Marxism (louis althusser)

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Marxism (Louis Althusser)

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  • #1. Value-neutral conceptionSystematic body of ideas, a world-view,articulated by a particular group of people"Pattern of ideas, belief systems, or interpretive schemes found in a society or among a specific social group" (Hall).
  • #1. Value-neutral conceptionSystematic body of ideas, a world-view,articulated by a particular group of people"Pattern of ideas, belief systems, or interpretive schemes found in a society or among a specific social group" (Hall).#2. Karl Marx's definition"False consciousness": a masking, distortion, or concealmentThe way some cultural texts and practices present distorted images of realityIdeology works in interest of the powerfuland AGAINST interests of the powerlessResults of ideological distortion, in Marx's viewConceals reality of domination from those in power: dominant class do not see themselves as exploitersConceals reality of domination from the powerless: they do not see themselves as exploited
  • #1. Value-neutral conceptionSystematic body of ideas, a world-view,articulated by a particular group of people"Pattern of ideas, belief systems, or interpretive schemes found in a society or among a specific social group" (Hall).#2. Karl Marx's definition"False consciousness": a masking, distortion, or concealmentThe way some cultural texts and practices present distorted images of realityIdeology works in interest of the powerfuland AGAINST interests of the powerlessResults of ideological distortion, in Marx's viewConceals reality of domination from those in power: dominant class do not see themselves as exploitersConceals reality of domination from the powerless: they do not see themselves as exploitedTexts (mediated) always present a particular picture of the world, always take sides, thus reflect producer's ideologyAll texts are ultimately political: they offer one view or another (but not a multiplicity of views!) of how the world isDiffering ideological significations of reality compete with one another#4: Ideology as "material practice"French Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser (1918-1990) saidIdeology is not simply a body of ideas, but rather "material practice"Ideology is encountered in practices of everyday life
  • #1. Value-neutral conceptionSystematic body of ideas, a world-view,articulated by a particular group of people"Pattern of ideas, belief systems, or interpretive schemes found in a society or among a specific social group" (Hall).#2. Karl Marx's definition"False consciousness": a masking, distortion, or concealmentThe way some cultural texts and practices present distorted images of realityIdeology works in interest of the powerfuland AGAINST interests of the powerlessResults of ideological distortion, in Marx's viewConceals reality of domination from those in power: dominant class do not see themselves as exploitersConceals reality of domination from the powerless: they do not see themselves as exploitedTexts (mediated) always present a particular picture of the world, always take sides, thus reflect producer's ideologyAll texts are ultimately political: they offer one view or another (but not a multiplicity of views!) of how the world isDiffering ideological significations of reality compete with one another
  • These things give us pleasure, release tensionsBut ultimately they return us to our place in the social orderBecause they reproduce the social conditions necessary for capitalism to continue
  • natural (as opposed to constructed)universal (as opposed to particular)complete (as opposed to incomplete)neutral (as opposed to partial/biased)legitimate (as opposed to illegitimate)"common sense" (as opposed to a particular, chosen, preferred sense)
  • Marxism (louis althusser)

    1. 1. Louis Althusser(ideology & the state)
    2. 2. IDEOLOGY DEFINITION IDEOLOGY (WHAT IS IT?)
    3. 3. IDEOLOGY DEFINITION An ideology is a set of ideas that constitute ones goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology is a comprehensive vision, a way of looking at things as in several philosophical tendencies, or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to all members of this society.
    4. 4. IDEOLOGY DEFINITION• What does this word mean to you?• What is an ideology?• The term ideology was coined (by Claude Destutt in 1796) to mean "the science of ideas"• Since then, has taken on many other meanings• Here are some of the most common:
    5. 5. IDEOLOGY DEFINITION #1. Value-neutral conception What this implies  an individual does not have an ideology but an individual may reflect the ideology of the group they are a member of
    6. 6. IDEOLOGY DEFINITION #2. Karl Marxs definition "False consciousness"
    7. 7. IDEOLOGY DEFINITION #3: Focus on "ideological forms”
    8. 8. IDEOLOGY DEFINITION #4: Ideology as "material practice” Examples of "material practice" that reflects ideology taking summer holidays, giving gifts at Christmas
    9. 9. IDEOLOGY DEFINITION I WOULD SAY… Louis Althusser (1918-1990)
    10. 10. IDEOLOGY DEFINITION These things give us pleasure, release tensions But ultimately they return us to our place in the social order Because they reproduce the social conditions necessary for capitalism to continue
    11. 11. IDEOLOGY What produces and maintains (dominant) ideology in society?  Althusser talked about "ideological state apparatuses" (ISAs)  Family  Education system  Church (religion)  Mass media  These ISAs "train" us to follow and perpetuate the values and rules of the dominant classes
    12. 12. IDEOLOGY & THE STATE ISAs vs. RSA  Althusser: because of the power (and willingness) of the ISAs to do the work of the powerful...  The Repressive State Apparatus (government, military, courts) need not use force  The ISAs do their jobs  And make us into good, law-abiding students, family members, citizens, church members, capitalists  Who do not complain, do not try to overthrow the government, do not try to overthrow the bosses
    13. 13. IDEOLOGY & THE STATE CONSEQUENTLY…  Ideology (world-view maintained and "taught" by the ISAs) comes to be seen as  Natural  Universal  Complete  Neutral  Legitimate  "common sense”
    14. 14. IDEOLOGYIn all of these definitions (except #1),ideology is...Meaning in the service of power not just a value-neutral set or system of ideasRather, a system that underlies, supports, andjustifies a groups Exercise of power Maintenance of power Struggles for power

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