"We succeeded in proving that Irishmen are ready to die endeavouring to win for Ireland those national rights....As long as that remains the case, the cause of Irish freedom is safe.” -James Connolly’s final statement before he was executed, May 9, 1916
The Easter Rising April 24, 1916 Meghan Delaney
Roots of the Rising Ireland has a history of unrest All failed rebellions 1798 1803 1848 1867 Uprising of 1916 was partly a continuation of these struggles
Roots of the Rising Futile push for Home Rule Home Rule Act of 1914
Roots of the Rising Influence of the Gaelic Revival Irish society/culture was at is peak before the English arrived To return to that state, Ireland needs to be independent
Roots of the Rising Influence of Gaelic Revival Admiration of ancient heroes
“I care not though I were to live but one day and one night, if only my fame and my deeds live after me”
Leaders PadraicPearse Main conspirator Symbol of the Easter Rising Preferred a “short life with honor [to a] long life with dishonor.”
Leaders James Connolly Formed the Irish Citizen Army
The Uprising Itself April 24, 1916 – Easter Monday Pearse and supporters took over the General Post Office Declared themselves a provisional government Read the Proclamation of the Irish Republic
The Uprising Itself The Proclamation of the Irish Republic “We declare the right of the people of Ireland to the ownership of Ireland, and to the unfettered control of Irish destinies, to be sovereign and indefeasible. The long usurpation of that right by a foreign people and government has not extinguished the right, nor can it ever be extinguished except by the destruction of the Irish people.”
The Uprising Itself Lasted only six days Rebels were outnumbered Civilians were not fully committed to rebellion Wrongly predicted British reaction
The Uprising Itself Not considered a failure by all “We succeeded in proving that Irishmen are ready to die endeavoring to win for Ireland those national rights....As long as that remains the case, the cause of Irish freedom is safe.” - James Connolly
Irish Response After the uprising, 15 of the leaders were executed Gained the rebels sympathy and support from the people
Irish Response Reflected in W.B Yeat’s poem “Easter, 1916”
“I write it out in a verse -MacDonagh and MacBrideAnd Connolly and PearseNow and in time to be,Wherever green is worn,Are changed, changed utterly:A terrible beauty is born. “
Irish Response Citizens now approved of the use of violence Paved the way for the Irish Republican Army
Works Cited Edwards, O. Dudley, and Fergus Pyle, eds. 1916: The Easter Rising. London: MacGibbon and Kee Ltd., 1968. "Irish Proclamation of Independence." IOL. Web. 22 Oct. 2009. <http://www.iol.ie/~dluby/proclaim.htm>. Konnikova, Maria "Emerald Trials." Harvard International Review 24.2 (2002): 36. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 22 Oct. 2009. Litton, Helen. Irish Rebellions: 1798-1916, An Illustrated History. Dublin: Wolfhound Ltd., 1998.
The Sinn Féin Political party - Republic Won majority in 1918 Refused to attend Westminster Set up the DáilÉireann (Irish Assembly) Eamon de Valera was President Believed to be responsible for the Easter Rising. They created a constitution
Irish Republican Army (IRA) Groups of young volunteers Closely associated with the Sinn Féin Michael Collins high positions in each. Used guerrilla tactics
IRA Tactics Guerilla warfare Main target was the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC). Gain weapons Disrupt the RIC’s operations.
British Tactics Britain regarded IRA actions as terrorism The RIC mainly responsible for suppressing IRA. Black and Tans later brought in to stop IRA.
Michael Collins (1890-1922) Born in County Cork, fought in Easter Rising. One of 73 Sinn Féin elected in 1918. Served minister of finance. Director of intelligence for IRA. Planned & organized IRA attacks against British. He used informants and spies within RIC to get information on important people. Shot to death during Irish Civil War in Cork.
Bloody Sunday Collins planned assassination of 19 RIC intelligence officers on November 21st, 1920. British quickly responded by sending police into a football match and firing on the spectators. 12 civilians were killed.
The Black and Tans British police force failing in suppressing IRA. Men aggressively recruited in England, mostly ex-military, specifically to end IRA violence. Eventually there were around 10,000 in Black and Tans. Known for viciousness and lack of discipline.
Sources The Anglo-Irish War. (2009). Retrieved October 22, 2009, from BBC - History: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/easterrising/aftermath/af04.shtml>. Michael Collins. (2009). Retrieved October 22, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/125817/Michael-Collins>.
The Wind that Shakes the Barley “Every time a colony wants independence, the questions on the agenda are: a) how do you get the imperialists out, and b) what kind of society do you build? There are usually the bourgeois nationalists who say, 'Let's just change the flag and keep everything as it was.' Then there are the revolutionaries who say, 'Let's change the property laws.' It's always a critical moment.” – Ken Loach, Director Most critical responses were positive
Michael Collins Released 1996 Written & directed by Neil Jordan
Michael Collins Urban Guerilla Gentlemen, organized Similarities Dividing brothers Differences Empathy on both sides
Michael Collins Michael Collins Eamon de Valera Incredibly popular film
Works Cited Massey, Beth. "PSLweb: The Wind that Shakes the Barley' examines Ireland's national and class struggle ." PSLweb. 13 Apr 2007. Party for Socialism and Liberation, Web. 22 Oct 2009. <http://www.pslweb.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=6647& news_iv_ctrl=1861>. Merivirta-Chakrabarti, Raita. “Between Irish National Cinema and Hollywood: Neil Jordan’s Michael Collins”. CAIN Web Service. 2007. Access Research Knowledge, Web. 22 Oct 2009. <http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/estudiosirlandeses/merivirta07.pdf>. Michael Collins. Dir. Neil Jordan. Perfs. Liam Neeson, Aidan Quinn, Stephen Rea, Alan Rickman. Geffen Pictures, 1996. The Wind that Shakes the Barley. Dir. Ken Loach. Writ. Paul Laverty. Perfs. Cillian Murphy, Padraic Delaney. Matador Pictures, 2006.