(History of Architecture 2) Nov 2012 19th century architecture


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(History of Architecture 2) Nov 2012 19th century architecture

  1. 1. 19THCENTURYARCHITECTUREThe Architecture of the Victorian Age
  2. 2. Outline Socio-Economic Background Technological Advancements Battles of Architecture in the Industrial RevolutionThe Neo-ClassicalThe Neo Gothic Other Styles Applications of New Technology The Next Step
  3. 3. An Age of UncertaintyBy the opening of the 19th C the confidence apparent in the architecture of the age of elegance in the preceding century had evaporated.The agitation brought about by the French Revolution of 1789 had never fully subsided, and a different kind of society began to take place.There was another revolution every bit as influential as the French, the Industrial Revolution which was cradled in Britain, from roughly 1750-1850 although it was not seen as a revolution but only new ways of making things.
  4. 4. A time of rapid change in UK and in Europe The Industrial Revolution Began in England, (1750-1920)Time of major changes in Agriculture Manufacturing Mining Transport TechnologyThese had a profound effect on the socio-economic and cultural conditions, starting in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spreading throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.It marked a major turning point in human history, almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way. The Stockton and Darlington Railway
  5. 5. The Industrial Revolution InventionsIt began with textiles. Finance Trading opportunities A change in the way goods were produced from human labor to machine. The three basics were present- coal (energy), iron and other metals, population of workers.
  6. 6. Factors for the Progress of the Industrial Revolution Development and growth of new socio- economic classes: working class, bourgeoisie, wealthy industrial class.Population changeThe urban population dramatically increased, towns and cities multiplied in number and size, a new urban society emerged. The demand for new buildings was greater that ever before. Brought a flood of new building materialsIron was mined efficiently.The formula for concrete was rediscovered 1756 by John Smeaton. To the fashionable architects the central problem was to discover a style appropriate to this time of change.
  7. 7. The Invention of Machines The invention of machines to do the work of hand tools The Spinning Jenny invented by James Hargreaves The use of steam, and later of other kinds of power, in place of the muscles of human beings The 1698 Savery and of animals Engine – the worlds first commercially useful steam engine built by Thomas Savery
  8. 8. The adoption of the factory system.
  9. 9. New Materials After the Baroque slowly faded away, the 18th century architecture considered primarily of revivals of previous periods. Building materials were made out of only a few manmade materials along with those available in nature: timber, stone, lime. Mortar and concrete Iron Brick Glass Portland Cement – strong, durable, fire resistant type of cement developed in 1824.
  10. 10. But in the 1800’s, there was a great amount of production in Iron. These made architects and engineers design buildings made out of iron. There are 3 types of iron: cast, wrought, and steel.
  11. 11. Characteristics, 19th C Architecture Curtain walls were used Steel skeletons were covered with masonry Large skylights were popular Lacked in imagination and style Main focus was functionality
  12. 12. Glass MakingA new method ofproducing glass,known as thecylinder process,was developed inEurope during theearly 19th century.In 1832, this processwas used bythe ChanceBrothers to createsheet glass. Theybecame the leadingproducers ofwindow and plate TheCrystal Palace held the Great Exhibition ofglass. 1851
  13. 13. Iron makingIn the Ironindustry, coke wasfinally applied to allstages of iron smelting,replacing charcoal. Thishad been achievedmuch earlierfor lead and copper aswell as forproducing pig iron ina blast furnace, but thesecond stage in theproduction of bariron depended on theuse of potting and Nasmyth’s steam hammer of 1840 at work in 1871stamping.
  14. 14. The Architecture of the Industrial Age Architecture and the art turned into the past. Architects searched for their own style but they searched for it in the previous styles returning to the style of Bramante, Palladio and Michelangelo . Neo-Classical Neo-Gothic Renaissance Baroque Romantic Chinese SaracenicBut Neo-Classical and Neo-Gothic were the main contenders in the Battle of the Styles of the 19th C.
  15. 15. The Architects of the Victorian PeriodThe Neo-Classicists Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781-1841) Sir John Sloane (1753-1837) Benjamin Henry Latrobe (1766-1820) Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)The Gothic Revival Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812-1852) Richard Upjohn (1802-78) Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (1814-1879)
  16. 16. The Neo-Classicists
  17. 17. Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Schauspielhaus, Berlin, 1818-21.The entire structure is raised on a high base and is dominated byan Ionic portico with receding planes to either side articulated byplain pilasters and precise, shallow mouldings that appear tohave been stretched tightly over an internal skeleton.
  18. 18. John Soane (1753-1837), Bank of England, LondonThe leading exponent of Neo-Classicism in England at this timewas Sir John Soane, an idiosyncratic architect whose work alsohas Romantic qualities.
  19. 19. Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Roman Catholic Cathedral,Baltimore, 1805-18.Latrobe presented both Gothic and Neo-Classical designs of thischurch to his client. The classical proposal was selected but didnot include the towers.
  20. 20. Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1770.For his own house Jefferson turned the familiar Palladian five-partorganization backward in order to focus the complex on spectacularmountain views. This view from the front shows that Jeffersondisguised the two-storey elevation to appear as only one story.
  21. 21. The William Brown Library and Museum (now the World MuseumLiverpool), designed by Thomas Allom (1804-1872), UK
  22. 22. The Neo-Gothic
  23. 23. Gothic Revival (also called “Neo-Gothic”) Neo-Gothic buildings have many of these features:- Strong vertical lines and a sense of great height- Pointed windows with decorative tracery- Gargoyles and other carvings- Pinnacles• The first Gothic Revival homes- Stone and Bricks- American Version: Lumber and Factory Made Trims
  24. 24. The TrinityChurch in NewYork, USA
  25. 25. Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin, Houses of Parliament, London, 1836-51.Thegovernmenthad decidedthat the newbuildingshould be inthe stylethought torepresentEngland at itsbest –Elizabethan orJacobean,which occuredduring LateGothic.
  26. 26. House of Parliament,London, 1836-1867
  27. 27. Richard Upjohn (1802-78), Trinity Church, NewYork City, 1839-46.Upjohn’s firstmajor commissionwas for TrinityChurch in NewYork City, whichwas designed for agrowing andwealthycongregation. TheTrinity Church hasbeen dwarfed byskyscrapers, whichonce included thenow destroyedWorld TradeCenter. However,in 1846 the churchwas a prominentlandmark.
  28. 28. Eugène Viollet-le-DucFrench architect and theoristFamous for interpretive “restorations” of medieval buildingsGothic Revival Architect Notre Dame de Paris
  29. 29. Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-DucThe leading proponent of theGothic Revival in France wasEugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (1814-1879), an architectwho shared Pugin’senthusiasm for medievalworks.He saw the system of the ribvault, pointed arch, and flyingbuttress as analogous to 19th Ciron framing, and he aspired toa modern architecture basedon engineeringaccomplishments that wouldhave the integrity of form anddetail found in medieval works.
  30. 30. Tower Bridge, LondonHorace Jones and John Wolfe Barry, 1840
  31. 31. All SaintsSir Charles BarryStand,Manchester, 1860
  32. 32. A Merry Mix of StylesNeo-Renaissance, Italian Renaissance,French Renaissance, Neo-Romanesqueoffered the architect and client otherchoices.
  33. 33. Richard Morris Hunt, Biltmore, Asheville, North Carolina, 1890-95.The firstAmerican toattend the Ecoledes Beaux-Artswas RichardMorris Hunt(1827-95) whoentered theschool in 1846.Newly richindustrialmagnateswanted housesthat imitated theancestralmansions ofEuropeannobility, and ofall Americanarchitects Huntwas best able toprovide thedesigns desired.
  34. 34. Richard Morris Hunt, The Breakers, Newport, Rhode Island, 1892-95.Richard MorrisHunt was thefirst Americanto attend theEcole desBeaux-Arts inParis. Theknowledge hegained there ofacademicplanning andmonumentaldesign madehim thearchitect ofchoice amongthe late 19th CAmerican elite.
  35. 35. Interiors, The Breakers, Newport, Rhode Island, 1892-95.
  36. 36. McKim, Mead and White, Villard HousesNew York City, 1882-85.The firm of McKim, Mead and White established the model forthe large-scale American architectural practice. They based thisresidential structure on Roman palazzi such as the PalazzoFarnese.
  37. 37. The New West End Synagogueby George Audsley (1838-1925)in St Petersburgh Place,London was in the Neo-Romanesque.
  38. 38. Westminster Cathedralby John Francis Bentley London, Neo-Romanesque.
  39. 39. Italian Renaissance, Sir Charles Barry London Reform ClubTravelers’ Club 1829-1832 1837- 1841
  40. 40. Italian Renaissance Gottfried Semper Semper Oper, Dresden, Germany 1838-1841
  41. 41. Neo-RenaissanceArt Gallery of the Zwinger 1847-1854 Gottfried Semper
  42. 42. Grand Opera, Paris, 1860-1874Jean Louis Charles Garnier
  43. 43. Paris Opera HouseExternally as well as internally the stylistic elements derive from the Italian Cinquecento and from the France of Louis XIII and Louis XIV, from Renaissance and from Baroque.Polychromy is widely used to heighten the impact yet further. The façade is massive and heavily decorated and gilded, and really monumental.
  44. 44. Grand Opera, Paris, 1860-1874 The great stair hall is perhaps Garnier’s greatest triumph.There is a tension in every form. The flights of the stairs fly easily and with perfect fluency through the stair hall. With its related corridors and foyers the stair provides the best of all possible ceremonial approaches to the auditorium.
  45. 45. Palais de Justice (Law Courts), Details Brussels, 1866-1883 Joseph Poelaert
  46. 46. Palais de Justice (Law Courts), Brussels, 1866-1883 Joseph Poelaert
  47. 47. Palais de Justice (Law Courts), Interiors Brussels, 1866-1883
  48. 48. Neo-RenaissanceSchwerin Castle, Hungary, 1851 Friedrich August Stüler (1800-1865)
  49. 49. Neo-RenaissanceNational Museum of Fine Arts, Stockholm, 1846-1866 Friedrich August Stüler
  50. 50. National Museum of Fine Arts, Stockholm, 1846-1866 Interiors Friedrich August Stüler
  51. 51. RomanesqueCrane Library, Quincy, Massachusetts , 1880Henry Hobson Richardson
  52. 52. Romanesque Crane Library, Quincy, Massachusetts , 1880Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-86)
  53. 53. St. Pancras Parish Church, London, 1819-21 Greek Revival
  54. 54. The White CityWorld’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, Illinois, 1893
  55. 55. Richard Morris Hunt, Administration Building, World’sColumbian Exposition, Chicago, Illinois, 1893.Hunt’s Administration Building stands at the head of the Court ofHonor and its lagoon. The “White City” captivated the Americanpublic. Using widespread exterior electric lighting for the first time, itstarted a movement that produced proposals for new civic cores incities nationwide.
  56. 56. The White City, Chicago’s World Fairheld in Chicago in 1893 to celebratethe 400th anniversary of ChristopherColumbus arrival in the New World in1492 The City Beautiful Movement was a reform movement in North American architecture and urban planning that flourished in the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of using beautification and monumental grandeur in cities. Advocates of the movement believed that such beautification could thus promote a harmonious social order that would increase the quality of life.
  57. 57. Daniel Burnham, Architect and Urban Planner City planning projects : Cleveland San Francisco Washington DC Manila Baguio Designed the Chicago’s World Fair. Proponent of the ‘City Beautiful’ movement. Burnham only stayed for six weeks in the Philippines. He later hired the services of William Parsons, a New York architect who stayed in the country for eight years.
  59. 59. Architectural Applications of Iron and Steel Construction Iron and steel were not admired for their architectural qualities in the 19th C: prevailing Neo-Classical and Romantic attitudes looked to past ages buildings had always been of load-bearing masonry construction. Everything that architects and their clients admired and felt comfortable with could be constructed by using traditional materials and methods. Architects were slow to exploit the possibilities of iron and steel, which were first used in industrial utilitarian buildings, such as textile mills, warehouses, and greenhouses.
  60. 60. Progress in iron fabrication 18th C industrial production of cast and wrought iron so increased its availability that iron replaced wood in the frame of any building where heavy loads or the danger of fire was of concern. Cast iron was favoured for columns, while the superior tensile qualities of wrought iron made it the recommended material for beams. In the 19th C iron began to be used instead of wood in the fabrication of truss bridges built for roads and railroads that crossed rivers or valleys.
  61. 61. Iron  Linear two-dimensional fragile-looking material  Elegant linearity is its most rational formSolid, Block-like, Closed type Building Greenhouses Covered Markets Halls Exhibition Pavilions Passages Open, Linear, Articulated frame Utility Buildings
  62. 62. Decimus Burton and Richard Turner Palm House, Kew Gardens, London, 1845-47.Iron was mostelegantlyemployed inlandscapegardening.VictorianEngland,prosperousfrom the wealthof its empire,had afascination withthe tropicalplants that werebrought backfrom India,Africa, and theFar East.
  63. 63. 19th Century: Applications of Iron SteelPALM HOUSE, Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, London, 1845-1848 Wrought Iron
  64. 64. Applications of Iron SteelPALM HOUSE, Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, London, 1845-1848
  65. 65. Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, 1851.Joseph Paxtondesigned abuilding withprefabricatedparts thatcould bemass-produced anderectedrapidly. Itstood in starkcontrast totraditional,massive stoneconstruction.
  66. 66. Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, 1851.Once theexhibitionopened, thebuilding wasvisited by aboutone-quarter ofthe populationof England andwas universallyacclaimed forits vast, airyinterior space.Journalistsdubbed it theCrystal Palace,a name it hadretained.
  67. 67. 19th Century: Applications of Iron SteelCRYSTAL PALACE – Hyde Park, London, 1850-1851 Joseph Paxton
  68. 68. Henri Labrouste, Bibliotheque Ste.Genevieve, Paris, 1842-50.Henri Labrouste (1801-1875) made a fine architectural use of cast iron in theBibliotheque Ste.-Genevieve in Paris. On the exterior the building presents acorrect Neo-Classical facade recalling Italian Renaissance palace and churchdesigns; but on the interior at the 2nd floor level one finds for that time anunprecedentedly great reading room which extends the width and length of thebuilding, covered by light semicircular cast iron arches.
  69. 69. Henri Labrouste, Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve, Paris, 1842-50
  70. 70. Henri Labrouste, Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve, Paris, 1842-50
  72. 72. 19th Century: Applications of Iron Steel Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve
  73. 73. 19th Century: Applications of Iron Steel Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve
  74. 74. 19th Century: Applications of Iron Steel Bibliotheque Nacionale 1857-1867
  75. 75. 19th Century: Applications of Iron Steel Bibliotheque Nacionale 1857-1867
  76. 76. 19th Century: Applications of Iron SteelGustave Eiffel 1823-1932
  77. 77. 19th Century: Applications of Iron Steel EIFFEL TOWER, PARIS, 1884-1887 320 metres (1,050 ft) tall First real example of frame building technique Remains the largest iron construction in the world
  78. 78. 19th Century: Applications of Iron Steel EIFFEL TOWER, PARIS, 1884-1887
  79. 79. 19th Century: Applications of Iron Steel STATUE OF LIBERTYStands 151-ft (46m)One of the earliest examples of curtain wall construction in which the exterior of the structure is not load bearing, but is instead supported by an interior framework.He included two interior spiral staircases, to make it easier for visitors to reach the observation point in the crown.
  80. 80. Gustave Eiffel, Eiffel Tower, Paris, 1889.The most famous French designerusing iron in the second half ofthe 19th C was Gustav Eiffel(1832-1923). This engineergained fame for his gracefulbridge designs and then used hisexperience with iron constructionto build the world’s tallest tower,the 1010 ft high Eiffel Tower,erected for the Paris InternationalExposition of 1889. Not until thecompletion of the ChryslerBuilding in New York was Eiffel’stower exceeded in height, and itremains the largest ironconstruction in the world, for steelwas rapidly becoming thepreferred material for metalframing.
  81. 81. Gustave Eiffel, Auguste Bartholdi and Richard Morris Hunt, Statue of Liberty, New York City, 1883-86.In New York harbor standsanother of Eiffel’s engineeringprojects, the internal skeletonfor the 151 ft Statue of Liberty(1883-86). Miss Liberty’scopper skin is supported byiron straps attached to a steelframework that Eiffel designedto withstand the considerablewind loads of the harbour. Atthe time of its construction, theStatue of Liberty had the mostadvanced diagonally bracedframe to be found in anystructure in the U.S.
  82. 82.  420mL & 115m W Destroyed in 1910 Charles Dutert 1845-1906 19th Century: Applications of Iron Steel GALERIE DES MACHINES, 1887-1889
  83. 83. J.A. And W.A. Roebling, Brooklyn Bridge, NewYork City, 1869-83.In seeking to expand the market for iron and improve the desirablequalities of the material, 19th c ironmongers experimented with newmethods for manufacturing steel, which is an alloy of low-carbon ironand trace amounts of other metals. The Brooklyn Bridge used steelcables.
  84. 84. The Early Skyscrapers William Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907), the designer of the Home Insurance Building (1884-85), is generally credited with the early development of the skyscraper although the Home Life Insurance Building is not entirely metal-framed as the first floor contains sections of masonry bearing wall.
  85. 85. The Early SkyscrapersDaniel Burnham and John Welborn Daniel Burnham and John WelbornRoot, Monadnock Building, Chicago, Root, Reliance Building, Chicago, 1894-1890-91 95.
  86. 86. The Arts and Crafts MovementTwo issues – social valuesand the artistic quality ofmanufactured products –were at the heart of theArts and CraftsMovement, whichflourished from about1850-1900 in Britain andin the U.S. Originating inVictorian England,its ideasspread to Europe. JohnRuskin (1819-1900), aprolific critic of art andsociety, may be regardedas the originator of theArts and Crafts ideals. InRuskin’s view, theIndustrial Revolution wasa grievous error exertinga corrupting influence onsociety.Right: Philip Webb, RedHouse, Bexleyheath, Kent,1859-60.
  87. 87. FIN