cytoscopy to determine the presence of stones, tumors, or other obstructions in the kidneys and ureters. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Retrograde Pyelogram
  13. 13. Cystoscopy (cysto) <ul><li>It is the visual examination of the urinary bladder using an instrument called a cytoscope. It is usually done to either look at the bladder for abnormalities or to help with surgery being performed in the urinary tract. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cystoscopy
  15. 15. Works Cited <ul><li>Web MD. 12 august 2008. http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/blood-urea-nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Web MD. 5 June 2008. http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/urine-culture </li></ul><ul><li>Baptist Health Systems. October 2009. http://mbhs.org/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Healism. 2010. http://www.healism.com/procedures/digestion/retrograde_pyelogram/ </li></ul><ul><li>Emedicine Health. 2010. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/cystoscopy/article_em.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Terminology “A living Language”. </li></ul>
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