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  • 1. Carib Studies Module 1 NotesThis is a relatively brief compilation ofCaribbean Studies notes for CAPE fromno less than 5 separate sources. I wasfeeling quite awesome today.
  • 2. LOCATING THE CARIBBEAN
  • 3. Expected Learning Outcomes1. Locate and define the Caribbean usingcertain criteria2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages ofusing different criteria:geographical, historical, geological andpolitical in helping to define the Caribbean3. Address Culture and Society as issues relatedto the definition and location of a region4. Identify territories in the Caribbean
  • 4. Location of the Caribbean• Greater Antilles: Cuba, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic),Jamaica, Puerto Rico• Lesser Antilles:• Windward islands: Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Guadeloupe,Dominica, Martinique• Leeward islands: Antigua and Barbuda, St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat,Anguilla, Virgin islands• Netherland Antilles: Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao (ABC"islands); SaintMarten,• Saba, St. Eustatius• Mainland Territories: Guyana, Belize, Suriname, Cayenne (FrenchGuyana)• Others: Barbados, Trinidad & Tobago, Cayman Islands, BahamaIslands, Turks and Caicos Islands
  • 5. Geographical Definition• Geographically the Caribbean is defined as the landarea which has its coastline washed by the CaribbeanSea• This would mean that the Greater and Lesser Antilles,the Cayman Islands and the islands of the NetherlandAntilles all belong to the Caribbean. By this definitionTurks and Caicos Islands and the Bahamas wouldhowever be excluded from the Caribbean. It would alsoinclude Belize, Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rico;Panama, Nicaragua and Honduras and exclude themainland territories of Suriname, Guyana and FrenchGuiana
  • 6. Historical Definition• This is the area colonized by European powers(Spanish, British, French and Dutch) and which has beendeeply affected by the brand of European Colonialism. TheSpanish through the Encomienda system and other meansexterminated the original inhabitants. The Britishintroduced the plantation system and with it, theenslavement of Africans and the indentureship of theChinese and East Indians. The Dutch and French not onlycolonized but were involved in an ongoing trade within theregion. It has become common way to identify theCaribbean based on the experience of specific Europeancolonialism.• Within this historic; context has arisen a multiracial societywith marked social stratification and racial hybridization.
  • 7. Geological Definition• The Caribbean is seen as that area of the region defined by theCaribbean Plate and which therefore experiences the sametectonic, seismic and volcanic features and processes. The lands ofthe Caribbean are said to be formed from earth movements calledPlate Tectonics.• The smaller Caribbean plate moved under the North Americanplate to be re-melted in the earths mantle causing volcanicactivities and consequently the formation of the Greater and LesserAntilles. The islands in this Caribbean chain are believed to be thetops of submerged mountains linked to the Andean mountainrange in Central America. There is a rich variety of landscapefeatures in the Caribbean as a result of the structure of the islandsand mainland’s.• All the mainland territories of the region have high mountainranges, large rivers and vast areas of lowland.
  • 8. Geographical Definition• With the exception of Cuba, all the continental islands of the Greater Antilles aremountainous. Cuba has wide elevated plains (plateaus) over 1000m in altitude. Inthe Greater Antilles there are also many low-lying alluvial plains and steeplimestone hills with caves. The rivers on these plains are not very large and manydisappear underground.• The smaller volcanic islands of the Eastern Caribbean are also rugged andmountainous. Volcanic eruptions have occurred on some of these islands in thepast (Mt Pelee). Recently there have been eruptions in St Vincent and Montserrat.These eruptions have caused much damage to surrounding settlements. Volcanicislands have a good water supply and deep fertile soils. The ruggedmountains, narrow valleys and swift flowing streams make beautiful scenery.• The Limestone islands are built up from the skeletal remains of coral polyps in thewarm Caribbean Sea. These islands are flat with no large rivers and very few lakes.Soils on limestone rock lack depth and are mostly infertile. Some of the limestoneislands like Barbados are raised high above sea level. Many small ones, as thosefound in the Bahamas, are just at sea level. There is no great variety of scenery inlimestone islands.
  • 9. Political Caribbean• Three kinds of governmental systems exist: independentstates, associated states and colonial dependencies.Several of the former colonial powers still possessterritories in the Caribbean or have very close relationswith them.• Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guyana are so called"departementes doutre-mer” and thus are part of Francessovereign territory and part of the E.U.• Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Montserratand Turks and Caicos are still British crown colonies• Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Saint Marten and StEustatius are dependencies of the Kingdom of theNetherlands. Puerto Rico is an associated state of the USA.
  • 10. Political Caribbean• In terms of political arrangements, Cuba has acommunist system, Puerto Rico is annexed to theUSA, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago arerepublics.• The rest of the British W.I still hold to the Britishtraditional form of government, based on theWestminster-Whitehall model.• By and large the Caribbean has a rich postcolonial democratic tradition with a fewexceptions of Cuba, Dominican Republic and Haiti
  • 11. UNDERSTANDING SOCIETY ANDCULTURE
  • 12. Understanding Society and Culture• Expected Learning Outcomes– Evaluating typical definitions of society and culture– Explaining how the knowledge of the Social Deepensthe understanding of society– Analysing the relationship and overlaps betweensociety and culture– Appreciate the roles of the individual in thedevelopment of society and culture– Discuss the Various Caribbean portrayals of Societyand Culture
  • 13. The Social• The social is described by Jeniffer Mohammed asthe ‘totality of explanations describing howpeople interact and make meanings from theirexperiences’• It has no existence of itself but is merely aconstruct through which we represent all theways we make meanings in our lives• Through the social we can explain the concepts ofsociety and culture more accurately
  • 14. The Social• The totality of explanations describing howpeople interact and makes meanings of theirexperiences include– The variety of explanations people have for thesame thing– The tendency to prefer order and precision and tofeel safer when definitions are used.Understanding the social allows us to grasp the factthat the there is no one meaning for the concepts ofsociety and culture.
  • 15. Concepts of ‘Society’ and ‘Culture’• Concepts of society and culture have oftenbeen cast as definitions with a precisemeanings, which is for the most part false– Society: a collection of people living in the samearea over time– Culture: the ways of life of a peopleThese definitions only become acceptable when oneunderstands that they are not comprehensivebecause the leave out much of what they attempt todescribe.
  • 16. Society• A Society is the largest unit or group to whichan individual belongs. To the layman society isusually understood to mean a collection ofpersons, living in the same geographical areawith which one feels a sense of belonging.• To the sociologist however society is mainlydefined through its group structureframework.
  • 17. Society• Each society has a social structure - that is anetwork of interrelationships amongindividuals and groups.• Sociologists study these various relationshipsin order to determine their effects on theoverall function of the society.
  • 18. Elements of a society• Many elements determine the general socialconditions of a society. These elements can beclassified into five major areas:1. population characteristics2. social behaviour3. social institutions4. cultural influences5. social change
  • 19. Population Characteristics• Population characteristics determine the general socialpatterns of a group of people living within a certaingeographical area.• There are two chief kinds of populationstudies, demography and human ecology.• Demography is the systematic study of thesize, composition and distribution of humanpopulations.• Demographers compile and analyze variousstudies, including peoples age, birth and deathrates, marriage rates, ethnic background and migrationpatterns.
  • 20. Population Characteristics (Cont’d)• Human ecology on the other hand dealsmainly with the structure of urbanenvironments and their patterns of settlementand growth.• Studies in human ecology explain why andhow cities and other communities grow andchange.
  • 21. Social Behaviour• Social Behaviour is studied extensively in the fieldof sociology. Social psychologists usually workwith small groups and observe attitude change,conformity, leadership morale and other forms ofbehaviour. They also study social interactionwhich is the way members of a group respond toone another and to other groups. In addition,sociologists examine the results of conflictsbetween groups such as crime, social movementand war.
  • 22. Social Behaviour (Cont’d)• In most societies the standards of behaviour arepassed on from one generation to the next.Sociologists and psychologists observe howpeople adjust their behaviour to conform tothese standards (a process called socialization).• Sociologists also study social roles (the functionor expected behaviour of an individual within agroup) and status (a persons importance orrank).
  • 23. Social Institutions• Social Institutions are organized relationshipsamong people which tend to perform specificactions within the society. These institutionsinclude businessorganizations, churches, government, securityforces, hospitals, family and schools. Eachinstitution, has a direct effect on the society inwhich it exists. For example, the attitudes and thegoals of an entire society are influenced by thetransmission of learning and knowledge ineducational institutions.
  • 24. Culture• Culture in the eyes of a sociologist can bedefined as “the accumulated store ofsymbols, ideas, and material productsassociated with a social system, whether it bean entire society or a family”.(Johnson, 1995, p.68).
  • 25. Culture (Cont’d)• The term culture has been defined in many wayswhether broadly or narrowly.• It can be thought of in the realm of activities such asMusic, Art or Literature, in the sense of a culturedperson has a knack for the fine arts.• Or in a broad sense culture inclusive of all areas of lifeand therefore every human society has a culture.Culture includes a societysarts, beliefs, customs, institutions, inventions, language, technology, norms and values. Culture producessimilar behaviour and thought among most people in aparticular society.
  • 26. Characteristics of Culture• There are several important characteristics ofculture. The main ones are:1. a culture satisfies human needs in aparticular way2. a culture is acquired through learning3. a culture is based on the use of symbols4. a culture consists of individual traits andgroups of traits called patterns
  • 27. Characteristics (Cont’d)• 1) Meeting Human Need• All cultures serve to meet basic needs shared byhuman beings. For example, every culture has methodsof obtaining food and shelter. Every culture also hasfamily relationships, economic and governmentalsystems, religious practices and forms of artisticexpression.• Each culture shapes the way its members satisfyhuman needs. Human beings have to eat but theirculture teaches them what, when and how to eat forexample many British people eat smoked fish forbreakfast but many Americans prefer cold cereals.
  • 28. Characteristics (Cont’d)• 2) Acquired through learning• Culture is acquired through learning not through biologicalinheritance i.e. no person is born with a culture. Childrentake on the culture in which they are raised throughenculturation.• Children learn much of their culture through imitation andexperience. They also acquire culture through observation,paying attention to what goes on around them and seeingexamples of what their society considers right and wrong.Children may also absorb certain aspects of cultureunconsciously. For example, Arabic people tend to standcloser together when speaking to one another than mostEuropeans do. No one instructs them to do so, but theylearn the behaviour as part of their culture.
  • 29. • Individual members of a particular culture alsoshare many beliefs, values, expectations andways of thinking. In fact, most culturallearning results from verbal communication.Culture is passed from generation togeneration chiefly through language.
  • 30. Characteristics (Cont’d)• 3) Based on the use of symbols• Cultural learning is based on the ability to usesymbols. A symbol is something that stands forsomething else. The most important types ofsymbols are the words of a language. There is noobvious or necessary connection between asymbol and what it stands for. The English word“dog” is a symbol for a specific animal that barks.But other cultures have a different word thatstands for the same animal, “mbwa”(Swahili), “perro” (Spanish) “dawg” (Jamaican).
  • 31. Characteristics (Cont’d)• 3) Consists of individual traits and groups oftraits called patterns.• Cultures are made up of individual elementscalled cultural traits. A group of related traitsor elements is a cultural pattern. Culturaltraits may be divided into material culture ornonmaterial culture.
  • 32. Material and Non-Material Culture• Material culture consists of all the tangible things thatare made by the members of a society. It includes suchobjects as (architectural styles)buildings, jewelry, machines, cuisine, forms oftechnology, economic organization, paintings andartistic creations.• Nonmaterial culture refers to a societysnorms, beliefs, superstitions and values that guide theirbehaviour. A handshake, a marriage ceremony and asystem of justice are examples of nonmaterial culture.Cultural patterns may include numerous traits (bothmaterial and non material).
  • 33. Culture as Subculture• Social scientists sometimes use the termsubculture to describe variations within aculture. Social groups often develop somecultural patterns of their own that set themapart from the larger society of which they area part. Subcultures may develop inbusinesses, ethnic groups, occupationalgroups, regional groups, religious groups andother groups within a larger culture e.g.Maroons in Jamaica.
  • 34. Pluralism and Ethnocentrism• Pluralism: A society where two or more racialor ethnic groups live together but where thereis limited mixing of cultures or intermarriage.Each culture has maintained its own socialinstitutions ex. Religion, family• Ethnocentrism: an idea and policy derivedfrom a first world country and imposed on athird world country with the belief ofsuperiority
  • 35. SOCIETY AND CULTURE – WHERE DOTHEY OVERLAP?• We have seen that society and culture haveseparate meanings. However, in commoneveryday use the terms are often used assynonyms because they are linked very closely.• While the syllabus requires you to know thedifferences in meaning between the two terms, itexpects that when they are written like that, youwill treat them as linked closely together.
  • 36. SOCIETY AND CULTURE – WHERE DOTHEY OVERLAP?• There is only one area of overlap between theterms ‘society’ and ‘culture’.• Re-read the sections, you may find out what itis…
  • 37. SOCIETY AND CULTURE – WHERE DOTHEY OVERLAP?• Okay no trolling…• We know society to have structure. The largest units orgroups within society were called social institutions.Yet these were intangibles: ideas, beliefs, and values.From these, tangible organizations were created. So,too, we should be aware that the material products ofa society are derived from the dominant underlyingvalues and beliefs of that society. Thus, the overlapbetween the two terms occurs at the level of theimportance of values. A society and its culture arerooted in the same values.
  • 38. SOCIETY AND CULTURE – WHERE DOTHEY OVERLAP?• Our values represent ‘how strongly we feel aboutcertain qualities and how we rank the importance ofthese qualities’.• In most societies, values are cultural values, meaningthat they are collectively held by people in that society.For instance, there are dominant ideas in a societyabout what should count as physical beauty. Themembers of that society come to value theseattributes, that is, they rank them highly(and, consequently devalue others). Having thesevalues will, thus, influence how we behave, whom weadmire and what qualities we look for in a mate.
  • 39. • This section dealt with society and culture, howthey differ and where they overlap. It may behelpful to think of society as a group of peopleoccupying a certain defined geographic spacecontinuously who feel a sense of belongingnessbecause they have developed a common culture.Culture here refers to underlying values andbeliefs. It can also be described as “… the way oflife of a people”. In the Caribbean Studiessyllabus, the term „society and culture‟ ispreferred to show how closely the concepts arerelated.
  • 40. The roles of the individual in thedevelopment of society and culture• Society and culture are groupphenomena, both produced by groups ofpeople. Both concepts can be understood bestby studying the behaviours of people in thosegroups. Underlying those behaviours may be aset of intangibles - ideas, beliefs, or values.
  • 41. The roles of the individual in thedevelopment of society and culture• We will focus on how invisible qualities suchas values can give rise to equally invisiblenorms which in turn are realized through thebehaviours of people in groups
  • 42. Norms, Values and Behaviours• Norms spring from the values that arecherished in society and culture. Valuesrepresent a ranking of certain qualities whichwe feel strongly about. Thus, if society regardshighly the use of internationally acceptedEnglish as spoken language, then it willdevalue other forms of language.
  • 43. Norms, Values and Behaviours• The norm which will then arise in thatsociety, with regard to language, will be theexpectation that persons will preferinternationally accepted English. To support thisexpectation, rewards and punishments(sanctions) are deemed necessary. Rewards willinclude acceptance, praise, and possibly paths toadvancement. Persons who habitually usedialects or patois will then find themselvesdisadvantaged, excluded, and open to criticismand ridicule. Punishmentsare, therefore, associated with actions which goagainst norms.
  • 44. Norms, Values and Behaviours• Many of us choose behaviours from a range ofoptions that conform to what society or oursocial groups will allow us to do. Whileconforming behaviours help to maintain orderand cohesion in society and helps to avoidsanctions, they also sometimes help toperpetuate undesirable or inequitablepractices.
  • 45. Characteristic Caribbean Behaviours• making fun of others,• camaraderie,• celebrations,• insularity,• religion,• preference for white, western culture,• kinship bonds/family ties• informality
  • 46. How do values originate• They spring from the common experiencesshared by a group. Caribbean people share acommon history and geography and thesefactors are undoubtedly important in fosteringsome of the values that have come to shapesociety and culture in the Caribbean.• Our norms (rules for living) are shaped by ourvalues
  • 47. How has geography shaped the valuesimportant in the Caribbean?• Its archipelagic nature – islands strung out in a chain as the Greater andLesser Antilles. This has helped to foster some degree of insularity and asense of separateness.• Mainland territories – the inclusion of Guyana, Suriname, Cayenne andBelize, in the Caribbean Region, adds even greater variety amongCaribbean peoples.• Problems of definition – the label, „Caribbean‟, is also applied to somecountries without a Caribbean coastline; such asGuyana, Suriname, Cayenne, and the Bahamas.• Mountainous terrain – the inhospitable interior (for example, theWindwards) has encouraged an outward-looking culture, developingstrong ties with people of the coasts in nearby islands through inter-marriage and commerce, helping to foster kinship across nationalboundaries.• Human activity – agriculture, settlement patterns, fishing - springs out of acommon physical environment with similar natural resources.
  • 48. How has history shaped the valuesimportant in the Caribbean?• We have had a relatively short recorded history in the Caribbean so it is fairly easyto isolate some of the main events and processes that have shaped our values. Forexample,• - slavery, an experience of both the indigenous inhabitants and Africans who wereforcibly brought to the Caribbean. One value that is thought to have come out ofthis experience is an emphasis on resistance, for example, much of Caribbeanmusic, in different ways, reflects themes that deal with liberation.• - colonialism, an extended period of European rule, experienced throughout theCaribbean. A value that is attributed to colonial rule is a preference for foreignproducts, ways of governing, technology, clothes and lifestyles, as these aregenerally believed to be superior to their local counterparts.• - indentureship, the importation of East Indians and Chinese in large numbersmainly into Guyana, Trinidad and Suriname, as labourers. Many of the descendantsof these labourers continue to value their oriental origins, customs, language andreligions.• You should note that several values can stem from any one of the above factors.Other historical factors you could have mentioned are –
  • 49. Cont’d• independence,• chronic economic depression,• the development of plural societies,• globalization.
  • 50. HOW DO PEOPLE LEARN VALUES?• Socialization is the process through which welearn the values, norms and behaviours that areacceptable in our society and culture. We „learn‟through various means – sometimes things are„caught‟, sometimes taught –formally, informally, by imitation, or reflection.Socialization begins in the home, where throughprimary socialization we learnlanguage, relationships and concepts, and aboutourselves in relation to others. When we beginschooling, secondary socialization starts andgoes on all our lives. We are being socializedevery day.
  • 51. Active Socialization• Variations in attitudes, dispositions, and convictions produce arange of behaviours, and come about because individuals do notpassively adopt values and norms, and the circumstances of theirsocialization are varied. Socialization is an active process where anindividual brings his or her own dispositions and attitudes to bearon decision making – sometimes deliberately, sometimesunconsciously.• Learning a set of values through socialization - from home, themedia, school, peer group, and the church, does not necessarilymean that these values will remain intact throughout ones life.Persons can re-socialize themselves and learn other values. This isan example of active socialization.
  • 52. Hierarchy of Values• Another variation apparent in society and culture is thedifferent ways in which individuals rank values. Patriotism,for example, may be very highly valued, but for someindividuals or groups other values may be ranked higher.For example:• Uppermost in other peoples hierarchy of values will be thedevelopment of an overall national consciousness wherepatriotism becomes more important than small groupaffiliation.• Others value the personal highly.• Directly opposite to such a value position, will be a Gandhi,a Mandela, or a Martin Luther King, where what is good formankind takes precedence
  • 53. Latent and Manifest Acts• According to the sociologist there is a myriadof possible effects to each action in the societyand culture• Latent functions refer to the unintended,hidden or unexpected consequences of an act.• Manifest functions, on the other hand, referto the anticipated, open or stated goals of anact.
  • 54. Status and Roles• All members of society occupy a number of socialpositions known as statuses. In society an individualmay have several statuses -occupational, family, gender. Statuses are culturallydefined despite the fact that they may be based onbiological factors such as sex.• Each status in society is accompanied by a number ofnorms that defines how an individual occupying aparticular status is expected to act. This group of normsis known as role. Social roles regulate and organizebehaviour. In particular they provide means foraccomplishing certain tasks.
  • 55. Cultural Renewal, Retention andErasure as a part of values• @Cultural Erasure• The erasure of cultural practices is often a gradualprocess and usually stems from an on-goingconflict between traditional ways ofaccomplishing tasks in the society and newermethods. The latter may be more efficient andcost-effective and may save time and energy. Theadoption of appliances such asrefrigerators, washingmachines, dishwashers, and microwaves, hascontributed to the loss of cultural practices.
  • 56. Cultural Renewal, Retention andErasure as a part of values• Cultural retention results from a deliberatedesire to keep traditions alive so that somegroups would be able to preserve their senseof identity. Small groups especially, withinlarger communities, tend to feel alienated.You may be able to think of distinct socialgroups in your country where retention ofcultural practices is emphasized because it isthought that the very existence of the groupdepends on these practices.
  • 57. Cultural Renewal, Retention andErasure as a part of values• Cultural renewal refers to efforts to salvage parts ofour past by fashioning new practices based on theold. Such efforts stem from a feeling that there ismuch value in what we have neglected. Also, inincorporating new values and norms into our societyand culture we find that traditional practices are re-cast and appear in different forms. In many Caribbeancountries traditional food preparations which are timeconsuming and labour intensive are now speeded upand made easier to produce for the tourist marketand working persons using modern techniques suchas refrigeration and food processing.
  • 58. FEATURES OF CARIBBEAN SOCIETYAND CULTURE
  • 59. Investigating features of CaribbeanSociety and Culture• Expected Learning Outcomes– Explain terms such as culturaldiversity, hybridization, social stratification andsocial mobility– Examine diversity and commonality in theCaribbean– Analyse the phenomenon of cultural change– Discuss the issue of identity and cultural diversity
  • 60. Cultural Diversity• Culture is diverse, meaning, people interprettheir culture however they want and act fromtheir social location i.e. their context.• Therefore even if the society seems racially orethnically homogenous the culture isn’tnecessarily uniform, i.e. we don’t experienceculture the same way (remember the social?)
  • 61. Cultural Diversity• People will differ because of ethnic categoriessuch as religion, traditions and customs andeven if these are all the same we don’t allexperience them the same way.• We all have different beliefs and value systemswhich influence our perceptions and not onlythat each of us has a unique way of expressingthem
  • 62. Commonalities and differences• Culture therefore is a diverse phenomenondespite our habit of limiting it in a static way.• When we then speak of diversity in theCaribbean region we mean we acknowledgethat there are similarities and commonalitiesamongst Caribbean cultures
  • 63. Historical Context of CaribbeanDiversity• All main Caribbean cultural groups were forciblyuprooted or coerced into leaving their homelands.• The indigenous populations were then later decimatedby European Conflict.• Groups were imported for the purpose of manuallabour and all interacted within the context ofEuropean dominance.• Historians are studiers of time give chronologicalnarratives of significant time periods and comparethem with like events, to understand better what isgeneral or common. To learn more about culturalretention, renewal and erasure.
  • 64. Sociological Context of CaribbeanDiversity• The groups who came to the Caribbean varied in termsof cultural orientations and posed problems to thesociety due to differences in religion, language andcustoms which lead to distinct Caribbean cultures.• Colonization then lead to the cultural control andtransformation of these relationships due to theplantation system and assimilatory laws.• Sociology therefore focuses on the relationships amongsocial groups through social stratification, status withsocial groups and in current eras the means ofacquiring social mobility.
  • 65. Anthropological Context of CaribbeanDiversity• Anthropologists study how people at a particular timeand space come to learn what they stand for orrepresent.• For example the perceptions of an individual based onthe transplanting process the societies of theCaribbean differed i.e. Indians were brought as labourto set up completion; Africans, etc. had other optionsand as such were relegated to the bottom of the socialhierarchy due to their different customs• Occupation of the same space meant specialaccommodations had to be made.
  • 66. Cont’d• These included:• Places where different groups were brought aslabour ex. Guyana. Pluralism existed as aresult.• Hybridization of races for example betweenthe Europeans and the First Peoples• Maroonage – running away in attempt tobuild a different society and culture
  • 67. The ‘us’ and ‘them’ syndrome• This refers to the group of social constructionswhich we as Caribbean people have inheritedto keep people of different ethnic groupsapart.• This is a main feature of Caribbean society &culture and has developed not because theCaribbean is diverse but because we havebeen socialized to behave in this ‘us vs. them’way.
  • 68. Cultural Pluralism• This is the term associated with the culturaldiversity as a result of European colonization,when different groups were brought hereeither forcibly or under contract.• In a plural society there age two or moreethnic groups who share the same space butdo not mix to a significant extent ex. Minglingat School or workplace.
  • 69. The ‘us’ and ‘them’ syndrome• In the Caribbean, societies that seem similarsuch as Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad andTobago are polarized as a result of relationsbetween those of Indian and African descentand there have been incidents of violence inthe past. T&T teeters on the brink of this fromtime to time.
  • 70. Positive and Negative effects ofCultural Diversity• Positive Impacts of diversity Negative effects ofdiversity• add richness to regions society √ creates insularity/narrowmindedness• exposure to multiculturalism √ ethnocentrism arises• recognition and appreciation of other √ impedescommunication – different peoples lifestyles languagesand dialects• basis for growth into tourism product√ animosity .• creates strong patriotism• learn to do things differently √ dominant culture displaces culturaltraits• gives awareness of cultural heritage of smaller nations
  • 71. Hybridization• This refers to the processes of cultural andethnic mixing to produce new or ‘creole’forms.• For example prior to Columbus’ arrival theKalinagos and Tainos adopted each others’languages and customs.
  • 72. Racial and Ethnic Hybridization• Amerindian, African and to a lesser extent Indianwomen were forced to cohabit and have children forEuropean oppressors• This went on for centuries resulting in a mixed orcoloured race of people. Sexual relations resulting inchildren of mixed race is called miscegenation.• Children of such unions with predominantly whitefeatures according to the prevalent racial ideologiesasserted that these lighter skinned children weresomehow better than their maternal ancestors andwere treated more leniently
  • 73. Racial and Ethnic hybridization• A pigmentocracy evolved where people offairer complexions wielded more prestige andpower in the society than others.• Thus skin colour, facial features and even hairtexture are important in the discourse ofculture and identity in the Caribbean, a socialconstruct based on biological characteristics
  • 74. Racial and Ethnic hybridization• From the very beginning indigenous populations and lateron the enslaved and indentured have been consideredsubhuman.• Racial and ethnic hybridization then underscored andemphasized the prevailing ideologies in the society, equating skin colour with social constructions of inferiorityand superiority• A continuum of colour and shade therefore came tocharacterize Caribbean people with each colour and shadewith a different connotation. Those almost white ones hadhigher prospects. This respect for colour has extended intoall walks of life even to the acquirement of Europeanphysical features or even alliances with white or lighterskinned persons as means of social betterment
  • 75. Racial and Ethnic hybridization• Persons of mixed race have such a diversity offeatures it is often difficult for them to identify asense of cultural belonging. Some countries mayhave a larger ‘coloured’ population i.e. Trinidad orSt. Lucia or with two larger populations whichmake the coloured populace i.e. Jamaica orAntigua.• The combos are innumerable and are found at allsocio-economic aspects of the society howeverthere is an alignment of these people more withaffluent groups in society
  • 76. Racial and Ethnic hybridization• Various terms have been coined to define these groups:• Europeans encountered the Amerindians in the 15thcentury and during the violent impact the race of mestizoswere born. Hispanic scholars use this term o label all mixedrace Caribbean people i.e. Afro-mestizo, European-Indianmestizo• In the British Caribbean scholars the race produced throughthe interactions between the enslaved Africans and theEuropeans as mulattoes. Due to use of lightness as amarker on the social hierarchy finer distinctions emergedsuch as the sambo (mulatto x African), quadroon (mulatto xEuropean).
  • 77. Racial and Ethnic hybridization• Other unions took place between maroon Africans andAmerindians, forming the Afro-Amerindian mestizotype for example the Misquito Indians of Belize andNicaragua. The Belize Garifuna which relocated to StVincent were descendants of Black Carib rebels andlocal Africans and Amerindians.• Their Arawakian language persists as well as thereligious and kinship networks. This hybridized cultureis a remarkable example of cultural retention.• The Caribbean is a rich showcase of racial and ethnicdiversity from hybridization and as such can be definedas a polyglot society.
  • 78. Cultural Hybridization• Cultural hybridization is defined as the development ofnew cultural forms out of existing ones through aperiod of contact and interaction.• Creolization is used instead if this process took placewithin the context if European colonization. Thus in theCaribbean the two are interchangeable• The greatest effect of this is cultural diversity, manifestthrough the hybrid forms created when two or moreethnic groups meet and interact. These hybrids can beany mixture of the original forms.
  • 79. The processes of Cultural Hybridization• To understand this process we must have afundamental understanding of the termscultural erasure, cultural retention andcultural renewal.
  • 80. Cultural Erasure• This refers to practices which have died out or are currentlydying.• There is a debate as to whether culture can truly dies.• Due to the definitions of culture as material and non-material previously a culture can survive through theartefacts it has left behind.• Non material culture is harder to define as the language ofthe Taino can still survive through place names or localdialects to a small extent.• The hybridity also due to the intermingling betweenEuropeans and the Amerindian populations duringconquest could mean that Taino practices may exist todaythrough some Caribbean practices.
  • 81. Cultural Retention• This refers to practices which have survived evenwhen most other forms and symbols of a cultureare no longer existent.• Traditional Carib basketry designs and technologystill continue in Dominica and elsewhere thoughthese populations continuously change and adaptto modernity.• A cultural retention usually refers to a specificaspect of culture for example religion or language
  • 82. Cultural Renewal• This occurs when a group goes through aconscious rejuvenation process and returns tosome elements of its culture which it believeshave been ignored or suppressed.• It normally via a change in consciousness broughton by radical historical change.• For example the advent of Garveyism & theHarlem Renaissance in the early 20th centurycatalysed a development of black consciousnessin the Caribbean and the US.
  • 83. Examples of Cultural Hybridization• Religion• World Religions which met in the Caribbean underwent alarge amount of hybridization or syncretism into creolizedformats. These could be small differences or radical onesfrom the original.• Christian and African religions have undergone a largerprocess of syncretism than other ones since Conquest andlater Missionary activity• Africans tried to fill in the vacuum left in their cultural lifedue to removal from their homelands and as such created alarge amount of syncretic religions which oftenincorporated elements of the dominant religion inclusive ofthe belief in the creator and cosmology.
  • 84. Religion• Myal is an early creolized religion developedin Jamaica where Christian elements wereblended with African World views.• US Baptists fleeing the American revolutionsettled in Jamaica bringing their views to Myalbelievers who often incorporated activelyChristian doctrine into the Myal world view• Revivalism, Pukumania and Kumina were allderived from Myal
  • 85. Religion• The Shouter Baptists also developed similarly to Myal where USBaptists who settled in Trinidad & Tobago and St Vincent in the 19thCentury had their beliefs syncretized into the existing African beliefsof Rada, Shango and Obeah; migration between the countries alsoserved to strengthen the faith though persecuted by Britain.• African Elements such as drumming and dancing to music isimportant to worship with an emotional ceremony.• Rastafari believe that all members of the black race belong to oneof the twelve tribes of Israel and that one incarnation of Jah isChrist.• Santeria in Cuba survives with a host of Roman Catholic saintsrenamed in Yoruba. In these afro-centric religions a greateremphasis is placed on spiritual possession and occult practices.
  • 86. Religion• Syncretism is a complex process whether African orChristian beliefs are dominant. The beliefs are betterdescribed as integrated as practitioners have meldedboth European and African elements which are veryhard to deconstruct and explain.• The beliefs aren’t merely just retentions but arehybrids formed under subjugation and resilience to foran identity.• Not surprisingly major Christian denominations such asCatholicism and Anglicanism are currently beingcreolized. Clapping, dancing and drumming are amainstay in worship today
  • 87. Language• Caribbean languages are extremely hybridized mainly of thedominant European language as well as words sprinkled fromother languages and expressed through oral culture• African languages from the enslaved were not usually writtenlanguages and were mixed to form creole languages whichdiffered immensely from the European master tongue.• These are referred to as creole or patois. Each country hastheir own type which has emerged due to immensehybridization.• Each language has a specific structure and lexicon whichtremendously differs from the standard, either created oradopted from other languages
  • 88. Language• Each type whether English, French or Dutch creole isconsidered a fully developed language as it meets theneeds of those in the society. It is usually the mothertongue of all residents in a specific Caribbean country.• Creole, especially in the Anglophone Caribbean isexpressed as a continuum, where one end is theextreme of creole (basilect) and the other StandardEnglish. In between includes language used for alldifferent situations. Mesolect tends to be used by mostcreole speakers and it is easier to shift between creoleand the standard language.
  • 89. Language• Since the words used in English creole for example in Jamaicancreole or Trinidadian creole are similar to the standard the socialconstruction that these languages are corrupt has developed.• This has arisen due to ideologies of European culture as superiorand Hybridized cultural forms as inferior.• French creoles are found in the patois of Dominica, St Lucia andall the French Territories and Haiti.• It Haiti creole is called kweyol. The French lexicon creoles in theAnglo-Caribbean are not widely spoken but are extremely similarto the Franco-Caribbean.• Haitian creole is different due to the Haitian revolution’s removalof French influence in 1804 the language structure differsimmensely from others and is often debated as Ewe languagewith French vocab
  • 90. Cultural Change• The termsenculturation, acculturation, assimilation, transculturation and interculturation areaccurately used to describe cultural change.
  • 91. Enculturation• This is a process of socialization where a personbecomes part of another’s culture.• This can occur through assimilation oracculturation.• This has been tried by European Colonists. Onehas to note however of the view that one’sculture can be erased while being enculturated.• Once the practice still lives in one’s memory andcan be practiced by others it isnt erased.• Enculturation alerts us to the possibility ofcultural erasure.
  • 92. Acculturation• Acculturation was used as the means for the colonies to developan appreciation of British culture during colonization.• For example the adoption of English as an official language,English curriculum even institutions of laws and governance.• The belief was that subjects would be socialized into a deepappreciation of British culture, following its customs andpractices; without the expectation of becoming British butencultured to produce a hybrid culture with English values• Acculturation meant the erasure of some aspects of African andAmerindian culture however a unique culture was formed wherethere was reverence to British values and an embrace of Afro-centric and other cultural forms (religion/language)• Retentions also existed through African herbal medicine andcooking i.e. Garifuna and the Maroons.
  • 93. Assimilation• This occurs when a dominant group makes a bid toenculturate another by attempting to supplant all aspectsof its culture and make it over into the image of thedominant group.• For example the French assimilation policy where theFrench intended to convert her colonized people intoFrench people, culturally speaking ignoring indigenouscustoms and values.• The colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe areacknowledged as part of France however both ambivalentlyidentify with their Caribbean Identity and their Frenchcitizenship showing that despite pressures Caribbeanpeople have only been enculturated to a certain extent ashybridized Franco-Caribbean culture exists.
  • 94. Transculturation• This describes the process whereby a culture changesdrastically, actually overcoming itself and translatinginto something new.• For instance Cuba before and after the revolutionwhere cultures of pre-revolutionary Cuba has beentransformed into a more rigid socialist perspectiveafter 1962. However despite social change andcollectivist economy many cultural beliefs remained• Another is the experience of ‘seasoning’ to slavery ofnewly arrived Africans by creole Africans. Despite manyattempts at cultural erasure some elements of identityremained.
  • 95. Interculturation• This refers to the mixing of cultures that goeson between groups who share a space. Thegroups do not necessarily give up their ownculture but participates in various ways ineach others lives.• For example the meeting of Africans and othergroups in a Culturally plural society such asTrinidad & Tobago at schools or at theworkplace.
  • 96. Social Stratification• This is another characteristic through which Caribbeansociety can be identified.• It refers to the ranking of social groups according toone or more criteria deemed important in society.• The ranking usually indicates the money, power orprestige of a specified group.• Different positions on the hierarchy are called socialstrata and status is a rank or position in the hierarchy.• This system indicates that groups in society areunequal and this condition persist across generations.
  • 97. Social Stratification• Ranking society may differ for example in closedsystems of social stratification like the Caribbeansociety during slavery the criteria determiningones status was race and colour.• Therefore the system was closed to mobility asrace was the determining factor.• Similarly for caste systems which are also closedone can only interact within one’s caste.• Closed system like these are based on ascribed orhereditary status.
  • 98. Social inequality• Stratified ranking systems of social groups are forms ofinstitutional inequality meaning people have proportionalaccess to privileges based on their position in the hierarchy.• Thus even a poor person with qualifications may lose a jobto a wealthy not as qualified applicant.• In the Caribbean where colour is held in high regard it oftenhappens that lighter coloured individuals obtain better jobsand better marriage prospects and opportunities thanthose ranked lower on these traits• This is an example of social stratification maintainsinequality where groups with more money obstruct othergroups from moving upwards in society and are calledgatekeepers.
  • 99. Social Stratification Under Slavery• Plantation society in the Caribbean in the 17th, 18th and 19thcenturies was a closed system of stratification based onascribed criteria of race and colour.• Race and colour were tied to ones occupation in thesociety. Black people to a could only be slaves or freepeople of colour. White people were never of low socialstatus though white indentured labours strained on theborders.• One could not escape this system unless one hadbargaining power. Persons of mixed descent were fortunatein this regard and got lighter work as a result (that was apun LOL). Many were also freed by their white fathers andeven educated, so had better prospects. Coloureds were anefficient buffer group in the society.
  • 100. Social Stratification Under Slavery• However under closer inspection the three levels werealso rigidly subdivided.• Among whites those born in Europe were usually ofhigher standing but were often absentee so the creolewhites were at the top of the hierarchy. Poorer whites(overseers etc.) were somewhat removed but stillranked above the free coloureds via race.• Among free coloureds there were divisions basedfurther on hue, degree of education, a protection froma white person while among the enslaved distinctiononly existed based on labour type i.e. house & field.
  • 101. Social class and Social stratification• In the Caribbean today social class is mainly used todistinguish among the different social strata based on socialand economic resources.• The Caribbean is defined using the ‘class structure’,stratification under upper, middle and lower social classes.• Social class in modern society is perceived as based onachieved criteria referring to one’s performance in beingable to earn what the society values (wealth, power,prestige). There is however unequal opportunity in gettingrewards.• It is important to note though the Caribbean is stratifiedaccording to social class, that situation has evolvedgradually from plantation society.
  • 102. Social Mobility• This is the movement of individuals from onesocial class to another, either up or down thehierarchy.• In closed systems like in Plantation societysocial mobility was impossible or very limited.Now in the Caribbean it is possible now due towhat one has achieved. A society where onecan advance socially based on achievements iscalled a meritocracy.
  • 103. Social Mobility• The main ways of advancement are:1. Marrying up2. Acquiring the necessary educational credentials.3. Owning a successful business and investingwisely• In many cases mobility is intergenerationalmeaning that a family can move up the socio-economic bracket due to the foresight of one ofthe elders in the family
  • 104. TRACING HISTORY IN THECARIBBEAN SOCIETY AND CULTURE
  • 105. Expected Learning Outcomes1. Describe the main historical events processes inCaribbean history2. Relate historical events and processes inCaribbean society and culture3. Critically analyse traditional accounts ofCaribbean history4. Apply historical knowledge in describingdiversity and complexity in Caribbean societyand culture5. Appreciate how a knowledge of history deepensan understanding of Caribbean social life.
  • 106. Migrations• This is the movement of people from place toplace meaning the movement of society andculture as well as their meeting and mixingwith other societies and countries.• The Caribbean has experienced significantmigrations, each impacting social life. Themain focus of this is immigration into theregion
  • 107. Earliest Caribbean migrations• The idea that Caribbean history is new is anethnocentric one where emphasis is given toColumbus since his voyage in 1492• The more accurate representation dates fromover 10,000 years before the common era.
  • 108. Challenges to these ethnocentricassumptions• The fact that the earliest remains of habitation are found in both Trinidadand Cuba suggests that migrations into the Caribbean were not just fromsouth to north but also people who came into the region from CentralAmerica and Florida• These earliest peoples of the Archaic and pre-Ceramic period spread outand lived in the Greater and Lesser Antilles over 5000 years before othergroups migrated into the region• From about 2400 years BCE different cultural groups distinguished bydistinctive pottery styles and lifestyles began to migrate from S. Americainto the Lesser Antilles. They didn’t settle chronologically from north tosouth but skipped some altogether. These people were acculturated intothe Saladoid, Barrancoid and Ostionoid cultures showing hybridizationhas been happening for millenia.• These people enjoyed remarkable access to mobility through for examplethe Carib Canoe. Trade was also significant as they were in constantcommunication.• Also DNA evidence has proved that the Taino genes are present to linkthem with current Caribbean gene pools
  • 109. Challenges to these ethnocentricassumptions• Amerindians are not a uniform group as hybridization hasdeveloped differently in various parts in the Caribbean as thesehybrid groups coexisted with Archaic people for example theCiboneys.• European labels for the Indigenous were proved to be wrong forexample as people of the Greater Antilles were called theArawaks (the language) rather than their true name the Taino.• The Taino were acknowledged to have a peaceful nature by theSpanish and the Caribs a very belligerent and even Cannibalisticone which has confirmed to not be completely accurate. TheTaino were initially peaceful but readily attempted to defendthemselves against extermination. Likewise the Caribs were byno means Cannibals this was only an assumption made bySpaniards like Las Casas. It can be assumed the true warmongerswere the Spanish.
  • 110. European Migration• Columbus may not have been the first European to visit the NewWorld but he was the first one to bring tangible evidence of itsexistence.• With his return to Europe with gold a new spirit of conquest wasstirred up to seek fortunes… conquistadors to plunder and prieststo convert ‘heathens’• A society was therefore organized to facilitate the export ofprecious metals to Spain.• The Caribbean was the springboard for all this activity which waslaunched mainly aimed at C. and S. America. As gold was discoveredon Hispanola it was decided the local Taino populations weresuitable for labour. Through greed for power, wealth Spanishsettlers enslaved, exploited them, and killed many…eventuallyleading to their genocide.
  • 111. European Migration• The migrants who continued to come fromSpain after the initial rush came tosettle, become ranch owners and establishventures on the new colonies• Eventually the vast area of their new territorybecame too large to solely monopolize andother countries such as England, France, theNetherlands and Portugal started to contestthe Spanish claims.
  • 112. European Migration• People often treated Europe as a unit however there were largedifferences among the territories in the New World.• For over 100 years after Spanish claims no other country was ableto settle permanently in the Caribbean.• Britain and France in the 16th and 17th century came to pillage andsteal Spanish galleons carrying Gold to Spain and lay siege to theirterritories through buccaneers, privateers and pirates.• According to the Treaty of Tordisillas Spain was not awarded Africaand such they had to rely on Portugal for a supply of slaves grantedby an asiento (licence) as times changed the asiento went to theDutch, British and French. This incited rivalry as the majorcommodity wasn’t gold but human cargo.• Smuggling was another means countries used to encroach on theSpanish. The British and to larger extent the Dutch hindered tradeas they smuggled goods and slaves.• Once the British and French permanently settled in St Kitts in 1624it set the stage for migrants to settle on the other island of theLesser Antilles which were virtually ignored by the Spanish
  • 113. European Migration• Many of the 17th century French and British colonies wereproprietorships meaning that the monarch would greatnobles, favoured persons or even companies the sole right to settleand develop territory with the expectation of getting taxes from thecolonists• The Dutch settled on Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao and Suriname, StMaarten, Saba and St Eustatius. They were less interested inagriculture but more so in salt mining on the Guiana coastline andtrading in slaves and other goods.• Unlike the Spanish, other settlers did not enslave local populationsbut instead initially obtained European indentured labour fortobacco before sugar became widespread.• Denmark settled St Thomas in 1672 later St Croix and St John whileSweden obtained St Barth’s from France and later resold them in1878.
  • 114. Forced migration of Africans• It is speculated by some especially Ivan van Sertima that the African may havecome to the Caribbean before Columbus. However it is known that Africanstravelled alongside Spaniards as free men. Slavery existed in Spain for centuriesinclusive of all creeds and races. Slavery also existed in Africa before the Atlanticslave trade.• It was a truly capitalist system which involved tremendous brutality betweenmaster and slave – which changed slave relations forever.• In Europe and Africa people were enslaved for various reasons inclusive ofreligious persecution, captives of war, payments of loans, dowries etc., or couldinvolved kidnapping and trading.• There was little difference in ethnicity between master and slave and no society’seconomy depended fully on slavery – even those who captured and distributed.• What made the triangular trade unique was forced migration of millions into alifetime of captivity and servitude for centuries, whose foundation was basedsolely on race emerging with a full blown racist ideology overtime.• Enslaved Africans were imported into the Caribbean in small numbers since 1503but by 1520 the Crown gave permission to import more as a supplement to thedwindling Taino population. The Portuguese had the asiento for African trade assaid before, which eventually went to the Dutch, French then British.
  • 115. Slave Trade• European merchants, banks, etc. invested capital for ventures andgovernments had an active role in the commercial aspects of theTrade founding by charter Joint Stock Companies ex. The RoyalAfrican Company, the Company of Senegal and the Dutch WestIndia Company which were given a monopoly to trade slaves forgoods for specific periods. The were responsible for defending slaveforts in Africa and could capture rival powers’ merchandise.• West Africa was integral, as such each power built different fortsalong the coast ex. Elmina. These were used to store goods fromEurope for trading purposes and to house African future slaves.These forts were also responsible for negotiating with chiefs andemissaries acting on behalf of their states.• Estimates put the amount of Africans kidnapped at 15 million.Portuguese were active mainly the Gold Coast and eventually toAngola. The Dutch in the Slave, Ivory and Gold Coasts with smallersettlements. France in Benin and Senegal. Wherever a countrysettled it had its own relations within the existing system tosafeguard their respective interests.
  • 116. Slave Trade• Initially the Europeans slave raided to get Africans. Laterthey had to go deeper inland and form alliances withAfrican groups willing to capture and sell fellow Africans.They inevitably became involved into domestic matters ofKingdoms providing guns and ammunition to their allies.• Once slave ships left the African Coast they began theMiddle Passage across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and N.America. The conditions on the slaver were so bad thatmany died from suffocation due to lack of space percaptive. The more a slaver could carry the higher the profitand if there was a cap on fatalities per trip more slaveswere simple carried to cancel it out.• When Africans were sold they were sold in exchange ofsugar, rum and molasses and headed back to ports inEurope such as London, Amsterdam and Bordeaux. Thiswas the final leg of the complex triangular trade.
  • 117. Effects of the Slave Trade• The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade was the singlemost important process which impacted theCaribbean. It changed pre-existing Caribbeansocieties into slave societies and had a myriadof other effects:
  • 118. Effects of the Slave Trade1. The slave trade was directly tied to the need for labour thereforelarge plantation economies tended to have large Africanpopulations ex. English, French and Dutch2. The Spanish however slowly introduced slaves to plantations inCuba, Puerto Rico and Santo Domingo so less Africans initiallyresided. However in the late 19th century Africans were beingimported after British, Dutch and French slavery & its trade wereabolished.3. The trades in Britain ended in 1804, The Netherlands in 1814 andFrance in 1818. Slavery itself was abolished in 1834 for theBritish, in France in 1848 and in Holland in 1863. Cuba abolishedfinally in 1886.4. Though slavery ended in 1886 in Latin America Black populationsare no majority and only comprise 12% in most countries. InPuerto Rico however most are mixed race or mullato.
  • 119. Effects of the Slave Trade4. This forced migration formed adiaspora, immigrants with a commonhomeland to which they share an emotionalattachment.5. We must not forget that the Caribbean’sAfrican diaspora had distinct ethnicdifferences. The French traded a lot ofDahomey, the Cubans Bantu and the eaternCaribbean many Ibo and Koromanti.
  • 120. Migration of Indentured Labourers• After slavery was abolished in 1834 many of thesmaller territories such as Antigua became freeovernight while others went through a compulsoryperiod of Apprenticeship until 1838. The new issue ofprices of labour became major and influencedindentureship.• Indentureship was an old concept reintroduced tosolve labour problems in the Caribbean whereindentured servants agreed to enter into a contract towork in the Caribbean for a period of 5-7 or 10 yearsfor minimum wages, their passage would be paid forwith the option to return to their country of originonce the period of time was over or receiving a grantof land in the new territory.
  • 121. Migration of Indentured Labourers• India proved to be the most satisfactory laboursource and in 1845 both Trinidad andJamaica, following British Guiana beganimporting indentured labour.• While immigrants came essentially to allCaribbean countries in small numbers in Trinidadand British Guiana were sustained & large whereby 1917 239,000 had gone to BritishGuiana, 144,000 to Trinidad and 36,000 toJamaica.
  • 122. Migration of Indentured Labourers• The migrants came from mainly NorthernIndia, Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and other parts ofIndia and were willing to work for the smallwages offered.• Africans did not trust people who were willingto work for such small wages which hinderedefforts at wage bargaining.
  • 123. Effects of Immigration• IMPACT OF IMMIGRATION INTO THE REGION• Opened the Caribbean to Europe, Africa and Asia• Introduction of new technologies- processing of sugar cane• New systems of government• New architectural style using different building materials: Spanishwall, Georgian• New languages: Spanish, English, Dutch, French• New crops/dishes: sugar cane, bananas, citrus, rice, mangos, currydishes, pak choi, tamarind, mango, Chinese dishes, buns, etc• New religious beliefs: Christianity, Hinduism, Muslim• Adequate and reliable (although inefficient) use of labour forcewhich maintain monoculture production
  • 124. • New system of production - (slavery & indentureship)• Created a multi-racial society with diverse culture• Caused a loss of identity for migrants and threatened familystructure• Stimulated growth "of social services especially medical care• • Contributed to growth of peasant farming, huckstering, shopkeeping• • New skills introduced into the region : metal, leather, irrigation• • Movement from plantations by ex-slaves: free villages; growthof peasant farms• Movement westwards / SW to Central America: Cuba (sugar,domestic, dress making, Costa Rica, Nicaragua (banana), Panama(railway >canal banana), Venezuela (oilfields)• Movement northwards to USA (WWII- war time jobs)• Eastwards to England, France (WWII- war time jobs; reconstructionafter WWII ii transport, construction, postal, service nursing)• Northwards to North America - economic as well as political ( Cuba,Haiti, Dominican Republic
  • 125. Diversity of Indentureship• Despite the pluralism of Caribbean society, the influx ofimmigrants from Guyana, Trinidad and Suriname havecreated significant groups and sub-groups withunresolved tensions.• After 1848 France brought Indian Immigrants fromPondicherry, a French colony in India, to work in Canefields and have examples of Tamil or Madrasi culturefound in Guadeloupe today.• The Dutch brought labour from the island of Java totheir colonies to their country of Dutch Guiana. Theyalso imported Indians from British India.• Suriname, Guyana & Trinidad Indian populations arelarger than other ethnic groups today.• Chinese in comparison to India, immigrants assimilatedinto the region marrying African women and becomingChristian
  • 126. Development of Systems of Production• This refers to the ways an economy isorganised to produce commodities to sustainsociety.
  • 127. Encomienda• Spanish monarchs decided that native populationshould be divided up amongst Spaniards, who had theright to exact from them some form of tribute –produce, gold or personal service. In return, theSpaniards would guarantee religious instruction in theRoman Catholic Faith.• In reality however the Amerindians were treated asslaves and many died due to hunger, overwork, harshpunishments and European disease.• Many committed suicide and infanticide as theirprecious metals, freedom and even food were taken toincrease Spain’s power and prestige in Europe
  • 128. Slavery• This was introduced throughout the Americasand was primarily concerned with a system ofproduction bound up with the cultivation ofsugar and the economic organization of theplantation.
  • 129. Slavery as a total institution• Slavery was a total institution meaning that itdetermines all aspects of the lives of African people, aswell as the social and economic arrangements of theplantation and by extension the society and formed thebasis of plantation society• Slavery shaped the lives of Africans primarily by theattempts it made to dehumanize the African.• Africans were regarded as ‘chattel’ or property ownedby the Europeans who had paid for them.• This attempt at dehumanization was done bysuppressing the social and cultural ties which helpedthem to form an identity and sense of belonging.
  • 130. Slavery as a total institutionFor example:• Choosing Africans from different racial groups for the plantationto minimize communication and bonds of kinship betweenthem based on fear of Africans being together.• Giving them European names and forbidding them frompracticing their religions and customs so any semblance offamily life as well as solidarity and identity was discouraged.• Meeting out harsh physical punishment including torture anddeath as to submit them to will of the Europeans.• Playing out different groups of Africans against each other toprevent a common identity and to promote European valuesand ways of life.• Rigidly stratifying the society based on pigment, relegatingblacks to the bottom and whites at the top; dehumanizing asracial characteristics were the ones identifying them as property
  • 131. The Plantation System• A system of production Europeans used in theircolonial empires where they brought different ethnicgroups to live and work on plantations far from theirhomelands.• Groups were encouraged to distrust each other andwere encouraged to look on the Europeans as superior.• Labour was coloured and when coupled with slavery asa total institution the plantation became asophisticated economic mechanism which dominatedthe culture and society of the Caribbean integrating itinto European economy.
  • 132. The Plantation System• Relied on the Atlantic trade for its labour supplyand provided the raw materials for the third legof the triangular trade – sugar, rum, and molassesfor the port cities of England, France and Holland.• Provided the basis for the growing manufacturingand industrial strength of Europe (plantationswere formed through invested European capital)• Was so valuable that in 1651 Britain institutedthe Navigation Laws whereby only English shipscould trade with English colonies – preventingother nations from getting a share of trade arsingfrom Her Caribbean plantations. France followedin 1664 with similar laws
  • 133. The Plantation System• European imported systems of production to theCaribbean that began to take the shape ofCapitalist enterprises with an emphasis onamassing huge profits repatriated to themetropolitan country. The basis of such wealthdepended on the enslavement of people who forthe profit motive were regarded as subhuman.• Values stressing exploitation of the people andenvironment and people for economic gain andan ideology of European superiority becameparts of the system of production
  • 134. Plantation SocietyChief characteristics:• Monocropping • Export oriented• Foreign owned • Bureaucratically organized• reliance on metropolitan countries • Vertical integration• Patterned relationship of people to • Classified people into different theland and determined how the land statuses together with formal peoplelive on definition of thewith one between them relationship another• Gave rise to peasantry we • It was both a social and anexperience in the region today. economic systemThe advantages of the plantation system:• regular and efficient production, • planning for depreciation• uniformly high quality products, • scientific research and
  • 135. Indentureship• Indentureship has been described as a ‘new slaveryalthough the Indian and Chinese immigrants werentdefined as chattel and could practice their own customsand religions.• They were paid extremely low wages and were always indebt to the company store where they were coerced to buygoods with substandard living and sanitation facilities.• They were not allowed to move around freely and if caughtsome distance from the plantation they could beflogged, charged with vagrancy and jailed. If theyattempted to run away they were hunted down chargedwith breach of contract and returned to work. They werecharged with exorbitant fines & many died frommalnutrition and suffered from malaria, yaws anddysentery.
  • 136. Indentureship• As a system of production, indentureship was very muchrelated to African plantation society.• The socio-economic influences of the plantation pervadedthe society though some Africans moved away.• They now occupied the lowest social stratum and were alsodiscouraged from interacting with the Africans to continuedisunity among labourers.• However, times had changed. Towards the end of the 19thcentury Caribbean plantations were no longer as importantto Europe had global empires and the sugar was undercompetition from other larger sugar producers such asBrazil and Cuba. Eventually the nationalist Indianmovement brought pressure on the British to discontinueimmigration due to dissatisfaction of the treatment ofIndians so the British ended Indian indentureship in 1917 (asimilar situation happened in China were it ended in 1885)
  • 137. Resistance• Caribbean people have always sought ways andmeans of resisting the harsh conditions underwhich they existed.• They resisted in two ways• 1) active resistance 2) passive resistance• Active resistance included;riots, rebellions, revolutions, development ofpeasant groups.• Passive resistance involved pretense (deaf, lackof understanding of oppressors language, fakeillnesses, malingering , satirize /mimic Europeanlifestyle, suicide, infanticide,)
  • 138. Amerindian Resistance• The threat of the Spanish to the to Tainos aroused inthem a spirit of warfare. Although the Spanish hadsuperior weapons of warfare they still put upresistance.• The Tainos resisted oppression by running away and bycommitting individual and group suicide andinfanticide,• They refused to work and starved out the Spanish byburning their food stores.• The effort of the Spaniards to Christianize theAmerindians was met with much resistance. TheSpaniards sought to save the souls of the abusedIndians but were forced to unite even from the firstyear of invasion and present some form of militaryopposition to European Invasion.
  • 139. The African Resistance• African were kept in subjugation for nearlythree centuries. This was mainly done throughthe threat of physical violence andbrainwashing.• African resistance was persistent, powerfuland successful. It was either active or passive.• Africans resisted passively throughsuicide, sabotage (damaging tools andproperty)vendetta, malingering, apathy, escapemarronage, revolt, rebellion and revolution
  • 140. The African Resistance• Resistance occurred despite the efforts of the planters to ‘break thespirit’ of the strong and intimidate the weak. Planters applied thesystem of divide and rule as well as confusion where they mixed theslaves of different languages to avoid communication.• Maroonage was one of the most successful forms of slaveresistance. It was a system which started with the freed blacks whofled the plantations to the mountains during Spanish colonization.• It was prominent in mountainous larger territories such as Jamaica(Blue Mountains & Cockpit Country) and Cuba (HammerheadMountains)• It proved successful because the Europeans found it difficult to dealwith the guerilla warfare use by the Maroons to protect theirfreedom.• Maroons would also raid plantations and encourage other slaves torunaway• Slaves not only resisted slavery, sometimes their response tooppression took on organized forms such as rebellions, which weremore organized and larger. E.g., the Tacky Rebellion in 1760, andthe Sam Sharpe Rebellion in 1831.
  • 141. Revolution and Rebellion• The largest and most successful slave revolution wasthe Haitian Revolution of the 1790s.• The Haitian revolution is argued to have , ignited theflame of liberation for all slaves throughout theCaribbean and the New World.• The success of the Haitian revolution inspired otherslaves to fight for their freedom.• It inspired other revolts of the 1830s e.g. Barbados1816, British Guiana 1823, Jamaica 1831.• These slave revolts contributed to the abolitionmovement in England and finally the abolition ofslavery in 1838
  • 142. Peasantry• After Emancipation many ex-slaves left their plantationto escape forced and unpaid labour. Once they werefreed, many moved away for the plantations into deeprural areas.• Ex-slaves developed new forms of labour. The skilledslaves moved into towns.• The acquisition of land was a means of independencefor the slaves. Many sought to buy land which wasblocked by the planters and the government .• The planters used different tactics to block thepeasants form owing land. They would charge highrents for land and evict them. They also refused to sellthem land and block their means of acquiring credit todo so.• However the peasants found means of acquiring land.They pooled their resources together and boughtland, the received help from the missionaries andmany resorted to squatting.
  • 143. Effects of Peasantry• The peasants helped to diversify the economy in the post-emancipation period and the decline of sugar.• The peasants turned to developing cash crops for export.They grew crops such as Cocoa, bananas, coffee, gingercotton, arrowroot and coconuts on their smallholdings.They also grew food crops and reared animals• This new found independence made the peasants self-sufficient and resilient in the face of economic hardships.• The peasants received little support form the colonialgovernment.• The peasantry could have been more successful had theyreceived more help form the government.
  • 144. Effects of Peasantry• The planters were determined to do everythingkeep the slaves dependent on the plantations.• Ex-slaves found refuge in the ‘free villages ‘ whichwere set up by the missionaries.• The free villages helped the development of thepeasantry. This peasantry transformed theCaribbean from a predominantly mono-croppingof sugar cane to small farming of mixed cropswhich created economic independence for theex-slaves.
  • 145. Significance of Resistance• This desire of the slaves to be independent fromthe hegemony of the Plantocracy developed aspirit of cooperation and caring among ruralcommunities. This close bond has evolved as partof the rural culture of the Caribbean.• The experience of slavery has been profound inshaping the modern Caribbean. It has changedthe systems of land tenure, agricultural practicesand population: size, race, ethnicity and structure
  • 146. Significance of Resistance• The descendants of slaves continue to experienceerasure of their traditional culture, languagedress and religion etc. They have remainedlargely poor.• The history of the Caribbean is filled with struggleagainst colonialism, oppression and socialinjustice. E.g. in the politics of Jamaica, Haiti,Trinidad and Guyana may have its roots in theexperience of slavery and a the practice ofplanters to prevent unity and prevent anotherHaitian Revolution. It also manifested again withthe practice of creating disunity amongst theblacks and the Indians.
  • 147. Movements towards Independence• By the dawn of the 20th Century Caribbeanpeople were beginning to understand whatfreedom meant were beginning to challengethe very basis of colonialism, particularly inthe aftermath of two World Wars.• This happened in two major ways throughEconomic Enfranchisement & PoliticalEnfranchisement
  • 148. Economic Enfranchisement• The Condition whereby a country or nation achieves theright to determine how it will develop its systems ofproduction.• Despite the European control of the Caribbean economyhere was resistance from people who wanted to developtheir own means of making a living.• Plantation economies were typically based on largequantities of cheap unskilled labour based on monoculture.Almost all of the harvest was to be manufactured inEurope.• Food produce was haphazard and it was normally left tothe ex-slaves to grow their own vegetables and fruits fordomestic sale
  • 149. Economic Enfranchisement• The downturn of sugar revenue in the 19th centuryindicated that plantation economies would decline.• Small and peasant farmers as result began to producenew crops as a result to diversify the markets forexport.• Cocoa, bananas, coffee, ginger, cotton, coconuts andarrowroot were grown by peasant farmers onsmallholdings. Animals were also reared.• This strategy of economic diversification attempted tomake small farmers more independent of the planterand the small wages offered on the plantation andintroduced them to self organization for the exportmarket and develop new trade sophistication for thewider world
  • 150. Economic Enfranchisement• They received little economic support from colonial whowould prefer a subservient peasantry.• They were often the source of discriminatory practicesfrom the planters often refusing to sell them land andoften sabotaged them in the process. However they alsobanded together to buy out plantations for impoverishedplanters. Baptist missionaries sometimes helped in thesepurchases forming in cases free villages. Others with littlealternatives just squatted on crown lands for exampleTrinidad and Guyana• It must be remembered that effort to establish aneconomic basis for independence was done in colonialrule; it would have been more successful if the plantersweren’t so obstructionist.
  • 151. Political Enfranchisement• This refers to the right of a people or nation todetermine their own affairs. The Caribbeancolonies were under the control of Europeanpowers.• However after emancipation it was onlyinevitable that Caribbean people woulddevelop the ability to challenge this rule.
  • 152. Political Enfranchisement• The many migrations of Caribbean people inclusive the PanamaCanal, South America and the Dutch Antilles the modern sugarplantations of Cuba, Puerto Rico and Santo Domingo and othermigrations into Europe due to the World Wars helped to develop aconsciousness of political and economic conditions in thesecountries and exposed workers and soldiers to new and differentideas.• These individuals were unwilling to resume to lowly status in thesocial hierarchy due to exposure to different political ideologies.• Moreover due to Marcus Garvey black nationalist sentiment beganto spread enabling resistance.• In the 1930’s economic conditions had deteriorated to such levelsthat the region was wracked by labour riots, strikes and socialunrest.• This period saw the rise of labour leaders who eventually rose aspolitical leaders, including Uriah ‘Buzz’ Butler, Adrian Cola Rienzi &Captain A. A. Cipriani of T&T, Alexander Bustamante and NormanManley of Jamaica, Grantley Adams of Barbados and NathanielCrichlow of Guyana all of whom developed Trade Unionmovements in the Caribbean.
  • 153. Political Enfranchisement• While creole whites were involved initially it quicklydeveloped into a working class struggle dedicated toimprove the social conditions of the poor.• The trade labour unions naturally became the birthplacesof Caribbean party politics• To Union leaders it was clear the interests of labour had tobe represented in the government so that laws can bepassed to protect their activities as well as workers rights.• Eventually Trade leaders began to comprise the legislatureinstead of the planter classes forming a lobby for selfgovernment and eventually independence.• Once Indian and African Caribbean individuals got electedto office the writing was on the wall for Colonialism in theregion.
  • 154. DEVELOPING GEOGRAPHICAWARENESS
  • 155. Expected Learning Outcomes1. Evaluate various perspectives on the relationship betweenCaribbean peoples and their environment2. Show how human activity determines whether andenvironmental hazard becomes a natural disaster3. Discuss soil erosion, drought and the destruction of coralreefs as examples of environmental degradation4. Describe the nature, occurrence, and the social andeconomic consequences of hurricanes, earthquakes andvolcanic eruptions5. Explain the theory of plate tectonics with reference to theCaribbean6. Suggest mitigation strategies to control or reduce theadverse effects of environmental disasters on Caribbeansociety and culture
  • 156. Geographical Perspectives onEnvironment, Society and Culture• Traditional physical geography has for a long timeasserted the dominant role the landscape plays ininfluencing society and culture. While human andsocial geography stresses the importance humans haveto shape the landscape through breakthroughs.• Recently however the new postmodern perspectiveasserts that ‘people’ is not a simple term to just define• Aboriginal people often have a perspective ofgeography which is different from let’s say a urban one.• The postmodern outlook also emphasises that theenvironment is not a fixed entity meaning that itchanges overtime through its relationship betweenhumans and the space around it
  • 157. Caribbean Perspectives onEnvironment• The colonial experience has left us with the perspective thathumans should control and dominate the environment.• Pre-Columbian perspectives differed immensely as it was the beliefthat the environment was sacred, devoted to worship and shouldbe left virtually untouched.• With the Europeans came a new perspective – as conquerors withnew technological advances they became better at controllingnature to produce tools, medicine and food hence the idea of theenvironment as something to control became entrenched throughcolonization.• Through capitalism plantations, mines and ranches became anorganized backdrop for the activities of the wealthy and a source ofraw materials.• Therefore environmental perspectives solely depend on howdirectly related people are to the importance of the Earth to theirexistence whether economically or spiritually
  • 158. Environmental Hazards• Natural events are termed EnvironmentalHazards when they have the potential todestroy human life and property.• Natural Events are when such environmentaloccurrences occur away from humanhabitation.• Only when people and their property isharmed we label them as environmentaldisasters
  • 159. Environmental Degradation• This is defined as the general way ofdescribing loss of some degree of quality inthe land, air or waters around us. For instanceinfertile soil or polluted rivers.• Pollution is a more specific term referring tothe ways in which human beings have causedthe contamination of the environment throughadding pollutants that harm human, plant andanimal life.
  • 160. Natural processes of EnvironmentalChange• The environment constantly changesespecially through natural events.• These changes are cyclical for example thetheory of plate tectonics states thatcontinents have been moving for millions ofyears causing volcanic activity andearthquakes.• Hurricanes also continue to wreak havoc onthe landscape
  • 161. Environmental Disasters: Soil Erosion• Soil is formed by the breakdown of rocks overhundreds of years.• The rocks decompose into their inorganicmaterials which combine withvegetation, water, air and humus to form soil.• Soil Erosion is defined as the removal of soil bywind, water or moving ice.• It is a natural process but human activity hasserved to accelerate this process.• It is a creeping hazard meaning that itsoccurrence is often not dramatic and may goundetected as soil is hardly likely to be reused orrecovered.
  • 162. Social and Cultural Practices whichAccelerate soil erosion: Deforestation• Since plant roots and vegetation hold soil together andleaves and branches often slow rainfall when plants areremoved soil is often left bare and is easily washed orblown away.• This can happen through:• Slash and Burn: practice to remove undergrowth which increasesfertility because of the ash but leaves the land bare leading toerosion• Overgrazing: occurs when animal numbers exceed the land’s‘carrying capacity’; increasing the likelihood that they will removevegetation leaving soil bare.• Bulldozing: clearing lands like hillsides for development projectsleaves land unprotected with construction is in progress• The making of charcoal: common practice in places where fuel isexpensive wee large expanses of wooded landed is burnt toconvert to charcoal.
  • 163. Social and Cultural Practices whichAccelerate soil erosion: Farming• Shifting cultivation: where plots are clearedand cultivated for a few years and left fallowwhile another one is cleared for use. Since thisis continuous land loses it fertility and itsability to withstand erosion• Ploughing up and down hillsides as well as inneat rows helps to create channels which flowfrom the top of a hill downwards or provides apath for the wind to blow away soil.
  • 164. Effects of Soil Erosion1. Removal of topsoil leaves immature subsoils whichcannot sustain previous crop production so landproductivity decreases2. Land may become useless; overgrown will secondaryvegetation i.e. bush or carved into gullies or ravines3. Soil erosion near rivers from hillsides may increasesediment build-up on riverbeds reducing rivercapacity.4. When coupled with hurricanes, earthquakes or anyother natural disaster eroded hillsides are more proneto create landslides or mudslides
  • 165. Soil Conservation• This is meant to prevent erosion and restoreeroded land to pre-erosion conditions1. Afforestation: Vegetation or topsoil is brought toan eroded area to produce a dense network ofroots to bind the soil together, prevent water andwind erosion and create new organic matter tomake new soils.2. Landscaping: An entire area may have to be re-sculpted into an undulated land beforeafforestation
  • 166. Soil Conservation3. Agricultural Practices:• Contour Ploughing: Tilling land across hillsides rather than downbreaks potential natural channels of water downslope• Planting shelter belts: Lines of trees are planted at intervals alongflat land expanses to break the force of wind• Intercropping/strip cropping: Neat rows between crops are avoidedwhen different crops are planted together at different angles• Agroforestry: Crops such as Coffee, Cocoa, fruit trees and bananasare growing in the forest co-existing with existing vegetation.• Crop rotation: Each crop depletes different nutrients in the soil sodifferent crops are planted in succession rather than continuously sonutrients will regenerate naturally• Terraces: Building small walls or ridges around sloping land toprevent rainfall from freely running downwards reducing theprobability of soil erosion.• Stubble mulching: Leaving stubble residues after harvesting on thefield as long as possible helps to reduce evaporation while coveringthe soil
  • 167. Soil erosion and poverty• While soil erosion is natural accelerated soil erosion inCaribbean countries today is a tremendous social and culturalphenomenon• In countries that are very poor i.e. Haiti people are mostlydriven by their need to survive and fulfil basic needs and haveno realization of the long term effects associated with that.• Deforestation from making charcoal and cutting forests tomake farm land reduces soil fertility over time.• Reduction of yields, resultant flooding etc. are seen as theplight of the poor so soil erosion becomes a problem madeworse by poverty because since the poor don’t have enoughpower soil conservation doesn’t get profiled.• Some solutions may include• Population Control• Productive employment• Meeting basic social welfare needs,• Better income distribution
  • 168. Drought• Drought is a temporary feature of climatewhere an unusually long period of rainfall isbelow ‘normal’ levels in that region causingsevere depletion of the water available to allliving beings• Drought is a natural phenomenon and mayoccur due to changes in relief, size andlocation as well as global changes in whetherpatterns.
  • 169. Size, Relief and Location• Small territories such as Antigua don’t generate muchconvection rainfall; accompanied by a flat landscape reduces thelikelihood of relief rainfall so are at immense risks of drought• Large countries such as Guyana very near the equator havefrequent rainfall throughout the year but due to the largess theirmay be regional variations• In the Greater and Lesser Antilles rainfall is influenced by thenorth-east trades. Where winds rise over mountains there ismuch relief rainfall.• The physical environment conserves and stores water that canbe available in dry seasons i.e. Groundwater store. This seeps tomaintain rivers at a base level and when this is affected droughtis extremely pronounced. Like erosion drought is a creepinghazard as the store may prevent detection for a while
  • 170. Global changes in weather patterns• Caribbean droughts are also linked to weatherpatterns. For example the El Nino effect andSouthern Oscillation collectively called ENSOwhich fluctuates sea surface temperatures inthe atmosphere every 2-7 years.• Together these are responsible for theprolonged droughts in Africa, South andCentral America and the Caribbean for severalyears
  • 171. Drought and Human Activity• Drought can be influenced by Human Activities such asdeforestation which contributes to silting of rivers anddrying river courses.• Pollution of rivers also can encourage algae bloomswhich can choke streams making them stagnant• Groundwater store can become depleted throughhuman activity such as artificial water channeling.• Using water during the dry season for lawn irrigationand urban demands such as washing cars can add tothe strain of water supply• It is also argued that the large human populations isalso putting demand on water supply
  • 172. Effects of Drought• As soil moisture decreases vegetation wiltsand eventually dies, encouraging soil erosion• Low soil moisture prevents or delaysgermination of crops leading to low yields• Reduced Groundwater stores take a long timeto be restored; river may dry permanently• Competition for water inevitably leads toconflict, with rationing of water among socio-economic groups
  • 173. Destruction of Coral Reefs• Coral Reefs are large strips of wave resistantcoral rocks built up by Carbonate organisms(coral polyps) lying close to the surface of thesea, cemented together to form a physicalstructure.• In the Caribbean there are three types:1. Barrier2. Fringing3. Atoll
  • 174. Destruction of Coral Reefs• Barrier reefs are found parallel to the coast andare usually separated by a shallow but wide areacalled a lagoon ex. In Belize• Fringing reefs are low platforms of coral 0.5-2.5km wide lying close to the shore of an island ofcontinental shelf, separated by narrow lagoonswith the outer edge descending sharply into thesea. Ex Buckoo reef in Tobago• Atoll reefs tend to form a horseshoe usuallylinked to a sunken volcano cone
  • 175. Growth of Coral Reefs• Criteria:– Between 30⁰N and 30⁰S of the equator– Salty and Shallow water around 20⁰C– Waters must be clear of sediment– Sunlight must penetrate freely– Nutrients and oxygen must be available for thesymbiotic algae which feed off the coral polyps’waste as it also provides food to the coral
  • 176. Coral reefs effects on culture & society• Biodiversity• Tourism• Fisheries• Coastal Protection– Coral often acts as a storm barrier during times ofturbulent wave activity
  • 177. Natural Threats to the reefs• ENSO events which alter water temperaturesincreasing the likelihood of coral bleaching• Global Warming on ocean temperatures• Desertification from Africa which brings dustto the Caribbean sea from the trade winds arebelieved to bring fungi which can harm polyps
  • 178. Human Threats• Deforestation – increasing water turbidity from erosion,etc.• Urban settlements near the coast and the pollution fromthem disturbs the ecological connection of the reef andfisheries• Harvesting the reef itself for sale• Sewage near the coast causes eutrophication, killing andchoking coral• Poisonous industrial effluence• Hot water from power plants affects sea temperatures• Overfishing• Destructive fishing techniques such as dynamite fishing
  • 179. Hurricanes• A severe, low pressure system and rotatingtropical storm with heavy rains and cyclonicwinds exceeding 119 km per hour (74mph), occurring in the Northern Hemisphere.• Hurricanes originate in the tropical parts ofthe Atlantic Ocean or the Caribbean Sea andmove generally northward. They lose forcewhen they move over land or colder oceanwaters
  • 180. Formation of a Hurricane• Off the coast of Africa between June 1 and November 30convectional disturbances come to the Caribbean1. Convection produces thunderstorms and heavy rainfall whichproduces a continuous uplift of air, cooling to produce tallclouds2. As the vapour rises it cools and condenses releasing greatenergy producing warmness higher up encouraging clouds tofuther rise and condense3. Cumulonimbus clouds are formed4. Pressure drops due to the rising air forcing more air andvapour into the system5. Coriolis force imparts a spinning effect and pressure decreasesin the system6. Strong and powerful winds are formed.
  • 181. Features of A Hurricane• Extremely low pressure• Strong winds• Heavy convectional rainfall• First half normally has winds spiralling in from thenorth-west & west with increasing intensity untilthe eyewall with max force• When the eye passes there is relative calm withsinking winds• Second half arives with SW and SE winds
  • 182. Earthquakes and Volcanoes• The theory of Plate Tectonics states that theEarth’s crust is composed of several large slabsor plates of rigid crustal materials and somesmaller ones in continuous movement.• Where one plate meets another that is calleda plate boundary or margin
  • 183. Divergent Plate Margins• At these type of plate margins two plates are moving apart(DIVERGE) from each other in opposite directions.• Convection currents moving in opposite directions (caused by theintense heat of the Earths interior) in the mantle move two platesapart. As these plates move apart this leaves cracks andfissures, lines of weakness, that allows magma from the mantle toescapes from the highly pressurised interior of the planet.• This magma fills the gap and eventually erupts onto the surface andcools as new land. this can create huge ridges of underseamountains and volcanoes such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, andwhere these mountains poke above the level of the sea islands arecreated. Both earthquakes and volcanoes can result at thesemargins, the earthquakes caused by the movement of magmathrough the crust. A reall
  • 184. Convergent Plate Margins• At these margins 2 plates move or CONVERGE together andthe Destruction of some of the Earths crust results. An oceanicplate (denser) is pushed towards a continental plate (less dense) byconvection currents deep within the Earths interior.• The oceanic plate is subducted (pushed under) the continental plateat what is called a subduction zone, creating a deep oceantrench. It is the Oceanic crust which sinks down into the mantlebecause it is denser (heavier). As it descends friction, increasingpressure and heat from the mantle melt the plate.• Some of this molten material can work its way up through thecontinental crust through fissures and cracks in the crust to collectin magma chambers. This is often some distance from the marginwhere magma can eventually re-emerge at the surface to create arange of mountains. The movement of the plates grinding past oneanother can create earthquakes,
  • 185. Transform Plate Margins• Transform boundaries (Conservative) occurwhere plates slide or, perhaps moreaccurately, grind past each otheralong transform faults. The relative motion ofthe two plates is either sinistral (left sidetoward the observer) or dextral (right sidetoward the observer). The San AndreasFault in California is an example of a transformboundary exhibiting dextral motion.
  • 186. Earthquakes• Earthquake is a vibration or a series of vibrationsdue to sudden movement of crustal rocks. Theyoccur wherever stresses build up within the crustas result of crustal plate movements (transform).As stress is applied to an area the rocks willgradually bend to accommodate the forces beingexerted. Eventually, however the stresses willbecome so great that they will exceed thestrength of the rocks which will thenbreak, releasing large amount of energy. Thissudden release of energy produces anearthquake.
  • 187. Earthquakes• The location of the stress within the crust iscalled the focus, and the position on the earthssurface, directly above the focus is called theepicenter, with the vibrations spreading outwardsin concentric circles from the point. The effectthat an earthquake has on the surface dependson the types of rocks near the focus as well as thedistance from the epicenter. When earthquakesoriginate under the ocean, it causes a disturbanceof the water which, then results in tsunamisbeing generated.
  • 188. Effects of Earthquakes• Destruction of life and property and this isaccompanied by disruption of communication lines, inaddition to this is the outbreak of uncontrollable firesfrom broken gas lines.• The earthquake triggers landslides and rock fall.• Gigantic waves called tsunamis result in destruction ofcoastal areas For exam in 1692 great damage was doneto Annotto Bay, Buff Bay and Port Antonio in Jamaica Inaddition, 35 of 115 French buccaneers who wereraiding the town St. Anns Bay were killed by both theEarthquake and tsunami waves.
  • 189. Volcanoes• There are three types of volcanoes - lava cone, ash andcinder cone and composite cone - based on thematerial which makes up the volcano. In additionvolcanoes are classified according to their level ofactivity.• The active volcanoes are the ones "which erupt orshow.,; signs of eruption on a regular basis. Thedormant volcanoes are the sleeping ones which havenot eruption for a long time but have signs orgrumbling. The extinct ones are those which have noterupted for centuries; they have practically died out.
  • 190. Volcanoes• The Caribbean region is part of the belt ofvolcanic activity in the world. There are manyevidences of volcanic activities in the region.These include Soufriere eruption in St.., Vincentin 1979, Mt. Pelee eruption in 1902 and theSoufriere eruption in Montserrat in 1995. Inaddition to these there are many evidences ofvolcanism such as Crater Lake inGrenada, volcanic plugs in St. Lucia, fumeroleswhich sends out steam and gases and sulphurdioxide (St Lucia and Dominica)
  • 191. Effects of Volcanoes• Positive impacts• Valuable minerals such as gold, nickel copper in areas such as Pakaraimaarea in Guyana• Good farming soil from weathered volcanic rocks e.g. slopes of Mt. Miseryin St. Kitts• Hot springs which are potential for thermal energy in countries such as St.Lucia and Dominica• Major tourist attraction - sulphur springs in St. Lucia, boiling lake inDominicaExport of pumice rock - Dominica• Creates consciousness among Caribbean people as to the threat of naturaldisa;• Causes governments to enforce building codes to mitigate against theeffects earthquakes and other natural disasters
  • 192. Effects of Volcanoes• Negative impacts• Destruction of lives and property; displacement ofpeople and sometimes loss of culture• Pollution due to contamination of water supply byash, dirt and gases.• Poisonous gases released into the atmosphereresulting in respiratory ailments• Mudflows which destroy vegetation and infrastructure• Changes in weather pattern due to clouds of ash whichdecrease the amount of sunlight reaching the earth
  • 193. Effects of Natural Disasters on theCaribbean• IMPACT OF NATURAL DISASTER IN THE REGION• relocation of settlements - volcanic eruption in Montserrat, earthquake inRoyal, Hurricane Ivan (Portland Cottage)• Reconstruction of schools, houses businesses and roads• Discomfort of having to live in emergency shelters - little privacy & over• Migration( internal/external)• Destruction of crops - bananas in Jamaica, windward islands, sugar cane,• Loss of life, injury respiratory illnesses• Psychological stress- homes destroyed life changed - Post Ivan Stress• Adherence to building codes and location• Increased emphasis on disaster preparedness and mitigation education• Training for disaster relief• Increased COL -insurance costs, price gouging (food, building material etc.)
  • 194. ANALYSING SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 195. Expected Learning Objectives1. Explain what is meant by social institution and socialorganizations2. Describe the role that social institution and socialorganizations play in society and culture3. Compare different sociological perspectives on socialinstitutions4. Describe the history and evolution of selected socialinstitutions in the Caribbean5. Analyse how the family, education, religion and thejustice system impacts individuals, groups and othersocial institutions in Caribbean Society and culture
  • 196. Social Institutions• These embody all the ideas and beliefs ofmembers of the society about how they thinktheir lives should be organized.• Dominant ideas and beliefs are those usually ofthe ruling class or the rich and powerful and tendto be the ones people find legitimate• Minority and weaker beliefs are also apart of hesocial institution but are not felt to be legitimateby the majority of the society and so may besuppressed and alienated.
  • 197. Social Institutions• These ideas are normally in competition with oneanother for supremacy. So how can ideas be thebuilding block of an entire society.• Each institution becomes tangible through socialorganizations. So religious beliefs of the Christianare made tangible through the church.• The ideas and beliefs forming the institutionbecome concrete in the society through socialorganisations which reflect how these ideas areheld
  • 198. Social Institution• Socialization is the process through which thecherished ideas and beliefs of on generationbecome the cherished ideas of the next.• Members are born into a society where theyare socialized into accepting the socialinstitutions that organize that society howeverif they are born into peripheral groups thenthey will feel the institution as oppressive.
  • 199. Social Institution• In each institution there are values (ideas on howsomething should be ranked in society), norms(yardsticks and standards that have evolved onhow we should act), statuses (assigned positionsor locations), and roles (expectations ofbehaviour)• They are then the fundamental building blocks ofsociety and vary over time and are based on theideals which the people of the society have onaccomplishing the tasks of living togethercollectively
  • 200. The Family• Nancie Solien defines the family as "group ofpeople bound by that complex set ofrelationships known as kinship ties“• It is the basic unit within society whichensures continued existence of society -procreation of new generations; it is withinthe family that sexual activity; child bearing;maintenance, support and socialization of theyoung are performed.
  • 201. Historical Context• Analysing the dominant and subordinate ideas aboutthe family in the Caribbean– Amerindian traditions of raising the family havedisappeared for example initiation rights of young Kalinagoboys as warriors– African extended networks during slavery ensured familialsupport through matrifocal relationships and extended kin– The European dominant idea of the nuclear family wasbrought to the Caribbean entrenched in the society yetmost of the population has matrifocal families– Indians brought the extended family through the jointhousehold with a strong patriarchal family structure withemphasis on early marriage
  • 202. The myth of the nuclear family• The ethnocentric notion of the co-residentialnuclear family has been indoctrinated into theCaribbean psyche• European scholars interpreted the diversity ofCaribbean family systems as inferior and unstablelater labelling our females as promiscuous andour males as irresponsible• Missionaries and authorities seemed to believemarriage as the salvation for the region
  • 203. The myth of the nuclear family• Despite our many single parent, unwed couples,visiting arrangements, several partners andmatrifocal households the bias towards thenuclear family is at the heart of these othersystems as negative• This ethnocentric stereotype that males are to bethe authority figures and women are to be thehomemakers has also added a portrayal that anyother arrangement is unstable and irregular
  • 204. Caribbean family forms• The diversity of Caribbean family forms has beentheorized in to originate in three different ways1. African Retentions: Matrifocal families are typical ofWest Africa where polygamy is practiced and wivesare accommodated in separate households. Thisview acknowledges slavery as a factor which alteredthe family structure somewhat2. Slavery: Others believe that cultural retentions suchas family life couldn’t have survived through slavery.The unions that the enslaved were forced toundergo influenced the family forms we see today.Marriage was rare, cohabitation was irregular &children remained with their mothers.
  • 205. Caribbean family forms3. Economic Thesis: Which states that since slaveryended more than 150 years ago other factorssuch as poor women wanting to enter sexualrelations for money. Since men were not usuallyvery wealthy women had to seek successiverelationships to make money. Children were notseen as liabilities but means for the householdto survive. Critics of this thesis easily state thataffairs happen at all social strata.
  • 206. Caribbean Family Forms• Despite the diversity of our Caribbean Familyforms they are normal for the people usingthem and fulfil the same function any familyanywhere should provide to its members.• The main focus of Caribbean family forms isn’tthe composition of the household like in thenuclear family, but the extended network ofkin which arises.
  • 207. Caribbean Family Forms• Practices such as godparenthood and fictive kinship(ex. ‘Aunty Karen’ when she’s actually your mothersfriend), are chosen to provide support to the child andbecome as close as kin in some cases.• The practice of child shifting i.e. leaving a child with arelative while a parent migrates, etc. reflects the ideathat the extended family is meant to shoulderresponsibilities.• An analogy is for example family ownership of land. Noone member can claim land ownership so cooperationand shared responsibility for it is essential. Thisconcept is alien in most European societies.
  • 208. Functionalist Perspective on Family• Functionalists say that the family should carry out severalfunctions for order, stability and harmony insociety, including:• Reproduction• Socialization• Economic function• Provision of love and a sense of belongingness• These functionalist ideas and values provide a basis for thecommon interpretation of the institution of the familyacross the region. The family is seen as the basic unit ofsociety. If these functions are carried out in an optimalmanner and if everyone plays a role, then families would behappy and society would not be threatened by anbreakdown of social order
  • 209. Marxist/Conflict Perspective on theFamily• For the conflict theorist, families are associated with exploitation,oppression and domination. Nuclear families in particular are seen asproducts of capitalism where labour has to move where employment islocated leaving behind the extended family. Conflict theorists also arguethat the values attributed to nuclear family units are a result of the valuesimposed by the rich and powerful in the society.• The nuclear family form also fits into the capitalist plans in that there is asexual division of labour where the man works outside, and the womanstays at home and carries out the roles of wife, mother and homemaker.• Conflict theorists believe that the “assigning of roles” in a family hascontributed to family oppression, abuse and violence. This is becausewhat results is an unequal distribution of power that jeopardizes genderrelations and even produces generational conflict.• Even children are affected by this assignment of roles as they are expectedto be obedient and subservient and many of them are powerless becausetheir voices are silenced.
  • 210. Impact of the family• This can be assessed through the effect on theindividual, the group and through otherinstitutions and is based on the norms andvalues the family type has
  • 211. Impact of the family• Individual– Individuals in each family will have differentperceptions of the norms and values instilled onthem by it. For example the patriarchal structureof the Indian extended family instils that malesmust be obeyed so a girl in the family has a muchdifferent experience than the eldest son
  • 212. Impact of the family• Groups• The idea of kin impacts different groups as follows:– African families: Kin in these families include anyone related byblood and by fictive kinship ties. Kin can be perceived asbeneficial as they usually help members of the family forexample through remittances but can be seen as burdensome ifyou are expected to help an endless succession of familymembers– Muslim families: Kinship here also includes the idea ofpolygamy. In the Caribbean this practice isn’t intense but whenit occurs such families are scrutinized and often restricts socialinteraction with outsiders.– Women: Caribbean women often see themselves as locked intocertain predetermined roles such as the caregiver/nurturer.Some come home and basically have a second shift of doingdomestic chores. These roles are often disadvantage incomparison to men & is an example of gender socialization
  • 213. Impact of the family• Institutions• Ideas about the social institution of the family canaffect other institutions and even the family itself asdominant and alternative values and norms oftencompete for legitimacy.– The family: The nuclear family has been at odds for a longtime with the ideas of Caribbean family forms.Functionalist perspective, where the family is seen as anagent which ensures stability has been misinterpreted asscholars often see the diversity of Caribbean families whilenot accepting the fact that they have the same functionsas other types. However as of recent new more expandedviews of the family have been accepted as legitmate.
  • 214. Impact of the family– Education: The family impacts education in manyways. For example parental support is proven inmost cases to improve academic performance.Also research evidence has proven that lowersocio-economic families are more reluctant tointeract with the school environment.
  • 215. Education• This institution is primarily concerned withsocializing members of the society into thenorms, knowledge and skills to which it deemsimportant (just like religion and the family)• Education can be through primarysocialization (informal i.e. living in society) orthrough secondary socialization (teachingthrough formal means like in school)
  • 216. Historical Context of Education• Formal education during slavery was only formal andmeant for Europeans.• The Spanish however gave religious instruction to theirslaves while the British felt that any type of educationwould increase salve capacity to think increasing theprobability of rebellion.• After 1834 the Negro Education Act that elementaryschools would be built in the British Caribbean. Therationale behind this was these schools would help ex-slaves make the transition towards a free society.• Elements such as reading, writing and arithmetic wereencouraged. The Bible was the main text and English valueswere heavily steeped through songs, poems, etc.(remember Colonial Girls School)
  • 217. Historical Context of Education• Elementary education meant that the educationwasn’t meant to go any further to primary orsecondary because the planter class felt that itmay upset the social order (which it kinda did)• They were a few secondary schools with chargedfees based on the English classical curriculum.• Many Caribbean scholars can through the systemto attend prestigious universities such as Oxfordand Cambridge and returned as lawyers, writersand scholars who challenged the colonial system(told you).
  • 218. Historical Context of Education• Ideas of education from the Caribbean perspectives inthese times included1. Education was the primary means to upwards social mobility2. Elites sought to block primary and secondary education as itwas believed that the status quo would be damaged. Thegeneral populace were upset at these tactics to prevent theirsuccess.3. Secondary curricula was steeped in Euro-centric values andculture as the belief was that only education in British idealswould develop us.4. Only the ‘bright’ students should be taught at the secondarylevel and beyond as shown through streaming and theCommon Entrance Examinations.5. More emphasis was placed at going to ‘good’ schools as it wasbelieved that only at such schools could children receive highachievement
  • 219. Historical Context of Education• Less dominant ideas include:1. Educating students with disabilities is to house suchstudents separately where they can getindividualized attention. The idea of mainstreamingstudents is less popular hence in our systemmechanisms to care for students with disabilities arein large part absent2. Home schooling is undertaken by families whobelieve that teaching students in public schoolsexposes them to wide variety of unsavouryoccurrences (violence, etc.).
  • 220. Purposes of Education• In purpose of education right after slavery was toinculcate English customs and values so that governingex-slaves would be easier.• To the enslaved though education was seen as aprimary means of upward social mobility – a beliefwhich is still here with us today.• The 20th Century belief is more complex as now it ismandatory for children to be educated the idea is thatnot all children will contribute equally to the societyafter they have been educated so differentiationpractices such as streaming to ensure ‘bright’ childrenwould get qualifications
  • 221. Purposes of Education• Tertiary education was seen the same way asonly the academic elite were expected to goto university ensuring them status as a part ofthe intelligentsia (professional and intellectualclass)• It can be observed therefore that educationorganizes the opportunities and life chances ofchildren.
  • 222. Purposes of Education• Another view is that education contributes to socialcohesion, enabling people to come together. This view wasseen through the ideas of 19th century colonial authoritieswho believed that if people were exposed to a similarcurriculum and values they probability of socialization andintegration into the society would increase• Education was also seen as a means economicdevelopment as it grants skills which ensures a productiveworkforce seeing people as human capital• Recently postmodern thinkers have associated humandevelopment to education increasing peoples chances todevelop themselves etc. (see Mod 2)• Education in modern times is seen as a human right for allno matter the disabilities and disadvantages
  • 223. Impact of Education• Individuals– It is expected to confer social mobility onindividuals. However the tremendous weight ofcredentials to achieving mobility can confer lowself-esteem and feelings of inadequacy which canlead to under-achievement.
  • 224. Impact of Education• Groups– There are different impacts on different socio-economic groups. Theorists say schools have a middle-class bias and are intrinsically set up to rewardchildren who already have the cultural capital tosucceed in the academic world. This can be seenthrough how middle class children can code-switchwhile speaking which offers them more opportunitiesfor interaction and varied experience as contrastedwith working class children who cannot code switchswitch from creole which reduces the likelihood ofacademic success.
  • 225. Impact of Education• Institution– Religion and education in the Caribbeanperspective are intrinsically linked as manydenominational churches made serious attemptsto educate children in the colonial era. The Jesuits,Baptists etc. have produced very high demandschools which place a major focus on religiontherefore religious instruction is emphasised inthe socialization of the students.
  • 226. Religion• "Men in every society throughout the ageshave pondered over questions dealing withsuch matters as existence, purpose anddivinity. To help explain theunexplainable, provide a sense of purpose inlife and make the unknown future lessthreatening, every society has developed theinstitution of religion"(Campbell, 2002).
  • 227. Historical Context of Religion• Ideas of the dominant class usually areperpetuated in religious beliefs. The system ofreligion in the Caribbean has been a strugglebetween the ideas of the dominant Europeansand colonized peoples.• Syncretism and Hybridization have re-createdthe institutions of religion primarily through theAfricans and Amerindians adopting manyEuropean forms and practices into their owntraditions from slavery until now.
  • 228. Historical Context of Religion• Our peoples did accept the religious beliefs of thesmaller denominations who came as missionaries soCaribbean countries have wide varieties of Christianity.• Religion is influenced by the stratification of societywhere Europeans and Coloureds normally attendedmainstream religions and more syncretic religiousforms were associated with the poorer groups. Dualmembership often existed where people would haveformal alliances with a mainstream religion but stillwould practice traditional forms such as in Cuba withSanteria.
  • 229. Historical Context of Religion• After emancipation syncretic religious forms flourishedsuch as Myal as well as African ones such as Vodun. Lawswere often passed to restrict these practices such as theObeah Act in Jamaica which outlawed its practice.• Resistance also created other distinctive worldviews suchas through Rastafari formed in the 1930’s in Jamaica basedon Marcus Garvey’s philosophies.• In the 19th Century in Trinidad, Guyana and Suriname therewere Hindus belonging to various sects who have schoolstoday. Many Hindus were also converted toPresbyterianism due to the Canadian missions there whomarketed it as a means towards upward mobililty
  • 230. Historical Context of Religion• US missionaries especially in the last half ofthe 20th century have brought their uniquebrand of Pentecostalism and Fundamentalismto the region.
  • 231. Impact of Religion• Individuals– Religion can be a source of oppression. Forexample the oppression of women in almost allmainstream and alternative religions
  • 232. Impact of Religion• Groups– Religion can help groups maintain solidarity andkeep their traditions alive in the face of globalizingwestern culture. For example the Garifuna stillpractice many of their African customs today.
  • 233. Impact of Religion• Institutions– Religion is seen as a major factor in the establishmentof the Justice system as countries with differentreligious systems have usually varying Justice systems.For example Sharia Law vs Western legal system basedon Christianity– Some religious laws have various tenets which bindtheir believers which can affect interaction with otherinstitutions for example Jehovah’s Witnesses do notbelieve in blood transfusion altering relationships withheath care professionals– Religion also has an immense ability to generateconflict in a society especially among Plural societies.
  • 234. The Justice System• This refers to the ideas and beliefs a society haveabout protecting and preserving the rights andobligations of citizens through the political andJudicial framework in a country.• Political Framework: idea that citizens entrustpower to representatives to makedecisions, defend and uphold their interests• Legal Framework: the system of laws which arefair to all persons and enshrined within aconstitution.
  • 235. Historical Context• The Justice system in the Caribbean evolved outof our history of colonialism, resistance andindependence.• As Captives the native people were treated sobadly that in 1512 with the help of Montesinosand Las Casas, The Laws of Burgos were createdto help protect them from the harsh treatment,convert them to Christianity but strangely stillallowed Ecomienda. These ‘rights’ were in largepart ignored
  • 236. Historical Context• Under slavery, African people had no rights and wereclassified as chattel (property) while Europeansthrough being white possessed power over them. InSpanish Colonies La Siete Partidas and in the FrenchColonies the Code Noir each laid down laws includingprovisions for slave property. In the British ColoniesAssemblies were established made of the planter classwho enacted laws to control, subdue and coerce slaves• This is why Caribbean law has such heavy sanctions forproperty offences in its legal systems
  • 237. Historical Context• There was no true fairness as laws inclusive ofpenalties and rewards were based on the rigidsystem of racial stratification in the society.• There were however alternative ideas andresistance movements threatened the stability ofthe colony such as missionaries who oftenattempted to educate Africans to some extentand tried to instil some semblance of Humanrights to the African population – not necessarilywhich would result in freedom.
  • 238. Historical Context• The military nature of the Haitian Revolution in 1804which resulted in the freedom of Haitian Africansensured that the justice system there becamedominated by fear and intimidation despite Her peoplehaving their rights enshrined with a constitution.• Emancipation occurred for the rest of the Caribbeanafter 1834 and eventually blacks and coloureds wonrepresentation in colonial assemblies. Independenceresulted in most Caribbean countries having some formof the Westminster Model of government.• To achieve political enfranchisement we were forced toadopt European judicial and legislative systems
  • 239. Historical Context• The evolution of our justice system originatedfrom the strong insistence of ensuring basichuman rights for the mass of our citizensinclusive of freedom of expression, of assembly,respect of private property, fair trial, vote and runfor public office.• However due to stratification of our society thereare entrenched inequalities of the lower incomebrackets in terms of acquiring the fullrepresentation of the Justice system.
  • 240. Functionalist perspective of the justicesystem• Functionalists believe that values about justice, equality andfairness are universally acclaimed as good and form the basicframework for society. Society has to have ways of dealing withthose who break the laws of society because they contribute todisorder and disharmony leading to chaos and confusion.• Functionalist created the institutions of the justice system to takecare of such deviants- by one or more of thefollowing, punishment, deterrence or rehabilitation. The policeforce and the court system have a role to perform. Deviantbehaviour is explained is explained largely in terms of breakdown inthe family socialization process or how individuals react to changesin society. For example, the anomie theory says that there aresocially accepted means of obtaining the rewards of society butthose who cannot access the rewards through these means will tryother socially
  • 241. Conflict/Marxist Perspective on JusticeSystem• According to Marxist thought the justice system is another institution thatforms part of the state apparatus. It functions to maintain the wealthy inpower and by extension seeks to oppress others and discriminate againstthem.• The view is that the inequalities of society are brought on by capitalismwhich helps to isolate poorer class who cannot access better jobs. So theacts of crime that these individuals may commit could be regarded as arebellion against their situation.• Marxist believe that there is a superstructure that includes the policeservice and the law courts which functions to control the activities of thepoor. Criminal statistics are used as a device to blame social problems onthe working class. This is evidence of unequal law enforcement, saysMarxist, because the many crimes of the wealthy go either unreported orunpunished. In sum, social order is imposed by the powerful on thepowerless and is not based on shared values. The justice system servesthe interest of the elites and is not about social integration.
  • 242. Impact of the Justice System onSociety• Individuals– Laws may or may not respect an individual’s rightsto cultural differences. Ex. A man’s cultural right tohave several wives may not be respected legally– Laws be respected legally but not at anotherorganization such as a school. Ex. A girl’s legalright to wear a skirt 5 inches above her knees maynot respected.
  • 243. Impact of the Justice System• Groups– Constitutions may restrict the rights of certaingroups as they see fit. Ex. Persons under 18 arenot allowed to vote.– Laws may also discriminate between certaingroups ex. People over 65 are allowed to retirewhile in certain jobs people are not allowed toretire early with benefits (i.e. ageism)
  • 244. Impact of the Justice System• Institutions– Claims of justice may be represented to protectmembers of institutions such as the Familythrough Family Court, etc.
  • 245. INTERACTING WITH THE WIDERWORLD
  • 246. Expected Learning Outcomes1. Explain how imperial and colonial policies affectCaribbean Society and Culture2. Describe Neo-colonial and Post Colonial Aspects ofCaribbean society and culture3. Assess how the Identity of Caribbean People has beeninfluenced by Colonialism4. Discuss the influence of consumption patterns, creativeexpression, politics and sport of extra regional territorieson the Caribbean5. Analyse the impact of the Caribbean on the extra-regionalsocieties using examples frompolitics, economics, creative expression, religion and theculinary arts.
  • 247. Imperialism and Colonization• The Age of Imperialism began with the coming of theEuropeans who conquered lands and established coloniesin carved up regions in the world. These powers ruled theirsubjects through fear and psychological conditioning topromote European culture as superior• During colonialism territories became settled in Europeanattitudes, culture and political systems which becamehegemonic in the Caribbean. The metropole (mothercountry) exerted all influence in the colony while the colonywasn’t allowed to have its own identity.• The colonizer instilled economic patterns which onlyallowed it to become profitable while instilling a belief thatcolonized would never achieve equality.• The culture of the colonizer was also regarded with praiseand reverence while the culture of the colonized was metwith disdain
  • 248. Neocolonial and postcolonial societies• The dominant attitudes and cultural norms today still reflect themetropole rather than the periphery. There is therefore a beliefthat the legacy of the colonizer is still hegemonic despite ourindependence.• Indigenous efforts to regain legitimacy of our syncretic cultureshave been largely ignored• Also Multinational companies also threaten to hinder whateverindependence we do have. As they normally export their profitsoutside the region after ‘investing’ here. There is a generalimbalance in trading relationships. These relationships between theex-colonizer and the excolonized today are labelled as neocolonial.• Postcolonial society is a term to describe how these neocolonialrelationships of continued dominance and subjugation affectpeople in the ex-colonies.
  • 249. Influence of Extra-regional countrieson the Caribbean• Postcolonial theory shows how the dominance of theWest is perpetuated, resisted and integrated intoCaribbean society and culture through the interactionsbetween the metropole a periphery throughsocialization and can be broken down into:1. Consumption Patterns2. Creative Expression3. Political Influences4. Migration5. Sport6. Tourism
  • 250. Consumption Patterns• Western countries have profoundly influencedconsumption patterns in the Caribbean. Colonialpolicies for many years have skewered oureconomic relationships with them by prohibitingus from Manufacturing and encouragingdependency.• Despite attempts to combat this people still viewEuropean products as superior so we canconclude that this reflects a mindset privilegingwestern values.
  • 251. Consumption Patterns• This can be analysed through– The value of assessing what is foreign whether throughclothes, ideas or music – is somehow better than the localalternatives is viewed as a sort of self hate imposed by thecolonized on the colonizer– The extreme importance placed on being modern. Havingthe most up to date western products is a matter of coursebecause since the West is the pacesetter we just have tofollow the trend– Building social capital through brand names etc. has beenseen as a way to confer approval from peers. Thosewithout brands are seen with disdain as losers.– The ‘Universal’ Caribbean feeling that the US is a must goplace where it is even said that having a holiday visa is astatus symbol because ‘foreign’ is the centre of the world
  • 252. Creative Expression• Our expressions are unique among themselvesand show strong influences especially amongextra-regional territories through:– Festivals– Music– Theatre– Cuisine• Which both effect and have been affected byExtra-regional territories
  • 253. Festivals• Effects on the Caribbean by extra-regional territories:– Western territories and more specifically former colonizersdirectly influence our society and culture throughobservances of certain religious days such as Easter andChristmas. We also celebrate them in a similar way in theCaribbean including the immense role mass media andcommercialization have on certain religious days.– Secular festivals such as New Years’ Eve, Fathers’ Day andValentines day have penetrated our culture due specificallyto the US. Halloween hasn’t yet penetrated but is on therise. All these celebrations have also been immenselycommercialized as well due to mass media.
  • 254. Festivals• Impacts on Extra Regional CountriesIn the Caribbean Diaspora, festivals have come to play a big role in thelives of the migrants. In North America (Canada and USA), England andelsewhere, large Caribbean festivals are staged featuring ourmusic, food, craft, fashion and general culture.NOTTING HILL CARNIVAL (England)• This carnival is staged in Notting Hill, London on the last weekend inAugust (since 1956). It began with the black immigrants from W.Iespecially from Trinidad. It served as a form of uniting theimmigrants who were facing racism, unemployment, poor housingand general oppression which led to the suppression of their selfesteem• Hill festival reflected a blend of old and new - the Caribbeancarnival with the English summer. It became the vehicle for protestand demonstration on part of immigrant but later became themodel for other different and smaller festivals. It helped to focus onand encourage respect for Caribbean traditions through themelding of Calypso and reggae
  • 255. FestivalsCARIBANA (Canada)• Every summer, Toronto (Canada) blazes with calypso, steel pan andmasquerade costumes during the annual Caribbean Festival.Caribana is the largest Caribbean festival in North America. Thetwo-week Festival attracts over a million participants annually,including hundreds of thousands of American tourists. Among thehighlights is the Caribbean Parade, one of the largest in NorthAmerica. Thousands of costumed masqueraders and dozens oftrucks carrying live soca , calypso, steel pan, reggae and salsa artistsjam the 1.5 km parade route all day• Outdoor concerts and glamorous dances round out theentertainment. Caribana was created in 1967. Based on TrinidadCarnival, the Festival exhibits costumes of Jamaica, Guyana, theBahamas. Torontos Caribana Festival is a complex hybrid inheritingaspects from most of the region. Coincidentally, Torontos CaribanaFestival falls on the anniversary of the emancipation from slavery inTrinidad (August 1, 1834),
  • 256. FestivalsLABOUR DAY IN BROOKLYN (USA)• The West Indian American Day Carnival is the biggestparade in New York with 3 million participants eachyear. The parade depicts costumes, illustrating beautyand pageantry with many masqueraders and liveperformers. The parade begins at 1 am and ends at 6There are live performers in front of the viewing stageat the Brooklyn Library.• The people of the Caribbean have exported theircarnival traditions to Canada, England, several UScities. However the New York version of thiscelebration far exceeds any like celebration in the US.
  • 257. Music• Caribbean music has developed from African,European and Asian mix with African music having thedominant role.• The African characteristics in Caribbean music are– close relationship between rhythm and speech tone (as incalypso)– spontaneity in rhythm and melody– willingness of performers to extemporize– polyphony: emphasis on many voices and parts in musicand the bringing these voices in harmony as well askeeping them separate– arrangement of complicated rhythms
  • 258. Music• Impact of Extra-Regional Countries on music• Most of our successful musical forms have been developedthrough themes of resistance from our history ofoppression through colonization and stratification explainthe fact they (calypso, ska, reggae) originated among thepoor whether Trinidad or Jamaica• Reggae has always been associated with resistance andRastafari as its message of defiance against British authorityhas linked together all who have been oppressed likewiseCalypso sought to expose inequalities like racism andpolitical/religious oppression from the Roman CatholicChurch in Trinidad with wit and satire
  • 259. Music• Impact on Extra-regional territories• Steelband men or pannists have gone abroad andsettled and have taught citizens and tune the pans.Today steelband music is on the curriculum of someschools in America and the fashioning of the pans is agrowing skill, which has potential to contribute to theeconomies of these countries in North America andEurope. Oc saw over 600 pannists from Europe, NorthAmerica and Caribbean taking part in InternationalSteel band Festival. There is the Pan EuropeanAssociation promoter development of the pan inEurope.
  • 260. Music• In Zambia, Sunsplash is staged in Lusaka eachyear. Reggae music is being used to marketproducts like Levi jeans, it is being used inmovies-arid has been incorporated into othermusical forms like Jan rock. The University ofVermont even has a course in the Rhetoric ofReggae.
  • 261. Music• The staging of Reggae Sunsplash festival hascaught on in all parts of the world Japan andNorth America attesting to the roots thatreggae has spread to all parts of the world.Reggae is now incorporated into music ofother countries e.g. Sayoko ha Sukiyaki toreggae, in Nicaragua protest songs against thegovernment.
  • 262. Cuisine• Extra-regional influence on the Caribbean– Cuisine in the Caribbean has a high degree of creativeadaptations of the food traditions ofEurope, India, China and Pre-Columbian peoplesincluding their creolization– For example the use of saltfish or salted cod inJamaica has its origin from the importation of slat orsmoked fish from the British colony of Canada to feedthe slaves. Also other culinary traditions like theconsumption of intestines (tripe) and other animalparts not prime from eating originated via slavery– Rise of Western style ‘fast foods’
  • 263. Cuisine• Our influence on Extra-regional territories– There has been limited acceptance of Caribbean culinarypractices, foods, seasonings and beverages in mainstreamAmerica and Europe. The little acceptance there is tends tofocus in the large cities where there are concentrations ofCaribbean people- Miami, London, Toronto, New York.These food and products are largely purchased by theimmigrants.– Evidence that Caribbean foods are not widely accepted canbe seen in the lack of representative in menus across UK,USA and Canada– In Britain places like Brixton market however importedCaribbean produce has become a familiar sight and animportant part of the economy.
  • 264. Political Influence• Extra-regional influence on us– In the 60’s and 70’s while the region was gaining independence themodel of government that was instilled was the Westminster system.This happened throughout the British Empire and today theseindependent former British Governments make up theCommonwealth– This system is a parliamentary government where the head ofgovernment is the Prime Minister and depends on the parliamentarybody for his/her position meaning that there is no clear separation ofpowers between the executive (cabinet, PM) and the legislature(MP’s, senate, etc). In Constructional monarchies there is usually ahead of state (Governor General) with mostly ceremonial powers.– During the era of decolonization this system was imposed on uswithout our input. Two Houses were installed – the lower house(House of Representatives) and the upper House (Senate)– The electoral system imposed was First Past the Post where candidatesrun for a seat in parliament based on constituency. The candidate whopolls most vote in a constituency wins. Therefore for party to win theelection they must get majority seats
  • 265. Political Influence• Our influence on them– Political influence of Caribbean on outside world is based mainly onthe issue of migration that Caribbean nationals have been associatedwith from the beginning of the century.– Faced with this large immigrant population, the population is in aposition to form groups to influence policy making on issues such aseducation, unionization, discrimination.– Immigrants are usually supporters of the status quo and so theygenerally accept the norms and values of these societies. They form apool of voters or whom politicians rely on to vote in a conservativemanner ex Cubans and Dominicans in Miami– The Caribbean impact in politics is quite evidentthe US, in the numberof state and city legislators of Caribbean heritage during nationalelections. The first African-American woman to sit in congress and torun for the presidency was a Caribbean national - Shirley Chisholm.The first non-white chairman oft Joint Chief of Staffs and Secretary ofState was a Caribbean - Colin Powell
  • 266. Migration• Extra-regional influence on us• The Culture of migration that characterizes Caribbeansocieties sees migration as means better life. This hasresulted in major cities in the North Atlantic(USA, Canada, England) are heavily populated withCaribbean nationals• Positive effects include• Training of skilled individuals who migrate and contribute to theCaribbean• Remittances from foreign workers• Negative effects include• Brain Drain• Racism and unfair treatment in these countries• Injustices felt by seasonal workers who are segregated by the generalpopulace on orchards or handed down menial jobs• The mindset that better opportunities lie by going Abroad
  • 267. Migration• Our influence on extra-regional territories• In US the Caribbean nationals are more socio-economically mobile thanAfrican- Americans and Hispanic (New Yorks Newsday NewspaperSurvey). Thus they represent not only very significant power (over 1billion per annum) but they generate jobs and contribute to thedevelopment of the areas they choose to reside in.– Caribbean nationals helped to rebuild the war tom economies ofEurope (i.e France)– Brain gain: nationals educated at expense of Caribbean states migrateto developed countries where they establish themselves thuscontributing to their economy– Carnival celebrations help to generate millions of dollars to theeconomy of Canada and England when Caribbean festivals are held;boosts tourism; promotion of sales for businesses– Migrant farm workers have worked in USA and Canada help to harvestcrops before winter– Offshore banking in the region which provide tax haven for clients inmetropolitan countries- Cayman islands, Bahamas, Turks and Caicos,Virgin islands
  • 268. Sport• Sports and recreation: cricket, soccer, tennis,netball as well as maypole dances (Europeaninfluence); basketball, hip hop, rap, Americanfootball . Halloween (North American influence)• We are pace setters in sports particularly incricket and track and field– In cricket we invented ‘cutting’ batting as well asrejuvenated the sport in the 1930’s– In Track and field Jamaica has a long standing traditionof doing extremely well… Usain Bolt/Asafa Powell etc.
  • 269. Tourism• Tourism Extra-regional impacts on us– Positive impact: Foreign exchange earningsretention (cultural/heritagetourism), infrastructural developmentunderstanding and appreciation of ones culture– Negative impact : Prostitution, drugtrafficking, environmental pollution(beaches, damage to coral reefs, erosion throughhotel construction, destruction of naturalvegetation, prejudice, landownership
  • 270. Rastafarianism• Impacts– it was one of the first full-fledged movements toconfront issues of racial identity and prejudice allover the world with reggae music– Incited Jamaicas middle-class blacks and thenpeople all over the world to reflect on theimportance of their African heritage

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