History of Architecture 1 BS Architecture1st Term AY 2012-2013
Geographical Geological Climatic Religious Socio-Cultural HistoricalDiscussion Points Architectural Character Building Materials and Construction systems Comparative Analysis Plans Ornaments Openings / Entrances Structural Elements
• Beginning of Prehistory 35,000 BC• Construction of Stonehenge 2900 – 1400 BC• Egyptian Old Kingdom 2649 – 2134 BC• Const. of Pyramids at Giza 2550 – 2460 BC• Egyptian Middle Kingdom 2040 – 1640 BC• Egyptian New Kingdom 1550 – 1070 BC
• Minoan Civilization 2800 – 1400 BC• Mycenaean Civilization 1600 – 1100 BC• Trojan War 1250 BC• Iliad and Odyssey 8th century BC Assume Final Form• Archaic Greek Period 700 – 500 BC• Classical Greek Period 497 – 323 BC• Construction of Parthenon 458 BC• Life of Plato 427 – 347 BC• Conquest of Alexander the Great 333 – 323 BC
• Height of Power of the Etruscan Civilization 550 BC• The Roman Republic 509 - 27 BC• Dictatorship of Julius Caesar 46 - 44 BC• Reign of Caesar Augustus and Beginning of the Roman Empire 27 - 14 BC• Vitruvius wrote De Architectura ca. 27 BC• Reign of Nero 54 - 68 AD• Reign of Vespasian 69 - 79 AD• Construction of Colloseum Completed 80 AD• Reign of Domitian, Trajan, and Hadrian 81- 138 AD• Construction of Pantheon ca.125 AD• Reign of Septimus Severus 193 - 211 AD• Reign of Diocletian 284 - 305 AD• Reign of Constantine 310 - 337 AD
• Reign of Caesar Augustus and Beginning of the Roman Empire 27 - 14 BC• Life of Jesus ca. 33 BC – 1 AD• Reign of Constantine 310 - 337 AD• Constantine legalizes Christianity 310 - 337 AD• Construction of Old St. Peter’s 318 - 22 AD• Founding of Constantinople 324 AD• End of Roman Empire in the West 476 AD• Reign of Emperor Justinian 527 - 565 AD• Construction of Hagia Sophia 532 - 537 AD• Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman 1453 AD
I. Geographical.• Christianity had its birth in Judaea, an eastern province of the Roman Empire, spread and carried by St. Peter, St. Paul, and other missionaries to Rome, as the centre of the World-Empire. • In spite of opposition and persecution, the new religion took root and grew, till it was strong enough to become the recognized universal religion of the whole Roman Empire. • Early Christian architecture at Rome was influenced by, and was the logical outcome of; • Existing Roman architecture • modified in other parts of the Empire according to the type already recognized as suitable for the geographical situation of those countries, such as Syria, Asia Minor, North Africa, and Egypt.
II. Geological.• Geological influences may be said to have acted indirectly on Early Christian architecture for the ruins of Roman buildings often provided the quarry where materials were obtained.• This influenced the style, both as regards construction and decoration.• Columns and other architectural features, as well as fine sculptures and mosaics from older buildings, were incorporated into basilican churches of the new faith.
III. Climatic• North Italy has the climate of the temperate region of Europe• Central Italy is genial and sunny• Southern Italy is almost tropical.• This variety of climatic conditions is sufficient to account for diversity of architectural features and treatment in the peninsula itself.• The climatic conditions in Roman provinces as Egypt, Syria, and North Africa where Christianity was established were varied, and naturally modified the style in those countries where the fiercer sun and hotter climate necessitated small windows and other Eastern features.
IV. Religious• In all human history there is no record so striking as that of the rise of Christianity a phenomenon so outstanding as the rapidity with which it was diffused throughout the civilized world, and, not only in this period but also in all subsequent ages.• Christianity has inspired the building of some of the greatest architectural monuments.• The number of Christian communities established by the Apostle Paul in his missionary journeys round the Eastern Mediterranean, in Syria, Africa, Greece, and Italy, might lead us to expect many more ruins of Early Christian basilican churches throughout these districts.
IV. Religious• In this connection, however, it must be remembered that the God preached by S. Paul was " not like unto gold or silver or stone graven by art and device of man," nor a God that dwelled " in temples made with hands " like those of the old Greeks and Romans which were built to shelter the statues of the gods.• Purpose of the Christian church was to shelter worshippers who met for prayer and praise to an unseen Deity, and, during the unsettled conditions at the beginning of Christianity, various places were adapted for this worship.• Building of pagan temples ceased before any attempt was made to build Christian churches.•• In A.D. 313 Constantine issued his celebrated decree from Milan, giving Christianity equal rights with other religions.• in A.D. 323 he himself professed Christianity, which became the official religion of the Roman Empire, and the Christians then began to build churches of a type suit- able to their needs and ritual.
V. Social• Constantine changed the capital of the Empire from Rome to Byzantium in A.D. 324, when the old Roman political system came to an end, and reigned as an absolute monarch till his death in A.D. 337.• Christianity suffered disabilities upon the division of the Roman Empire, which first took place in A.D. 365 when Valentinian became Emperor of the West and his brother Valens of the East.• Theodosius the Great (A.D. 379-395) reunited, for a time, the Eastern and Western Empires, and in A.D. 438 Theodosius II published his legal code, an important work on the constitutions of the Emperors from the time of Constantine.• The series of Emperors in the West came to an end in A.D. 475, and the Eastern and Western Empires were nominally reunited by Zeno, who reigned at Constantinople.
V. Social• Then again the seat of power was changed, and Theodoric the Goth reigned in Italy (A.D. 493–526) during a period of peace and prosperity• Byzantine art influenced Early Christian art by way of Ravenna, which rivaled Rome in importance and was the capital of the Gothic Dynasty A.D. 493–552 with the exception of a short period when it was subdued by Justinian (A.D. 537)• Kings were now elected for the separate states of Spain, Gaul, Northern Africa, and Italy, where King Odoacer recognized the supremacy of the one Roman Emperor at Constantinople.• Emancipation of Western Europe from direct Imperial control resulted in the development of Romano-Teutonic civilization, it facilitated the growth of new states and nationalities, gave a fresh impulse to Christianity, and eventually strengthened the power of the Bishops of Rome.
VI. Historical• The Early Christian period is generally taken as lasting from Constantine to the death of Gregory the Great (A.D. 604), although in Rome and many Italian cities it continued up to the tenth century.• Huns incursions into Germany about A.D. 376 eventually brought about invasions from the north into Italy, and in A.D. 410 Rome itself was sacked by the Goths under Alaric.• Spread of the new religion was arrested during this period of change and upheaval, till A.D. 451, the defeat of Attila, King of the Huns, at the battle of Chalons aided in the consolidation of Christianity in Europe.
VI. Historical• In A.D. 568 the Lombards penetrated into Italy and held the northern part for 200 years. In A.D. 800 Charlemagne was crowned by the Pope in Rome, and from this date the Empire was styled the Holy Roman Empire, a title retained till A.D. 1800.• Under Pope Gregory the Great (A.D. 590–604) Early Christian architecture, the latest phase of Roman art, gradually fell into disuse, and for the next two centuries architectural development was practically at a standstill in Europe• Even though the influence of Byzantium asserted itself, old Roman traditions were in abeyance till the time when Romanesque architecture gradually evolved.
Early Christian Architecture - Introduction• Early Christian architecture may be taken to have lasted from about 300 to 600 AD.• The Early Christians, as Roman craftsmen, continued old Roman traditions• Utilized as far as possible the materials from Roman temples which had become useless for their original purpose for their new buildings.• Their churches, modeled on Roman basilicas, used old columns which by various devices were brought to a uniform height.• Early Christian buildings hardly have the architectural value of a style produced by the solution of constructive problems.
Early Christian Architecture - Introduction• Basilican churches had either closely spaced columns carrying the entablature, or more widely spaced columns carrying semicircular arches.• The basilican church with three or five aisles, covered by a simple timber roof, is typical of the Early Christian style as opposed to the vaulted Byzantine church with its central circular dome placed over a square by means of pendentives and surrounded by smaller domes.• It s long perspective of oft-repeated columns which carry the eye along to the sanctuary ; a treatment which, combined with the comparatively low height of interiors, makes these churches appear longer than they really are, as is seen in S. Paolo fuori le Mura, and S. Maria Maggiore.
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE (300 AD – 600 AD)• DIVIDED IN 2 PARTS 1. The Eastern Empire 2. The Western Empire• CHARACTERISTIC OF EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE 1. Simplicity in Design and Treatment 2. Coarseness in Execution Early Christian Architecture is Transitional Architecture Influenced by Roman Architecture and with no own structure• SYSTEM OF CONSTRUCTION Trabeated and Arcuated• BUILDING MATERIALS Salvaged materials from Pagan Temples
PRINCIPAL BUILDING/STRUCTURE• CHURCHES Basilicas or Roman halls of justice probably served the Early Christians as models for their churches, connecting link between buildings of pagan Classic times and those of the Romanesque period which followed. Basilica (Gk. basilikos = kingly), was applied to a Christian church as early as the 4th century, was a peculiarly appropriate designation for buildings dedicated to the service of the King of Kings PLANS USED BY EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCHES 1. LONGITUDINAL One axis referring to Basilican Type 2. CENTRAL – Two axes referring to square plan added before the church proper.
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE (300 AD – 600 AD)
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE (300 AD – 600 AD)• Two types of Trusses Introduced 1. King Post Trusses 2. Queen Post Trusses
CHARACTERISTIC STRUCTURES PLANS USED BY EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCHES1. PLAN
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS A. Plans• The Early Christians followed the basilican model for their new churches.• May also have used old Roman halls, baths, dwelling-houses, and even pagan temples as places of worship. B. Walls• These were still constructed according to Roman methods of using rubble or concrete, faced with plaster, brick, or stone.• Mosaic decoration was added internally, and sometimes also externally on west facades.• Little regard was paid to external architectural effect. C. Openings• Arcades, doors, and windows were either spanned by a semicircular arch• Which in nave arcades, often rested directly on the capitals without any entablatures, or were spanned by a lintel..
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS D. Roofs• Timber roofs covered the central nave, and only simple forms of construction, such as king and queen post trusses, were employed.• The narrower side aisles were occasionally vaulted and the• Apse was usually domed and lined with beautiful glass mosaics, which formed a fitting background to the sanctuary . E. Columns• Differ both in design and size, often taken from earlier Roman buildings. It was natural that early Christian builders should use materials and ornament of the pagan Romans.• Used Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, or Composite from ancient Roman buildings, except those in S. Paolo fuori le Mura.• The carved capitals are governed by Roman pagan precedent and sometimes by that of Byzantine, and in both the acanthus leaf forms an important part.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS F. Moldings• Coarse variations of old Roman types, and the carving, though rich in general effect, is crude ; for the technique of the craftsman had gradually declined.• Enrichments were incised on moldings in low relief, and the acanthus ornament, although still copied from the antique, became more conventional in form. G. Ornament• The introduction of color gave richness and glimmering mystery to interiors.• The mosaics which was the principal form of interior ornament, lined the domed apses generally represented Christ surrounded by apostles and saints with all those symbolic emblems. Usually made of glass• Fresco painting usually in figure forms
San Clemente, Rome(A.D. 1084-1108)rebuilt over an earlier church,retains the original internalarrangement as well as fittingsof the fifth century and showsthe suitability of the basilicanplan for Christian ritual and forsheltering a number ofworshippers .
Basilican Church of St. Peter, Rome (A.D. 330)Erected by Constantine near the site of the martyrdom of St. Peter
Basilica of St PeterBuilt by Constantine the Great
Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome (A.D. 432)Built by Pope Sixtus III and is the only church of which there is evidence that it was originally a pagan basilica, and it is one of the most typical of basilican churches .
Church of the Holy Sepulcher, JerusalemErected by Constantine over the reputed tomb of Christ
The Church of the Nativity,Bethlehem (A.D. 330)Founded by Constantine over thetraditional birthplace of Christ.
Church of St. Paul Outside the Wall (A.D. 380)Was destroyed in A.D. 1823, but was rebuilt on the original design, and is the largest and most impressive of all basilican churches.
Church of St. Paul Outside the WallLargest and most impressive example of Early Christian Architecture
BAPTISTERIES – Early Christian baptisteries were originally used only for thesacrament of baptism, and for this rite Roman circular temples and tombssupplied a most suitable type of building.Example – Baptistery of Constantine, Rome ( A.D. 430-440)Among the oldest Italian Baptisteries, of which was probably the model.Example – The Baptistery, Nocera (A.D. 350)Baptistery Plans
OTHER STRUCTURES1. BELFRY – Attached bell tower2. CAMPANILLE – Detached bell towerExample - Leaning Tower of Pisa3. TOMBS - Early Christian burial up to the end of the fourth century of theChristian era took place in the Catacombs outside Rome ; for burial within thecity was prohibited by law. These tombs, cut in the tuf a formation, followedthe old Roman type, except that, as the Christian church did not then allowcremation, " loculi " or wall recesses were formed to receive the bodies.Examples- St. Constanza, Rome (A.D. 330) erected by Constantine for his daughter, butlater converted into a church in A.D. 1256. -The Tomb of Galla Placidia, Ravenna (A.D. 420) , appears to be the earliestbuilding which is cruciform in plan.