(History of Architecture 2) Nov 2012 modern architecture
Modern Architecture in the 20th Century
Outline• Introduction• New Materials• The Schools of ModernityThe Chicago SchoolThe WerkbundThe Bauhaus• The International Style• The Big Three• Frank Lloyd Wright• Key Buildings• Characteristics
Modernism in ArchitectureThe defining feature of modern architecture is the modern aesthetic which may be summarized as “plain geometric forms”.Modern Architecture takes its roots from the Industrial Age when architects are exploring new materials such as steel and reinforced concrete. The design of buildings are not anymore influenced by religion nor classicism, but rather architecture is inspired by the machine.Today, we are so accustomed to the modern aesthetic that it can be difficult to imagine the controversy surrounding its development. Yet many decades were required for this aesthetic to mature and gain mainstream acceptance, which was finally achieved in the early twentieth century (under the leadership of the Bauhaus).
The New MaterialsThe two principal materials for the new forms and high massive buildings:• steel (pioneered in Britain and brought into general use in America)• reinforced concrete (developed in France)
SteelThe fundamental technical prerequisite to large- scale modern architecture was the development of metal framing.
Glass and iron, iron frameCrystal Palace, Joseph Paxton, 1851 Eiffel Tower, Gustav Eiffel, 1887
The First StructuresThe first definitive skyscraper was the Home Insurance Building, Chicago built in 1883-85 by William le Baron Jenney. Of fireproof construction, it has a metal frame clad in brick and masonry.
Reinforced ConcreteFrancoise Hennebiquein 1892, perfected a system for the best location of steel reinforcement in concrete; the combination of the compressive strength of concrete with the tensile strength of concrete in a homogenous grid was one of the turning points in architectural history.
The First R.C. Structure Church of St. Jean-de Montmarte , Anatole de Baudot, Paris, 1897. The first example of reinforced cement in church construction.
Auguste Perret (1874-1954)Elimination of unnecessary detail and expression of structure are basic to any understanding of modern architecture.The architect who brought that approach to its first satisfying climax was Auguste Perret (1874-1954).He was a French architect and a specialist in reinforced concrete construction.
Rue Franklin Apartments, 1904 August Perret In 1903 he designed an apartment in Paris and went further than the Chicago architects. He realized that that the 8-storey frame made load-bearing walls unnecessary; since the walls held nothing up, the building could have open space inside.
Notre Dame Du Raincy, 1923 Auguste PerretSegmental vaults of in situ reinforced concrete were elegantly supported on a few slender shafts, so that a new light and airy space was encircled by non-load bearing screen walls of pre-cast concrete units filled with coloured glass.
The ‘Schools’ of Modernity The Chicago School The Werkbund The Bauhaus
The Chicago SchoolChicagos architecture is famous throughout the world and one style is referred to as the Chicago School. In the history of architecture, the Chicago School was a school of architects active in Chicago at the turn of the 20th century.Right: The Chicago fire of 1871 destroyed most of the city and gave an opportunity for architects to design and build new structures.
The first skyscraperThe intent of the Chicago architects was to dispense of historical styles. This set the tone for the modern movement.The crucial event of the movement was the design of the skyscraper.• new technologies: steel-frame construction in commercial buildings• the elevator, invented in 1852 made multi-storey buildings possible• spatial aesthetic which co-evolved with, and then came to influence, parallel developments in European Modernism.
Louis Sullivan,the Father of Modern Architecture, 1856- 1924Louis Henry Sullivan was an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism" .It is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, Of all things physical and metaphysical, Of all things human and all things super-human, Of all true manifestations of the head, Of the heart, of the soul, That the life is recognizable in its expression, That form ever follows function. This is the law.-The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered, 1896
Carson Pirie Scott Department Store."form follows function", as opposed to "form follows precedent" •ten floors of offices •covered with white terracotta tiles hung on the steel frame •punctuated by rows of large windows. •Sits on a two-storey base •Framed as part of the metal structureCarson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building, •Panels above and aroundSullivan, 1899 the main doorways are filled with Sullivan’s own luxurious decoration in cast iron.
The WerkbundThe Deutscher Werkbund (German Workforce) was a German organization of artists, architects, and designers aiming to refine human craft. It was founded by Peter Behrens, Josef Hoffman, and Richard Riemerschmid in 1907.The Werkbund was to become an important event in the development of modern architecture and industrial design, particularly in the later creation of the Bauhaus school of design. Its initial purpose was to establish a partnership of product manufacturers with design professionals to improve the competitiveness of German companies in Poster for the 1914 exhibition in Cologne. global markets.
“from sofa cushions to city-building” Left: Chair, Peter Behrens 1901 Sitzmachine Chair, Josef Hoffman, 1905 Desk, Richard Riemerschmidt, 1905This movement is stimulated by Arts and Craftsmovement in England. The group also seeks tomass produce products and focus more on thefunctionality of objects.
Fagus Shoe Factory, Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer 1913
Deutz Motor Pavilion, Walter Gropius 1914 Cologne Exhibition
Glass Pavilion, Bruno Taut, 1914 Cologne Exhibition
The Wiessenhof Estate, Stuttgart,Germany 1927A series of 21 buildings in Stuttgart was built as a part of the Deutsche Werkbund Exhibition on1927. A team of 17 architects led by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe plan the housing estate for theworking class. In a way, Wießenhof became a prototype of the International Style. Unity of the houses was achieved by: •flat roofs •simple facades •the use of muted tones as exterior wall colours
The Bauhaus School 1919-1933The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department during the first years of its existence.The concept of the school at the beginning was influenced by medieval construction of churches wherein craftsmen and artists collaborated in the completion and details of the building.The school provided workshops in:• metalwork• Weaving• Ceramics• Furniture• Typography• theatre.The faculty consists of “masters of form” which are artists and Ar/Prof. Walter Gropius, architects and “masters craftsmen” of different skills. (1883-1969) founder of the Bauhaus
The Bauhaus School, founded 1919The Bauhaus, was a school inGermany that combined crafts andthe fine arts, and was famous forthe approach to design that itpublicized and taught.The term Bauhaus is German for"House of Building" or "BuildingSchool".The Bauhaus had a profoundinfluence upon subsequentdevelopments in art, architecture,graphic design, interior design,industrial design, and typography.
The masters of Bauhaus (Left to Right): Josef Albers, Hinnerk Scheper, Georg Muche, László Moholy-Nagy, Herbert Bayer, Joost Schmidt, Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger, Gunta Stölzl and Oskar Schlemmer.Bauhaus was considered to be the first design school in the modernist style. Itinfluenced the art and architectural trends in the whole world.The school existed in three German cities (Weimar ,Dessau and Berlin), underthree different architect-directors: Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer and LudwigMies van der Rohe until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadershipunder pressure from the Nazi regime.
The Bauhaus Influence Examples of architecture in the Bauhaus Style are the buildings in White City, Tel Aviv, Israel. Another major influence of the school is furniture design.The Bauhaus style became one of the mostinfluential currents in Modernist architectureand modern design.
Idea Organization of the Staatliches Bauhaus Weimar, 1923 The teaching methods of the Bauhaus school are adapted in design schools today such as Parsons, The New School for Design.
African Chair by Marcel Breuer and Gunta Stölzl, 1921
The Teachers of ModernityWalter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, and László Moholy- Nagy re-assembled in Britain during the mid 1930s to live and work in the Isokon project before the war caught up with them.Both Gropius and Breuer went to teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design and worked together before their professional split. The Harvard School was enormously influential in America in the late 1920s and early 1930s, producing such students as Philip Johnson, I.M. Pei, Lawrence Halprin and Paul Rudolph, among many others.In the late 1930s, Mies van der Rohe re-settled in Chicago, enjoyed the sponsorship of the Bauhaus Directors Walter Gropius, Hannes influential Philip Johnson, and became one of the Meyer and Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe pre-eminent architects in the world.Moholy-Nagy also went to Chicago and founded the New Bauhaus school under the sponsorship of industrialist and philanthropist Walter Paepcke. This school became the Institute of Design, part of the Illinois Institute of Technology.
Philip Johnson The term International Style was coined in 1932 by the organizers of the first International Exhibition of Modern Architecture at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Since that time it has come to represent the mainstream of modern architecture from about the 1920s to the end of the 1950s.
International Style The book produced for the exhibition declared that ‘there is now a single body of discipline, fixed enough to integrate contemporaryThe MOMA Exhibit style as a reality and yet elastic enough to permit individualaddressed buildings interpretation and to encourage natural growth...from 1922 through1932. Johnsonnamed, codified,promoted and subtlyre-defined thewhole movement byhis inclusion ofcertain architects,and his descriptionof their motives andvalues.
The MOMA Exhibit Important buildings in the 1932 MOMA exhibition include: • Alvar Aalto: Turun Sanomat building, Finland 1930 • Le Corbusier: Stein house, Garches, France, 1928 • Le Corbusier: Villa Savoye, Poissy-Sur-Seine, France 1930 • Le Corbusier: Carlos de Beistegui Penthouse, Champs-Élysées, Paris , France, 1931 • Otto Eisler: Double House, Brno, Czechoslovakia 1926 • Walter Gropius: Bauhaus School, Dessau, Germany 1926 • Walter Gropius: City Employment Office, Dessau, Germany 1928 • Erich Mendelsohn: Schocken Department Store, Chemnitz, Germany 1930 • Mies Van Der Rohe: Apartment House, Weissenhof Siedlung, Stuttgart 1927
CharacteristicsThe common characteristics of the International style include:• a radical simplification of form• a rejection of ornament• and adoption of glass, steel and concrete as preferred materials.The ideals of the style are commonly summed up in four slogans:Adolf Loos “Ornament is a Crime”Louis Sullivan “Form follows Function”Le Corbusier “Machines for Living“Truth to materials is a tenet of modern architecture (as opposed to postmodern architecture), which holds that any material should be used where it is most appropriate and its nature should not be hidden. The Seagram Building, 1957 Mies Van der Rohe
The Big Three of Modernism Le Corbusier,Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Walter GropiusBy the 1920s the most important figures in modern architecture had established theirreputations. The big three are commonly recognized as Le Corbusier in France, and LudwigMies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius in Germany.
The Domino House, Le Corbusier, 1914The transparency ofbuildings construction(called the honestexpression of structure),and acceptance ofindustrialized mass-production techniquescontributed to theinternational styles designphilosophy.The machine aesthetic, andlogical design decisions Domino House (1914–1915) is an open floor planleading to support buildingfunction were used by the structures, supported by reinforced concreteInternational architect to columns meaning that the floor space was free to becreate buildings reaching configured into rooms without concern for supportingbeyond historicism. walls and the physical . The building envelope expression is an independent expression subject to the interpretation of Its Architect.
Villa Savoye, Poissy, 1928-31In his seminal first book, Towards aNew Architecture, Le Corbusierannounced the ‘five points of a newarchitecture’:•Free standing supports (pilotis)•The roof garden•The ribbon window•The free plan•The freely composed facadeThe Villa Savoye is an elevatedwhite concrete box cut openhorizontally and vertically.
Villa Savoye by Le Corbusier, Poissy, France, 1929As with the paintings of the period (cubism) it is a crucial part of the concept that theobserver is not standing in one place but moving around. As he does so, the forms of thebuilding overlap and becomes sometimes solid sometimes transparent. The pilotis freethe ground and the roof garden re-creates the air the land that is lost below.
The Modulor is an anthropometric scale of proportions devised by the Swiss- born French architect Le Corbusier (1887–1965). It was developed as a visual bridge between two incompatible scales, the Imperial system and the Metric system. It is based on the height of an English man with his arm raised.The Modulor Man by Le Corbusier
Unité Habitation by Le Corbusier Berlin, 1957The design of these residential blocks arevery innovative with the buildingsuspended on piloti. The location ofamenities are strategically located thatthe intention of the building as an anti-snob zone would be achieved. These structures shows the features of Brutalist architecture and the use of brise soleil. Unité Habitation by Le Corbusier Briey, 1963
Notre-Dame-de-Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950-54In 1950-54 LeCorbusier produced asmall church which isconsidered by many tobe the greatest singlearchitectural work ofthe century. The wholechapel is a study inlight.
Notre-Dame-de-Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950-54 On one side the walls are immensely thick, with deep irregular windows filled with coloured glass; on other walls, tiny windows are tunnels punctured through at different angles.
Because of the rise of Nazi in Germany, manymodernists were theatened to leave thecountry.Mies van Der Rohe went to the United Statesof America in 1937 to Chicago and thenbecame the head of the architecturedepartment at the Illinois Institute ofTechnology.His famous works in Europe are the BarcelonaPavilion and the Villa Tugendhat, while those inAmerica are found in Chicago such as theFederal Center and the Crown Hall of the IIT.
The German Pavilion, Barcelona ExpoMies Van Der Rohe: German pavilion at the Barcelona Exposition, Spain 1929 (above), left: the Barcelona Chair
Barcelona Pavilion by Ludwig Mies van Der Rohe, 1929,Barcelona, Spain
Tugendhat House by Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe, Brno,Czech Republic, 1928-1930
Crown Hall by Ludwig MiesVan Der Rohe, I.I.T., Chicago,Illinois, 1956
Federal Center, Chicago, Illinois, 1970 Sculpture by Alexander Calder
After leaving the Bauhaus in 1928 and eventually fleeing from Germany in 1934, he migrated to the United States and taught at the Harvard Graduate School of Design.He founded The Architects’ Collaborative, an architectural firm. He together with Le Corbusier and Mies van Der Rohe are considered as the pioneers of the International Style.
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867- 1959) worked with Louis Sullivan.His work spanned 70 years of extraordinary versatility in the handling of steel, stone, redwood and reinforced concrete, extending geometrical plans and silhouettes to create a new and exhilarating Martin House, Buffalo, 1904 relationship with the He created, he claimed, the open plan and natural environment. called his house ‘Prairie Houses’ inspired by the open spaces of the American Midwest.
Martin House, Buffalo, 1904 • Basic form – crossing of axes • The extension of these axes into the garden forms other contained shapes which provide a single spatial experience through the interpenetration of internal and external shapes. • Internal spaces flow into one another. • Corners of rooms are dissolved • Walls becomes screens. • Horizontal emphasis is maintained by low sweeping ceilings and roofs and long clerestory windows • Levels change without barriers and doors
Robie House, Chicago, 1908-09The Robie House combined the traditional virtues of craftsmanship and good detailwith modern technical installations. But his work demonstrated not so much thetechnology as the dramatic composition of roofs and the flow of the interior spacesinto one another, which changed forever the concept of the house as a collection ofboxes.
Fallingwater, Pennsylvania, 1936-37Fallingwater is probably themost frequently illustratedhouse of the twentiethcentury.Like his earlier houses, it isbrilliantly organized. Thestepped sections ofreinforced concrete thrustoutwards from a core ofmasonry to hover inoverlapping planes abovethe rocks, trees and fallingwater.He mastered an apparentlyimpossible site and createdthe most vivid example ofman-made formcomplementing nature.
The Guggenheim Museum, 1959Designed by Frank LloydWright, the cylindricalmuseum building, widerat the top than thebottom, was conceivedas a "temple of thespirit" and is one of the20th centurys mostimportant architecturallandmarks.The building opened onOctober 21, 1959.
De Stijl (The Style)In the Netherlands agroup of artists andarchitects who calledthemselves De Stijl wasformed in Leiden inGermany. They published aninfluential magazine underthat name, inspired by thework of Piet Mondrian,who used interlockinggeometric forms, smoothbare surfaces and primarycolours in his paintingsand constructions.
The Schroder House, 1923The Schroder House in Utrecht of1923-24 by Gerrit Rietveld (1888-1964) is the outstanding example ofDe Stijl aesthetics.It is a cubist construction of smoothplanes at right angles, set in space andarticulated by primary colours. Insidethe walls slide away to make a largeuninterrupted space.Outside it is an abstract sculpture, as itRietveld’s well-known chair of straightlines and primary colours.
Philip Johnson, Glass House, 1949Philip Johnson (b1906)took up Mies’ themes ofglass and steel, shownin his Bauhaus projectfor a glass house andcreated for himself atNew Canaan,Connecticut an exquisitegroup of buildings whichare a rigorous exercisein transparency, usingthe outside view as thewalls.
The Lever House,New York, 1951-52 From Mies’ projects for glass skyscrapers of 1923, the influential firm of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill found inspiration for the first realization of his visionary ideas. Lever House in New York became the model for tall buildings all over the world –the curtain wall of blue-green glass in light steel sections wrapped around the outside of the main structure, the technology of the services, which set an international standard, and the basic arrangement of a tall, thin slab above a low podium containing the entrances and the larger social areas.
Oscar Neimeyer. 1907In South America a morespectacular architecture wasrising.After the Second World War,Brazil exploded in a stunningarchitecture of its own.Lucio Costa (1902) was theplanner of the new capital ofBrasilia, having won thecompetition for its design in1957. The Metropolitan Cathedral of Brasilia, 1960.The architect for most of thecentral buildings was Oscar
Brasilia, 1957The government complex atthe center of Brasilia definesits separate functions indifferent elementarygeometric shapes. The twintowers house theadministrative offices, thedome holds the SenateChamber and the saucer theAssembly Hall.Brasília became the world’sfirst centrally planned city,one whose entire design was(and remains) modernist,leading to it becominga UNESCO World Heritagesite.
The United Nations Headquarters(Le Corbusier, Oscar Niemeyer, Sir Howard Robertson),
The Seagram Building and the Toronto-Dominion Centre (Ludwig Mies van der Rohe)
Notre-Dame-de-Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950- 54
FUNCTIONAL FURNITURE Exclusively designed by Mies van der Rohe for the German Pavilion, that countrys entry for the International Exposition of 1929, which was hosted by Barcelona, Spain. Barcelona chair, designed by Mies van der Rohe.
Notre-Dame-de-Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950- 54
Villa Savoye, Poissy, 1928-31In his seminal first book, Towards aNew Architecture, Le Corbusierannounced the ‘five points of a newarchitecture’:•Free standing supports (pilotis)•The roof garden•The ribbon window•The free plan•The freely composed facadeThe Villa Savoye is an elevatedwhite concrete box cut openhorizontally and vertically.As with the paintings of the period (cubism) it is a crucial part of the concept that the observeris not standing in one place but moving around. As he does so, the forms of the building overlapand becomes sometimes solid sometimes transparent. The pilotis free the ground and the roofgarden re-creates the air the land that is lost below.
Fallingwater, Pennsylvania, 1936-37Fallingwater is probably the mostfrequently illustrated house ofthe twentieth century.Like his earlier houses, it isbrilliantly organized. The steppedsections of reinforced concretethrust outwards from a core ofmasonry to hover in overlappingplanes above the rocks, trees andfalling water.He mastered an apparentlyimpossible site and created themost vivid example of man-madeform complementing nature.