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Delegation Training Guide   Unit 4 Group Project 1
 

Delegation Training Guide Unit 4 Group Project 1

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Welcome Everyone! This Delegation Training Guide is brought to you by some good Managers named David Iste, Sage E. Kinchen, Verlene Johnson, Audrey Lambrecht, and Carla J. McCoy. This Training guide ...

Welcome Everyone! This Delegation Training Guide is brought to you by some good Managers named David Iste, Sage E. Kinchen, Verlene Johnson, Audrey Lambrecht, and Carla J. McCoy. This Training guide will improve the Interest, Delegation skills and effectiveness of each Manager who has worked on this Team. You will obtain the knowledge to understand how our Organization Plans, Leads, Controls, and Organizes after reviewing our Training Guide. We look forward to any questions, and comments you may have for us at the end of this Presentation. Thank You. (AIU Online, 2009)

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  • Welcome Everyone! This Delegation Training Guide is brought to you by some good Managers named David Iste, Sage E. Kinchen, Verlene Johnson, Audrey Lambrecht, and Carla J. McCoy. This Training guide will improve the Interest, Delegation skills and effectiveness of each Manager who has worked on this Team. You will obtain the knowledge to understand how our Organization Plans, Leads, Controls, and Organizes after reviewing our Training Guide. We look forward to any questions, and comments you may have for us at the end of this Presentation. Thank You. (AIU Online, 2009)
  • This “Delegation Training Guide” (Lambrecht, A., Kinchen, S., Johnson, V., Iste, D., & McCoy, C., 2009) describes a response on Suggesting and Summarizing how a team will plan, organize, control, and lead, to achieve the goals to the road of success.Delegation among peers and the workplace are based on many criteria. Included practical examples from personal experiences and/or research of both good delegation and poor delegation scenarios are evident, precise, and understandable. (AIU Online, 2009) In this Training Guide, There are several ways to delegate effectively which can become a very sensitive issue but with a formalized agreement about goals and how delegation can be enjoyable once it begins with a consideration of strengths, weaknesses, skills, and good communication it will become Interesting and result in Organizational Growth. (Creel, R., 2009)
  • Our Management team was retained by a Senior Manager who is concerned about the Effectiveness of his Managers and their teams. What we did is develop a Training Guide on Delegation that is designed to improve the Interest and Delegation Skills of each Manager. This training guide includes descriptions and in depth details of Planning, Organizing, Controlling, and Leading activities. Each Manager on this team has Suggested and Summarized in-depth how our team Plans, Organizes, Controls, and Leads which results in obtaining a Successful Training Guide on Delegation. A detailed definition of Delegation has been provided as well, and Why it is important to a Manager or Leader and the Organization that they have the ability to effectively delegate. Our Senior Manager will also be able to review and go over what can and cannot be delegated in detail. (AIU Online, 2009)
  • This Guide on Delegation can be better understood providing all twelve rules of delegation skills that are integrated into the plan. The twelve rules that are listed prior to the Plan so it helps you understand what needs to be done to create a Plan. There are so many people with various job titles such as Technical professionals, managers, team and business leaders, and executives for example that need to develop good delegation skills. Rules are incorporated into delegation that should be used every time you delegate. Using these rules will save time and money. It will also build people and build team skills as well as groom successors and motivate people. When you use these rules it eliminates confusion, frustration, and helps prevent demotivating people. (Lannon, R., 2008) There are specific steps that need to be taken in order to Plan effectively. The first step in Delegation Planning requires two planning activities prior to creating the plan itself. Defining Success requires determination that constitutes successful performances assigned on tasks. Each task needs to be assigned separately and individually. Two components to defining success are defining the successful outcome of the task, and determining appropriate processes needed to complete tasks. The results of this may come in the form of increased sales, or decreased complaints. The types of processes may come in the form of greater empathy, or better client education. When assessing qualifications per individual one needs to consider their job requirements and competencies. A poor prediction of success per each individual will have hope for success, without a basis for that hope. (Camp, R., 2007) The second step in Delegation Planning requires a determination of subordinate capabilities. Choice plays an important role in this step because the decision as to which subordinate will receive which assignment or if the delegate should do one at all should be decided. Whichever decision is made keep in mind that the subordinate’s capabilities still need to be assessed regardless. Considerations need to be assessed as well in determining who is effective in obtaining desired results, but at the same time could use unacceptable processes to obtain those results. However, a good manager will know what each workers accomplishments and past behaviors are which will give a much better opportunity for better effective future delegation. What this does is develop a basis for the delegation so it doesn’t end up becoming a gamble. (Camp, R., 2007) The third step in Delegation Planning is the Process that’s used. A poor process as well as no communication will reduce the effectiveness of the delegation and will lower the workers motivation. 1). Allow employees to participate in the delegation process which will eliminate misunderstandings and minimize problems. You should also allow workers to participate in the determination of how the tasks should be accomplished along with what the actual assignments should be. 2). Specify Standards. Communication problems occur from failure to consider limitations of the subordinate’s tasks such as making a decision, or gathering information. Consider the expected level of performance or constraints in which they will be operating. (Camp, R., 2007) The Fourth Step in Delegation Planning is Balancing responsibility and authority. An important Delegation error to review is when work is Delegated without giving the employees the freedom to make decisions or the authority to implement them which leads to frustration. Communication with each worker is vital and it’s always wise to ask subordinates about resources they will need for the task and empower them to secure those resources accordingly. Support needs to be given for the task by continually providing important information and receiving feedback from workers. Credit should be given when a task is accomplished which enhances workers motivation, authority and sends an important message to others who will complete their tasks successfully with acknowledgment and rewards. (Camp, R., 2007) The Fifth step in Delegation Planning is to Delegate Consistently. If Managers are in situation where they are in a crisis or are overworked this sends negative messages to the team. They may feel used or that they only receive assignments when it benefits the manager. This is a process that needs to benefit both Managers and Workers. If a Manager is going to delegate to develop workers during times of crisis or when they are overworked then they need to delegate assignments that will develop or stretch each individual’s talents and skills. This will build encouragement, motivation, and confidence. Each worker needs care and assurance that they do indeed have the capability to succeed. If by chance failure occurs then it needs to be recognized as opportunity by receiving helpful and developmental feedback. A very strong emphasis should be placed on positive work that was done as well as a discussion on what actions could have prevented the problems that arose. (Camp, R., 2007) The Sixth step in Delegation Planning is to Balance Assignments. Workers need reassured that the work they are doing does not involve doing anyone else’s dirty work. It’s a Positive thing when a Manager can Delegate pleasant and unpleasant things, and challenge the boring assignments as well as balancing assignments among each worker. You should never delegate an assignment to a worker based on the fact that they can be counted on to do a good job. There are also workers who will avoid receiving unpleasant assignments due to having poor quality within the finished product. What this does is sends a message to the better worker that all they have to do is lower the quality of their work if they do not want the unpleasant assignment. In order to avoid this problem by giving each worker a reward or increase the number of unpleasant assignments to unproductive workers until the results improve. (Camp, R., 2007) The Seventh step in Delegation Planning is to Focus on the Results. Managers need to give the workers space and not supervise too closely because it causes frustration and makes workers feel there is lack of confidence in their ability. Managers should review and evaluate the finished result rather than the means used to accomplish the task. Managers need to make sure the process and outcome are consistent with the goals provided which is done prior to the delegation. Managers should not intervene yet the standards need to be remembered. The only time a Manager should intervene are when standards are violated. When you allow workers to make their own choices this gives a great source of innovation within the Organization. (Camp, R., 2007) The Eighth step in Delegation Planning is Group vs. Individual Delegation. The difference between these two is individual behavior which is easier to monitor and control than it is in group delegation. Managers need to engage in participation among the group but carefully as not to send a message that there is lack of trust and leaving workers to feel the Manager is only there to check the quality of their work rather than contributing. Manages should ask themselves questions during these times to review their own capabilities as a team member. One good question to ask would be “What can they add to the group in accomplishing the task?” Once the answer is obtained it should be distributed among the group in order for the group to better understand why the Manager has taken part in the group. At this point once again the Manager should assess the groups past behaviors and make predictions accordingly so it doesn’t turn into a gamble. (Camp, R., 2007) And lastly there is another alternative step in Delegation Planning which would be Upward Delegation. This is where the roles of Managers and Employees are reversed and the Employees will Delegate their Supervisors. This is mainly done when an Employee feels that their Manager lacks a particular direction for a project that they may be working on, yet the Employee knows that the Manager is capable of performing the task. A Manager can rescind the Delegation if they feel there are to many questions or that the worker is in need of to much help. In the case of Employees overwhelming the Manager with a need for assistance, the Manager can require the Employee to have one solution to every problem they bring to their attention. A good question for a Manager to ask the Worker is “What would you do next or as an option or best approach?” Which sends the message that the worker is expected to take initiative in attempting to solve the problem on their own. (Camp, R., 2007) The Manager will reap the benefits of Employee empowerment and watch it enhance their Motivation and Commitment. Some good efficient questions to ask during Delegation Planning are (1) how can a manager determine the capability of the worker performing it if they can’t identify the successful outcome of a task? (2) How will the success of the delegation be judged and what expectations are expected for someone to be successful? (3) What has the worker accomplished to show they will be effective on the assignment? (4) How will the worker perform on the assignment and why? (5) What considerations are there between Individual verses group delegation, and even participation? (Camp, R., 2007)
  • Efficient Organization of Delegation consists of several things. First you have to choose the right person for the job and decide who is best qualified and who will deliver the best results. You have to take a look at who benefits the most from the job and Develop skills that can be used later on. You also have to make sure you have Enough Information by showing how work fits into the overall operation and deciding what’s in it for the delegate. A clear picture of what’s to be should be accomplished. Parameters should also be Established when deciding on terms and conditions of completion prior to delegating. You must be very clear about Requirements and Boundaries and do not impose controls after delegating. You must give Full Authority for Decisions and make delegates responsible for the completion of an entire project. Allow the delegate to make crucial decisions and make it clear who is in charge. (Paauw, K., 2009) You must give Backup Support and know the difference between rescuing and supporting and make it clear that the delegates all realize they do not have to fight their battles alone. You must be on the delegates side when dealing with clients, and colleagues. You must provide Guidance without Interfering and point out roadblocks that could be encountered. Never offer to do the work for the delegate and keep in mind that you must help the delegate to come up with their own solutions. Keep focused on the Results and do not Micro Manage or be to particular. Give the delegate the freedom to decide on the process with the exception of industries that have tight regulations or procedures. Learn to Delegate through Dialogue and Delegate in an environment that is conductive to explaining. Give your full attention to delegates, and minimize interruptions as well as encouraging comments, suggestions, and questions. (Paauw, K., 2009) Make them Accountable and establish deadlines, not open ended completion dates. Be specific about when a product is due, and set up sub-deadlines. Remember the Milestones and Check in Dates because Awareness of the project is recommended without hovering. Keep a delegation log for status purposes and delegate reports to be due on agreed dates. Offer feedback without focusing on what’s wrong but rather Focus on what can be done to improve it. Give corrective and positive commentary. Provide Adequate Resources and point delegates in the proper direction. Create a list of resources that could help delegates out and Contact colleagues to let them know other delegates may need their help. Stay away from Reverse Delegation and do not let the work be delegated back to you. Listen to problems without the responsibility for solving them. Keep focus on the delegate’s ideas and solutions. When Credit is Due never take the credit fro another delegate’s work. Accept responsibility if the delegate has no skills to complete the task and Never treat your delegate as a scapegoat even if unsuccessful. (Paauw, K., 2009)
  • In order to lead and bring action among team members that lead towards goals that have been set there needs to be Instructions issued, and responsibilities assigned. A tem has to be motivated and establish a two way communication as well as assisting subordinates. There has to be a balance between Individual Motivation and Cooperative Efficiency and it has to be maintained a well as obtaining a buy in which will lead to ensuring progress according to the plan that is set out. In order to Control it has to be done where Progress is measured and there is a conformance to a plan such as a schedule or budget, and corrective action has to be set in place. Leadership Is Everyone’s job in order to create a productive, safe, and rewarding workplace. (URS PM Certification Program, 2009) In order to have such an environment within the workplace requires teamwork in team building activities. Content that supports and affirms social skills which will also require social behavior will help decrease destructive workplace competition as well as isolation because without this productivity and morale can be undermined. (Custom Training, 2009)
  • Delegation is when a manager or leader transfers authority or shares authority and responsibility that goes with it to an employee or subordinate. (Robbins, S.P., & Coulter, M. 2007)
  • For a leader/manager to delegate that person must have trust in their workers. A manager/leader that the workers trust will believe in integrity, have the ability to lead others, and have a good character. The leader needs to have credibility with the workers. If a boss/leader is not competent, and able to inspire others, employees will not look up to the leader/manager. (Successful Delegation,2009)
  • It is important for managers to have the ability to delegate work. Managers need to have trust and respect for their employees. Managers will not delegate work to their employees if they feel that the work is not going to be completed in a satisfactory manner. (APA Guidebook, 2009)
  • A delegate is a person who is generally empowered to represent a larger group. To delegate, is to give authority or responsibility to others. In a sense, those who chose a delegate are choosing someone who will represent them and their interests. (Farcht, J., 2009) Instead of representing one’s self, a large organization may choose one delegate or several that are empowered to act for the company. (Green, C., 2009)
  • Delegation operates under the assumption that a plan has been developed with exact guidelines for what will be considered successful or unsuccessful and what would be considered an acceptable timeframe to achieve the desired goals or effects of the task being delegated. The task of developing this plan or process is entirely the responsibility of the delegator; it should be in some way tied back to whoever is responsible for overseeing the task at hand (Owsley, 2009). Understanding the resources available to be used for this task will need to be determined by the manager in charge and should not be expected to be delegated downwards. Often time’s feedback from below the chain of command will assist the manager in understanding what will be most effective in carrying out the task and what resources are available for the task (McNamara, 2008). Delegation is restricted to resource capabilities; if the group whom you are working with, or the individual that is available to you is limited in their abilities then delegation is then restricted by these factors. Many times a task cannot be delegated all at once due to the immensity of the project. If you set a task before an individual with little experience this individual may become overwhelmed and lose sight of the original goals at hand (Blair, 2008). Communication cannot be delegated because it is so elemental to leadership. If the goals and aspirations of a task has not been fully communicated from the top down then poor delegation practices have been used (Blair, 2008).
  • There are many levels that take place in order for delegation to work. If the owner of a company decides to lower operating costs he will communicate the desired effects of this decision to his district manager who will then be in charge of spreading this process out to necessary people. The District manager may tell his accounting department and store managers to stop paid lunches for all employees. He may ask his service department manager to stop overstocking service vehicles with parts, or he may even issue cutbacks on labor hours. All of these decisions were delegated to him to be carried out by the owner of the company who had in mind a very specific effect that he wanted from this task (Glass, 2009). Developing a plan with measurable and achievable goals has to be done by those with the authority to do so. They then tell the managers those goals and the managers will delegate in order to carry out these goals to the appropriate personnel. Unfortunately one common error that many managers make is to delegate responsibility out. The one who delegates a task is responsible for making sure that task is complete and successful. If the task fails because the available resources were not sufficient then the manager in charge is at fault for not developing a better plan (Glass, 2009).
  • There needs to be formalized agreement about goals and how delegation can be enjoyable once it begins. Strengths and Weaknesses need to be considered within a candidate’s talents, schedule, and specialization. Some key ingredients to look for in a candidate is to make sure you delegate someone who can successfully complete a task are skills, resources, experience, time, and willingness. You don’t want to give someone an assignment that is way below their skill level so reviewing the lowest common denominator is a good idea. You must use delegation as a tool which is both interesting and one that adds drudgery in a balanced manner. A delegation is an opportunity for each and every candidate to grow and expand their skills and allows the Manager to get their mental chores completed. A delegation Log needs to be kept in order to keep information on when you handed a job over to certain candidates and who. A log needs to be kept so the Manager can keep up with when each delegation is due and what projects were given to whom. It’s important to have clear, and concise knowledge of what Delegation is, How important it is to the Organization, and it’s Benefits. (Creel, R., 2009) No human is error free, be sure to write it down and keep a log. Let your team know when you want it back by providing deadlines for the assignment. Breaking the assignment up into chunks allows milestones to be created or sub deadlines and this makes it much easier for the candidate to handle. There also needs to be follow-up points that will be a continuing process throughout the project. Having team members check in on a regular basis by asking them to report their progress allows room for discussion on problems and any resources they may need. It also allows room for adjustments to the project assigned. A goal must be agreed upon which leaves guessing out of the picture. A good Manager will communicate what results they want prior to giving candidates the assignment. Remember the entire point of delegation is to save time. You also have to allow each candidate freedom by letting them loose and not micro-managing them. And once all of this is accomplished and assignments are turned in give each candidate a pat on the back and give credit where it’s due. By doing this it causes your candidates to work harder for you in the future. Successful Planning, Organization, Leading and Control will develop an excellent outcome, and entrusts authority, power, and responsibility to another person. (Creel, R., 2009) Successful Delegation will Make work must easier, Improve Efficiency, Increase Employee Efficiency, Develop Employees, and Ensure that the right people do the right jobs. With proper employee training it makes work much easier, increases employee efficiency, improves efficiency, develops employees, and Ensures that the right people do the right jobs.
  • All writers are credited for their work and their writing here. The American Psychological Association Is an Author-Date reference style used in this Presentation. In this Presentation, When quoting directly or indirectly from a source, the source has been acknowledged in the text by author’s name, year of publication and location reference. Thank You (AIU Online, 2009)
  • All writers are credited for their work and their writing here. The American Psychological Association Is an Author-Date reference style used in this Presentation. In this Presentation, When quoting directly or indirectly from a source, the source has been acknowledged in the text by author’s name, year of publication and location reference. Thank You (AIU Online, 2009)
  • All writers are credited for their work and their writing here. The American Psychological Association Is an Author-Date reference style used in this Presentation. In this Presentation, When quoting directly or indirectly from a source, the source has been acknowledged in the text by author’s name, year of publication and location reference. Thank You (AIU Online, 2009)

Delegation Training Guide   Unit 4 Group Project 1 Delegation Training Guide Unit 4 Group Project 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Delegation Training Guide
    Planning, Organizing, Controlling, & Leading
    David Istre, Sage E. Kinchen, Verlene Johnson,
    Audrey Lambrecht, Carla J. McCoy
    Unit 4 Group Project – MGT240
    March 5th, 2009
    American InterContinental University
  • Abstract
    Sage E. Kinchen
    Verlene Johnson
    David Iste
    Audrey Lambrecht
    Carla J. McCoy
  • Introduction
  • Planning
    Incorporating the 12 Rules of Delegation Skills
    Decide why you are delegating
    Trust people you work with, and let go.
    Create a delegation plan using a delegation matrix
    Define tasks to be done
    Assign tasks
    Consider ability and training needs
    Explain why each individual job is being done
    Explain in detail what must be achieved
    Verbally Announce Results
    Be Prepared for Challenges
    Give deadlines
    Ask for feedback (Camp, R., 2007)
    Summarizing a Plan
    Defining Success & Assessing Qualifications per each Individual
    Assessing Qualifications Needed
    Process
    Balancing Responsibility
    Delegate Consistently
    Balancing Assignments
    Focus on Results
    Group vs. Individual Delegation
    Upward Delegation is an alternative
    (Lannon, R., 2008)
  • Organizing
    Full Authority for Decisions
    Choose the Right person for the Job
    Give Backup Support
    Enough Information
    Keeping Focused on Results
    Delegate through Dialogue
    Establish Parameters
    Milestones and Check in Dates
    Guidance without Interfering
    Provide Adequate Resources
    Make them Accountable
    Stay away from Reverse Delegation
    When Credit is Due
    (Paauw, K., 2009)
    Offer Feedback
  • Lead & Control
    Lead
    • Instructions issued and Responsabilités assigned
    • Motivate your team
    • Balance between Individual Motivation and Cooperative Efficiency
    (URS PM Certification Program, 2009)
    Control
    • Progress has to be Measured
    • Coformance to a Plan such as a Schedule or Budget
    • Corrective Action has to be set in place. (URS PM Certification Program, 2009)
  • Delegation
    Delegation is when a manager or leader transfers
    authority or shares authority and responsibility that goes
    with it to an employee or subordinate.
    (Robbins, S.P., & Coulter, M. 2007)
  • Delegation
    Leader/manager personal characters needed to delegate
    Have integrity
    Ability to lead others
    Able to inspire others
    Credibility
    Good character
    (Successful Delegation,2009)
  • Benefits of Delegating
    Shift workload around to free up time for management
    Get different views on issues
    Create an atmosphere of trust and respect
    Boost employee moral
    Employees learn to take responsibility and learn from mistakes
    Employees are better equipped to handle new issues
    (Bovee C., L., Thill J., V. 2007).
  • Delegate Importance To A Company
    • Delegating in a company is about having the right person to take control, and make the best use of limited time.
    The ability to delegate is crucial for a company to accomplish its goals.
    It helps people feel more involve in the organization success.
    It allows teams, department heads, and coworker to work together more efficiently.
    It extends the company’s resources by expanding the number of people who are capable of doing a particular job, and it also helps reduce the stress that results when people feel overwhelmed. (Green, C., 2009)
    (Farcht, J., 2009)
  • What Can be Delegated?
    What Cannot Be Delegated?
  • Overbearing
    When a manager refuses to let go they stop delegating and start parenting.
  • Conclusion
    The best executive is the one who has sense enough to pick good men to do what he wants done, and self restraint enough to keep from meddling with them while they do it.
    -Theodore Roosevelt-
    (Roosevelt, T., 2009)
  • References
    Newsletter/Newspaper Article:
    Creel, R., (2009) 10 Ways to Delegate More effectively retrieved on February 15th, 2009
    At http://www.onlineorganizing.com/NewslettersArticle.asp?newsletter=go&article=260
    Web Page Encyclopedia:
    Camp, R., (2007) “Delegation” Referenceforbusiness.com 9 Feb. 2009 Revised by Simmering,
    M., (2007) from, http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/De-Ele/Delegation.html
    Paauw, K., (2009) Delegation Checklist retrieved on February 15th, 2009 at OnlineOrganizing.com from http://www.onlineorganizing.com/ExpertAdviceToolboxTips.asp?tipsheet=18
    Bovee C., L., Thill J., V. (2007). Excellence in Business Communication, Seventh Edition
    . Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice Hall.
    APA Guidebook:
    McDonnell, Peter J. (2009), Which is better for the business: Micromanaging or delegating, Ophthalmology Times, Volume 34, (2), 4 Retrieved March 5, 2009, from Academic Search Premier at
  • References
    Web Page:
    Lannon, Richard "12 Rules of Delegation." 12 Rules of Delegation. 15 Jan. 2008.
    EzineArticles.com.9 Feb 2009 from, http://ezinearticles.com/?12-Rules-of Delegation&id=929851
    Farcht, J., (2009). Do You Know How to Delegate Effectively?. Retrieved March 5, 2009, from
    Articles
    base Web site: http://www.articlesbase.com/management-articles/do-you-know-how-to-delegate-effectively-202026.html
    Green, C., (2009). The Importance of Delegation. Retrieved March 5, 2009, from Ezine Articles
    Web site:
    http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Importance-of-Delegation&id=192169
    Online College Course:
    URS PM Certification Program, (2009) Basic Principles of Project Management retrieved on
    February 15th, 2009 at http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:mkmJ-_KvV-UJ:www.training.urscorp.com/project_management/pm_webseminars/pm1089_basic/BasicPrinciples.pdf+Delegation+plan,+organize,+control,+and+lead&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=13&gl=us
    AIU eBook:
    Robbins, S. P., & Coulter, M. (2007). Management Ninth Edition. NJ: Pearson Prenctice Hall.
  • References
    Web Page:
    Roosevelt, T., (2009) Quotes about Delegation retrieved on February 15th, 2009 at
    http://chatna.com/theme/delegation.htm
    Successful Delegation Using The Power Of Other People's Help. (n.d.). Retrieved March 1, 2009, from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_98.htm
    McNamara, C. (2008). Basics of Delegating. Retrieved 3 7, 2009, from Management Help: http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/delegate/basics.htm Owsley, S. (2009, 2). Delegation. (D. Istre, Interviewer)
    University Material:
    Blair, G. (2008). The Art of Delegation. Retrieved 3 7, 2009, from University of Edinburgh: http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/Management/art5.html?http://www.ee.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/Management/art5.html Glass, J. (2009, 2). Top-Down Delegation. (D. Istre, Interviewer)
    Online Business Training:
    Custom Training, (2009) Internal and General Services retrieved on February 15th, 2009 at
    http://www.trainersandteachers.com/internal_general_services.php
    AIU University:
    AIU Online, (2009) Leading American InterContinental University Unit 4 Group Project Class retrieved on March 7th, 2009 at https://mycampus.aiu-online.com