Work example: wind energy and storage 2012
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Work example: wind energy and storage 2012

on

  • 147 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
147
Views on SlideShare
147
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Work example: wind energy and storage 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business ServicesWheatfield Wind – Management and Energy Storage Considerations
  • 2. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business Services
  • 3. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business Services Limited Generation Flexibility: PUD electricity supply 81% - Bonneville Power Administration 7% - Wind Energy Purchases 4% - Jackson Hydroelectric Project 4% - Everett Cogeneration/Hampton Biomass Projects 3% - Long Term Contracts 1% - Klickitat Landfill GasNote: not including projected addition of small hydro units
  • 4. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business Services Hay Canyon (Iberdrola Contract) 100.8MWh MWh Capacity @ $75.01 per* Wheatfield 96.6MWh Capacity at $77.50 per* BPA SLICE averaging $30 per MWh Disproportionate Wind Generation Capacity to non- Wind dispatchable Snohomish Resources Increasing urgency to focus on Power Scheduling mechanics: balancing resource to load consistently optimizing BPA 2011 SLICE contractual rights and river management maintaining District integrity and reliability within BPA Control Area
  • 5. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business Services
  • 6. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business Services Optimal storage v generation through a twenty-four hour scheduling dayhttp://transmission.bpa.gov/business/operations/Wind/WindAnimation.aspx
  • 7. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business ServicesAugurs increasing “displacement”, or spilling of hydropower to allow for wind generation
  • 8. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business ServicesReal-Time responsibilities first 30 minutes every hour• Load forecasting and resources balancing• Predicting wind generation variances, compensatory adjustment of SLICE, and marketing length in a wind-saturated market• ICAP marketing operations through Columbia Grid participation• Precise allocation of NT and PTP resources, with POD, POR and Zonal designations• “Transassigning” surplus transmission• Comprehensively managing the District’s share of six (6) hydro plants on the Columbia River within “hard” BPA flow constraints dynamically within SLICE 2011. Fifteen (15) minute estimate to run “simulator” for SNO share• Creating market and physical path tags for all internal and external Control Areas purchases• Communicating hourly Wheatfield generation forecasts to Horizon Wind (ROCC)
  • 9. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business Services Shaping WindEnergy Utilities are increasingly pursuing energy storage solutions to“smooth” their wind generation, mitigating large unanticipated fluctuations inoutput. A variety of energy storage methods are being considered forresource to load congruency, frequency regulation, containing windintegration fees charged by Control Areas, and efficiencies of hour-aheadtransmission line capacity reservations.
  • 10. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business ServicesEnergy Storage MethodsFlywheel Energy storage is based on mechanical inertia. A heavy rotating disc is accelerated by an electric motor, which acts as a generator on reversal, slowing down the disc and generating electricity. Electricity is stored as the kinetic energy of the disc. It can be a motor at one moment and a generator the next. A system installed in Coral Bay, Western Australia, uses wind turbines coupled with a flywheel system and low load diesel (LLD) technology resulting in a better than 60% wind contribution to the town grid.Hydrogen Hydrogen is also being developed as an electrical storage process. Hydrogen is produced (using electrical energy and/or heat), then usually compressed or liquefied, stored and then converted back to electrical energy and/or heat. However, the conversion process to electricity is through a combustion turbine (CT), or fuel cell, not readily feasible for the District.
  • 11. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business ServicesEnergy Storage MethodsCompressed Air A grid energy storage method is to use light load (LLH) or renewably generated electricity to compress air, which is usually stored in old mines or some other geological feature. During peak load periods or sharp ramp-up demand, the compressed air is heated with a small amount of natural gas and then goes through turboexpanders to generate electricity.Pumped Water• Pumped storage hydroelectricity is used to even out daily load shapes by pumping water to a high storage reservoir during LLH hours and weekends. During peak load hours, this water can be used as a high value rapid-response reserve. Pumped storage recovers about 75% of the energy consumed, and is currently the most cost-effective form of mass power storage. The chief difficulty with pumped storage is that it usually requires two nearby reservoirs at considerably different heights, and is capital intensive.
  • 12. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business ServicesEnergy Storage MethodsFlow Batteries Flow batteries are rechargeable. A flow battery typically uses liquid electrolytes that react, exchanging ions and electrons when pumped together into a battery cell stack. The reaction in the cell membrane can either discharge or charge the electrolytes. It’s all reversible. Storage capacity is increased by simply increasing the size of the electrolyte tanks. A company called Xtreme Power, on surface, seems to promise a viable energy storage solution for Wheatfield Wind generation output subject to potential ROI. Xtreme Power claims to have developed new technology using dry cell batteries, in a modular, scalable system with up to 100MWh of storage capacity. They are currently installing a battery storage system for a Maui, Hawaii 30MWwind farm. The state wants 70% of its energy needs met with renewables by 2030.
  • 13. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business ServicesXtreme Power Wind Management Claims Power capacity up to 100MW Power storage up to 500MWh Cycle efficiency greater than 95% each direction Automatic communication with transmission grid and SCADA systems Prevents curtailments due to grid constraints or low demand Cost-effective solution to ramp-up / ramp-down excursions
  • 14. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business Services
  • 15. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business Serviceshttp://transmission.bpa.gov/Business/Operations/Wind/baltwg.aspx
  • 16. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business Services
  • 17. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business ServicesENERGY STORAGE CONSIDERATIONS – NEAR FUTURE Wind capacity doubles within last 3 years in Washington, Oregon and California By 2013, wind capacity expected to double again California just increased renewable energy standard. Will need more RECs. REC demand drives increasing production of renewable energy, potentially disrupting Mid-Columbia markets to ruinous conditions 15% Northwest wind farm energy purchased by public utilities. BPA manages 75% region’s high voltage transmission system, including most sections serving the wind farms. Disproportionate displacement of hydropower to accommodate wind production growth Routine spilling will harm fish and not a strategic solution Curtailing wind undermines its economics by foregoing tax and renewable energy credits BPA ongoing pressure to increase wind integration fees up to quadruple current rates Consistent operational problems when BPA wind integration reaches total capacity of 6,000MW, projected in 2013
  • 18. SNOHOMISH COUNTY PUD NO.1 Power and Business Services Moojen Solution