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It is a system that filters wastes from the blood and excretes the waste products in form of urine. It is responsible for maintaining a stable internal environment for the body. In order to achieve this state, the urinary system removes waste products, adjusts water and electrolyte levels, and maintains the correct PH.
Abbreviations are commonly used in the medical profession as a way of saving time. The use of correct abbreviations is extremely important. Whenever in doubt spell it out!
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
It is a blood test done
1.) If your kidneys are working normally.
2.) If your kidney disease is getting worse.
3.) If treatment of your kidney disease is working.
4.) If severe dehydration is present.
It measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product Urea. If your kidneys are not able to remove the urea from the blood normally your level of BUN rises.
Normal Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
10-20 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) or 3.6-7.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L)
Urine Culture (UC)
It is laboratory test used
to find germs (bacteria)
that may be causing a
urinary infection. Urine
is sterile and does not
have any bacteria, but
bacteria can enter the
urethra and cause an
A sample of urine is kept under conditions that allow bacteria and other organisms to grow. If only a few organisms grow the test is negative. On the other hand if organisms grow in large numbers it indicates an infection. Therefore the culture is positive. Then the type of organisms causing the infection are identified with a microscope or by chemical tests.
A urine culture is done:
1.) To find the cause of a urinary tract infection (UTI)
2.) To make decisions about the best treatment for a UTI (sensitivity testing)
3. ) To find out whether treatment for UTI worked.
If the urine culture is positive, other tests (sensitivity testing) may be done to help choose which antibiotic will work the best in treating the infection.
Kidneys, Uterers, Bladder (KUB) (flat-plate of the abdomen)
It is an x-ray that uses
radiation to take a
picture of structures
inside the abdomen, without using
any contrast dye.
You will lie flat on your back under
the x-ray machine and remain
still while the x-ray is taken. You
may be asked to shift to other
positions for more x-rays.
It is a test done when
there is concern of a
problem within the
Nausea and vomiting
Abdominal pain or side pain
Blood in the urine
Constipation or diarrhea
Bloody or dark black stools
Kidneys, Uterers, Bladder (KUB)
Retrograde Pyelogram (RP)
It is a procedure in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, uterers, and renal pelvis. The flow of contrast (up from the bladder to the kidney) is opposite the usual flow of urine, hence retrogade.
It is used in combination with a cytoscopy to determine the presence of stones, tumors, or other obstructions in the kidneys and ureters.
It is the visual examination of the urinary bladder using an instrument called a cytoscope. It is usually done to either look at the bladder for abnormalities or to help with surgery being performed in the urinary tract.
Web MD. 12 august 2008. http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/blood-urea-nitrogen
Web MD. 5 June 2008. http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/urine-culture
Baptist Health Systems. October 2009. http://mbhs.org/index.htm