History of meteorology Every night billions of people around the world tune in to the weather forecast. What will tomorrow bring? Once we hear the forecast we then plan our daily activities accordingly. But how did weather forecasting develop? Let's take a look at the history of meteorology.
In Bible; times the forecasting of weather conditions was based solely upon observations of the sky. This is alluded to in the Bible where Jesus says to the religious leaders of the 1st Century, “ You are able to interpret the appearance of the sky but the sign of the times you cannot interpret.” This method of simple observation prevailed until 1643 when Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli invented the barometer. This simple device was able to measure the pressure of the air. Torricelli noticed that air pressure changes in accordance with changes in the weather. In fact a drop in pressure would often signal that a storm was coming. Atmospheric humidity was also able to be measured when the hygrometer was invented in 1644. Then in 1714 German physicist Daniel Fahrenheit developed the mercury thermometer. It was now possible to accurately measure the weather.
Meteorology - A brief history Meteorology - the study of the atmosphere and it's phenomena. First discussed by Aristotle, 340 B.C. -wrote a book entitled Meteorological- summarized meteorological knowledge to date 17th-18th centuries - meteorology came into being with the advent of met instrumentation such as thermometers and barometers
19th century - met observations were being made routinely - transmitted with the telegraph 1920's - Concept of air masses and fronts was formulated in by Norwegian meteorologists They developed a theory for the evolution of mid-latitude cyclones - still used today!!!
After WWII - meteorological radars were implemented 1950's - computers ran first models of the atmosphere 1960's - first meteorological satellites were launched (Tiros I ) 1990's - National Weather Service was modernized.
Meteorological phenomena on many different spatial scales
Instruments and equipment of meteorology Anemometer – a device for measuring wind speed; used in weather stations Barometer– an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure using either water, air, or mercury; useful for forecasting short term changes in the weather NOAA continental US weather forecast map for November 7, 2006 Ceiling balloon – a balloon, with a known ascent rate, used to measure the height of the base of clouds during daylight Ceiling projector – a device that is used, in conjunction with an alidade, to measure the height of the base of clouds Ceilometer – a device that uses a laser or other light source to measure the height of the base of clouds.
Dark adaptor goggles – clear, red-tinted plastic goggles used either for adapting the eyes to dark prior to night observation or to help identify clouds during bright sunshine or glare from snow. Field mill – an instrument used to measure the strength of electric fields in the atmosphere near thunderstorm clouds Hygrometer– an instrument used to measure humidity Ice Accretion Indicator – an L-shaped piece of aluminum 15 inches (38 cm) long by 2 inches (5 cm) wide used to indicate the formation of ice, frost, or the presence of freezing rain or freezing drizzle LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) – an optical remote sensing technology used in atmospheric physics (among other fields) that measures the properties of scattered light to find information about a distant target Lightning detector – a device, either ground-based, mobile, or space-based, that detects lightning produced by thunderstorms
Nephoscope – an instrument for measuring the altitude, direction, and velocity of clouds Radar– see Weather radar Rain gauge – an instrument that gathers and measures the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time Snow gauge – an instrument that gathers and measures the amount of solid precipitation over a set period of time Sunshine recorders – devices used to indicate the amount of sunshine at a given location Thermograph – a chart recorder that measures and records both temperature and humidity Thermometer – a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient
Weather radar – a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, estimate its type (rain, snow, hail, etc.) and forecast its future position and intensity Weather vane – a movable device attached to an elevated object such as a roof that shows the direction of the wind Windsock– a conical textile tube designed to indicate wind direction and relative wind speed Wind profiler – equipment that uses radar or SODAR to detect wind speed and direction at various elevations.
Bachelor of Secondary Education 1-B Earth science (Nat. Sci.) Carmela Francisco Sayno Prepared by; KathrinaPobre Instructor;