Early Italian Renaissance

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Early Italian Renaissance

  1. 1. Early Italian Renaissance
  2. 2. Outline Background/History of Style Characteristics Essential Elements Floor & Wall Treatments Color Soft furnishing & Accessories, Ornaments •  Fabrics •  Furniture •  •  •  •  •  • 
  3. 3. Background/History of Style   Time  and  Place:     The  Renaissance  (Italian:  Rinascimento,  from  ri-­‐  "again"  and  nascere   "be  born")  was  a  cultural  movement  that  spanned  roughly  from   the  14th  to  the  17th  century,  beginning  in  Florence  in  the  Late   Middle  Ages  and  later  spreading  to  the  rest  of  Europe.     •  App  1400  –  1700AD   •  Italy    -­‐  In  the  middle  ages,  was  composed  of  different  city-­‐states   and  fiefdoms  eg  Florence,  Venice,  Milan,  Mantua.   Florence  –  is  considered  as  the  birthplace  of  the  Renaissance     In  Florence,  the  wealthy  wool  merchants  and  bankers  sought  presQge   and  status  through  their  patronage  of  arts  and  leRers,  and   architects  and  arQsts  displayed  their  support  through  their   development  of  new  forms  in  painQng,  sculpture  and  architecture.  
  4. 4. Background/History of Style What  was  the  Renaissance?      The  intellectual  transformaQon    that  happened  during   the  Renaissance  has  resulted    with  this  period  being   viewed  as  a  bridge  between  the  Middle  Ages  and  the   Modern  era.    
  5. 5. Background/History of Style •  As  a  cultural  movement,  it  encompassed   a  resurgence  of  learning  based  on:   •  classical  sources   •  the  development  of  linear  perspecQve  in   painQng   •  gradual  but  widespread  educaQonal   reform.   •  Although  the  Renaissance  saw   revoluQons  in  many  intellectual  pursuits,   as  well  as  social  and  poliQcal  upheaval,  it   is  perhaps  best  known  for  its  arQsQc   developments  and  the  contribuQons  of   such  polymaths  as  Leonardo  da  Vinci  and   Michelangelo,  who  inspired  the  term   "Renaissance  man“.  
  6. 6. Background/History of Style Access  to  the  Classical  Texts  and  the  Teaching  of   HumaniQes     •  The  key  to  a  new  vision  of  human  life  and   therefore  of  architecture  came  from  the   scholars’  access  to  the  classical  texts.   •  InternaQonal  trading  exchanges  had  helped   to  disseminate  ideas,  and  a  group  of   teachers  of  the  humaniQes  (grammar,   rhetoric,  history  and  philosophy)  who   acquired  the  name  of  Humanists,  played  a   crucial  part  in  their  propagaQon.   •  These  texts,  including  eventually  about   The  Duke  of  Urbino.  The  Duke  collected   architecture  were  spread  through   one  of  the  finest  libraries  in  Italy,   employing  it  is  said,  thirty  or  forty  scribes   developments  in  prinQng.  (Gutenberg   for  fourteen  years  to  copy  the  great   invented  the  movable  type  in  1450)     classical  and  modern  texts.  
  7. 7. Background/History of Style Humanism and the Renaissance   •  Humanism  was  a  new  world  view.  It  celebrated  raQonality  and  mankind’s   ability  to  make  and  act  upon  empirical  observaQons  of  the  physical  world.     •  Humanist  scholars  and  arQsts  recovered  classical  Greek  and  Roman  texts   and  aspired  to  create  a  modern  world  rivalling  that  of  the  ancients.  One  of   the  most  important  was  Vitruvius’  text  on  architecture  which  had  been  re   discovered  in  Switzerland.   •  Rather  than  train  professionals  in  jargon  and  strict  pracQce,  humanists   sought  to  create  a  ciQzenry  (including,  someQmes,  women)  able  to  speak   and  write  with  eloquence  and  clarity.  Thus,  they  would  be  capable  of   beRer  engaging  the  civic  life  of  their  communiQes  and  persuading  others   to  virtuous  and  prudent  acQons.     •  This  was  to  be  accomplished  through  the  study  of  the  studia  humanitaGs,   today  known  as  the  humaniQes:  grammar,  rhetoric,  history,  poetry  and   moral  philosophy.  
  8. 8. Background/History of Style Vitruvius’ Ten Books of Architecture   •  In  1487  the  ancient  text  of  Vitruvius  was  one   of  the  first  books  printed.  The  impact  of   prinQng  was  tremendous.     •  The  architectural  theorists  of  the  revived   anQque  style  –  AlberQ,  Serlio,  Francesco  de   Giorgio,  Palladio,  Vignola,  Guilio  Romano  –  all   wrote  treaQses  that  owed  something  to   Vitruvius.  These  men  were  no  longer  master   masons,  however  brilliant,  they  were   scholars.   •  Architecture  was  no  longer  the  conQnuaQon   of  a  pracQcal  tradiQon,  handed  on  through   mason’s  lodges;  it  was  a  literary  idea.    The   architect  was  not  just  pubng  up  a  building;   he  was  following  a  theory.  
  9. 9. Background/History of Style De  Architectura  ("On  Architecture")     Marcus  Vitruvius  Pollio  (born  c.  80–70  BC,  died  aeer   c.  15  BC)  was  a  Roman  writer,  architect  and  engineer,   acQve  in  the  1st  century  BC.  He  is  best  known  as  the   author  of  the  mulQ-­‐volume  work  De  Architectura  ("On   Architecture").     Vitruvius  is  famous  for  asserQng  in  his  book  De   architectura  that  a  structure  must  exhibit  the  three   qualiQes  of  firmitas,  uGlitas,  venustas  –  that  is,  it  must   be  solid,  useful,  beauQful.  These  are  someQmes   termed  the  Vitruvian  virtues  or  the  Vitruvian  Triad.  
  10. 10. Background/History of Style The Vitruvian Man   •  Rather  than  using  the  complex,  geometric   transformaQons  of  medieval  master  masons,   Renaissance  architects  favoured  simple  forms   such  as  the  square  and  the  circle.   •  They  made  drawings  of  the  human  figure   inscribed  within  the  basic  outline  of  the  circle   and  the  square,  thereby  demonstraQng  that   the  human  proporQons  reflected  divine   raQos.   LeJ:  The  Vitruvian  Man  by  Leonardo  da  Vinci  an   illustraQon  of  the  human  body  inscribed  in  the   circle  and  the  square  derived  from  a  passage  about   geometry  and  human  proporQons  in  Vitruvius'   wriQngs  
  11. 11. Background/History of Style Brunelleschi’s Discovery of Perspective     Filippo  Brunelleschi  (1377-­‐1446)   A  FlorenQne  goldsmith,  Brunelleschi  moved  to  Rome  and  visited  the   ancient  ruins.  Brunelleschi  codified  the  principles  of  geometrically   accurate  linear  perspecQve,  making  possible  the  exact   representaQon  of  a  3-­‐dimensional  object  on  a  2-­‐dimensional  surface.     In  making  careful  drawings  of  such  repeQQve  elements  as  the  arches   of  aqueducts,  he  realized  that  parallel  horizontal  lines  converge  at  a   point  on  the  horizon  and  that  elements  of  like  size  diminish   proporQonally  in  the  distance.   This  discovery  had  a  profound  effect  of  art,  architecture  and  civic   design  during  and  aeer  the  Renaissance.  
  12. 12. Background/History of Style Brunelleschi   observed   that   with   a   fixed   single   point   of   view,   parallel   lines   appear   to   converge   at   a   single   point   in   the   distance.   Brunelleschi   a p p l i e d   a   s i n g l e   vanishing   point   to   a   canvas,   and   discovered   a  method  for  calculaQng   depth.     Among  the  cultures  of  the  ancient  world,  only  the  Greeks   and  the  Romans  had  spacial  depth  in  art  figured  out.  That   is  to  say,  they  understood  how  to  create  an  image  with   convincing  depth  and  a  painted  or  sculpted  illusion  of  3   dimensional  space.     “TheTrinity,”  Masaccio  (1427-­‐28)  
  13. 13. Background/History of Style Other  Developments:   •  Gunpowder  changed  the  nature  of  warfare  and  therefore  relaQons   among  naQons.   •  The  invenQon  of  the  compass  and  the  development  of  new   techniques  in  shipbuilding  made  it  possible  to  expand  the  limits  of   the  known  world  into  China,  the  East  Indies,  India  and  America.   •  Banking,  no  longer  frowned  upon  by  the  Church,  began  to  play  a   central  role  in  society.   •  The  hereditary  nobles  of  feudal  Qmes  were  ousted  by  a  new  class   of  merchant  princes  –  the  Medici,  the  Strozzi,  the  Rucellai,  the  Pib   –  whose  commercial  empires  spread  throughout  Europe.   •  Merchant  princes  and  the  arQsts  to  whom  they  extended  financial   patronage  became  the  new  universal  men  of  the  Renaissance.  
  14. 14. Background/History of Style The  Periods  of  the  Renaissance:   •  Early  Renaissance   ca.  1400-­‐1500      Brunelleschi,  AlberQ     •  High  Renaissance   ca.  1500-­‐1525      Bramante     •  Late  Renaissance   ca.  1525-­‐1600      Palladio  
  15. 15. Renaissance Architecture •  Renaissance  architecture  tends  to  feature  planar  classicism  (i.e.  “flat  classicism”).   In  other  words,  the  walls  of  a  Renaissance  building  (both  exterior  and  interior)  are   embellished  with  classical  moQfs  (e.g.  columns,  pediments,  blind  arches)  of  minor   physical  depth,  such  that  they  intrude  minimally  on  the  two-­‐dimensional   appearance  of  the  walls.  Put  another  way,  the  walls  of  a  Renaissance  building  serve   as  flat  canvases  for  a  classical  veneer.  This  contrasts  sharply  with  Baroque   architecture,  in  which  walls  are  deeply  curved  and  sculpted  (“sculpted  classicism”).   •  Planar  classicism  also  tends  to  divide  a  wall  into  neat  secQons,  with  such  elements   as  columns,  pilasters,  and  stringcourses.  (A  stringcourse  is  a  thin,  horizontal  strip  of   material  that  runs  along  the  exterior  of  a  building,  oeen  to  mark  the  division   between  stories.)  A  Baroque  wall,  on  the  other  hand,  is  treated  as  a  conQnuous,   undulaQng  whole.   •  The  foremost  Renaissance  building  types  were  the  church,  palazzo  (urban   mansion),  and  villa  (country  mansion).  While  various  great  names  are  associated   with  Renaissance  church  and  palazzo  design,  the  most  famous  villa  architect  by  far   is  Palladio.  In  England,  large  residences  were  called  Elizabethan  country  houses.  In   France  they  were  called  chateaus.  
  16. 16. Renaissance Architecture Renaissance  style  places  emphasis   on  symmetry,  proporQon,  geometry  and  the   regularity  of  parts  as  they  are  demonstrated  in   the  architecture  of  classical  anQquity  and  in   parQcular  ancient  Roman  architecture,  of  which  many   examples  remained.    
  17. 17. Characteristics •  Inspired  by  Roman  buildings,  orderly  arrangements  of  columns,  pilasters  and   lintels,  as  well  as  the  use  of  semicircular  arches   hemispherical  domes,  niches  and  aedicules  replaced  the  more  complex   proporQonal  systems  and  irregular  profiles  of  medieval  buildings.   •  Plans  -­‐  square,  symmetrical  appearance  in  which  proporQons  are  usually  based  on   a  module   •  Facades  -­‐  symmetrical  around  their  verQcal  axis,  domesQc  buildings  are  oeen   surmounted  by  a  cornice   •  Columns  and  pilasters  -­‐  the  Roman  orders  of  columns  are  used:  Tuscan,  Doric,   Ionic,  Corinthian  and  Composite   •  Arches  –  semi  circular   •  Vaults  –  do  not  have  ribs   •  Domes  -­‐  the  dome  is  used  frequently,  both  as  a  very  large  structural  feature  that  is   visible  from  the  exterior      
  18. 18. Characteristics Inspired  by  Roman  buildings,  orderly  arrangements  of  columns,  pilasters  and  lintels,  as  well  as   the  use  of  semicircular  arches  hemispherical  domes,  niches  and  aedicules  replaced  the  more   complex  proporQonal  systems  and  irregular  profiles  of  medieval  buildings.     Interior  courtyard  of  the  Palazzo  Farnese,   Rome,  by  Antonio  da  Sangallo  the  Younger   and  Michelangelo,  1517–89.   Palazzo  Massimo  Alle  Colonne   Rome,  1532-­‐36  
  19. 19. Characteristics Plans    -­‐  square,   symmetrical   appearance  in   which   proporQons  are   usually  based  on   a  module     Plan  of  Chateau  de  Chamborg,   France  1519-­‐1527   The  Basilica  di  Santa  Maria  del   Fiore  or  the   Florence  Cathedral  
  20. 20. Characteristics Facades  -­‐  symmetrical  around  their  verQcal  axis,  domesQc  buildings  are  oeen   surmounted  by  a  cornice.     Below:  Palladian  Villas    
  21. 21. Essential Elements CharacterisQcs  of  Elements:     •  Ceilings  -­‐  roofs  are  fiRed  with  flat  or  coffered  ceilings,  frequently  painted   or  decorated   •  Doors    -­‐  usually  have  square  lintels,  set  within  an  arch  or  surmounted  by  a   triangular  or  segmental  pediment,  in  the  Mannerist  period  the  “Palladian”   arch  was  employed   •  Walls  -­‐  external  walls  are  generally  of  highly  finished  ashlar  masonry,  laid   in  straight  courses,  the  corners  of  buildings  are  oeen  emphasised  by   rusQcated  quoins,  basements  and  ground  floors  were  oeen  rusQcated   •  Details  -­‐courses,  mouldings  and  all  decoraQve  details  are  carved  with  great   precision.  Studying  and  mastering  the  details  of  the  ancient  Romans  was   one  of  the  important  aspects  of  Renaissance  theory,  mouldings  stand  out   around  doors  and  windows  rather  than  being  recessed,  as  in  Gothic   Architecture,  sculptured  figures  may  be  set  in  niches  or  placed  on  plinths.    
  22. 22. Essential Elements Lee:   Sant'AgosQno,   Rome   Giacomo  di   Pietrasanta,   1483   Ceilings  -­‐  roofs  are  fiRed  with  flat   or  coffered  ceilings,  frequently   painted   Doors    -­‐  usually  have  square   lintels,  set  within  an  arch  or   surmounted  by  a  triangular   or  segmental  pediment,  in   the  Mannerist  period  the   “Palladian”  arch  was   employed  
  23. 23. Essential Elements Lee:  Palazzo   Medici-­‐Riccardi,   Michelozzo  di   Bartolomeo.       Right:     Quoining  on   the  corners   of  Palazzo   Aragona   Gonzaga,   Rome.   Walls  -­‐  external  walls  are  generally  of  highly   finished  ashlar  masonry,  laid  in  straight  courses,  the   corners  of  buildings  are  oeen  emphasised  by   rusQcated  quoins,  basements  and  ground  floors  were   oeen  rusQcated  
  24. 24. Floor & Wall Treatment RusQcaQon     A  popular  decoraQve   treatment  of  the   Renaissance  palazzo   was  rusPcaPon,  in  which   a  masonry  wall  is  textured   rather  than  smooth.       This  can  entail  leaving   grooves  in  the  joints   between  smooth  blocks,   using  roughly  dressed   blocks,  or  using  blocks   that  have  been   deliberately  textured.  The   rusQcaQon  of  a   Renaissance  palazzo  is   oeen  differenQated   between  stories.    
  25. 25. Floor & Wall Treatment Planked  or  parquet  hardwood,  marble  and  terracoRa  Qles  are  frequently  used  in  Italian   Renaissance  floors.  Area  rugs  add  cozy  comfort  to  wood,  marble  or  Qle  floors.  Wall-­‐to-­‐wall   carpet  is  seldom  seen  in  this  style  of  home.  Marble  counter  tops,  fireplace  mantels  and  columns   enhance  the  Italian  Renaissance  ambiance.  Scagliola  is  a  less  expensive  subsQtute  for  natural   marble.  VeneQan  plaster,  a  decoraQve  stucco,  adds  texture  to  walls.  
  26. 26. Details  -­‐courses,  mouldings  and  all   decoraQve  details  are  carved   with  great  precision.  Studying   and  mastering  the  details  of  the   ancient  Romans  was  one  of  the   important  aspects  of   Renaissance  theory,  mouldings   stand  out  around  doors  and   windows  rather  than  being   recessed,  as  in  Gothic   Architecture,  sculptured  figures   may  be  set  in  niches  or  placed   on  plinths.    
  27. 27. Color | Soft Furnishing & Accessories Artworks  in  tapestries,  frescoes  and  framed  painQngs  provide  much  of  the   color  in  Renaissance  interiors,  as  well  as  drapery  and  upholstery  texQles.   Walls  are  made  from  plaster,  and  not  given  to  hold  paint  as  seen  in   contemporary  Qmes.  The  interiors,  though,  are  colorful;  red,  blue  and   yellow  in  their  primary  shades  are  prominent  with  purple  and  green  used   throughout  in  darker  hues.  
  28. 28. £1 n. UUUUUUU nnnn UUUUULJUL nnnr nnr-innnnnn o UUUUUUU i-i -o- nn nn UUUUUU Q Q UU r. Ornaments n nn ^€S r hrnrnnrnnnnn uuuuuuuL O o GRILLE  FROM  THE   CARRAND  COLLECTION   IN  THE  MUSEUM   NATIONALE-­‐FLORENCE   ni-innr-inHE  1nnnnnnnn. WORK  OF  T 4TH   O UUULJUUUU uuu u uu CENTURY   o INLAY  ORNAMENT  FROM  CHOIR   STALLS  OF  CERTOSA  (15TH   CENTURY)   h n n o aU U r L ^^^,<^^^A^' INLAY  ORNAMENT   FROM  CHOIR  STALLS   OF  CERTOSA  (15TH   CENTURY)  
  29. 29. to Ornaments SHIELD  FROM  THE  DOORWAY   IN  PALAZZO  DUCALE  –   URBINO  WORK  OF  THE  15TH   CENTURY   PANEL  ORNAMENT  FROM   BALCONY  OF  PALAZZO   CANCELLERIA  –  ROME   WORK  OF  THE  15TH   CENTURY   MEDALLION  FROM  FAÇADE  OF   M^/cm/^^ CHURCH  OF  OR  S.  MICHELLE-­‐ ^^^;^^^^n^ofttfcr/.5Ts^^^^^^ FLORENCE  WORK  OF  LUCCA   DELLA  ROBBIA  –  15TH  CENTURY   OR S. MICHELE-FLORENCE
  30. 30. Ornaments INLAY  DESIGN  FROM   CHOIR  STALLS  COLLEGIO   DEL  CAMBIO  –  PERUGIA   WORK  OF  DOMENICO   AND  MARCO  DEL  TASSO   –  15TH  CENTURY   kl 57 "~IF < a D CQ LU ^- 2z SO u -J a< d zO =; u a: 2< ^^ q 08 q: U) 20 2^ O a^ z PIERCED   STONE  PANEL   FROM   BALCONY  OF   THE  PALAZZO   POLA  –   TREVISO   WORK  OF  THE   15TH  CENTURY   PANEL  ORNAMENTS   FROM  THE  GIANTS’   STAIRCASE  IN  THE   PALAZZO  DUCALE  –   VENICE  WORK  OF   ANTONI  DI  GIOVANNI   ROZZI  –  15TH  CENTURY  
  31. 31. Fabric | Textile Silk,  velvet,  linen  and  wool  are  used  for  bedding,  upholstery  and  drapery,  as  well  as  for  wall   hangings.  Drapery  is  ceiling  to  floor  in  length  and  oeen  in  a  damask  or  brocade.  Tapestries  play   an  important  role  in  interiors  not  only  as  visually  pleasing  works  of  art,  but  as  a  means  of  telling   stories,  such  as  hunts,  poliQcal  events  and  religious  parables.  The  heavy  tapestries  may  also   have  served  as  an  insulaQng  element  in  the  large,  airy  rooms  of  the  wealthy.  
  32. 32. Furniture •  ecclesiasQc  and  Roman  influence,  and  some  Gothic  Influence  was  sQll  present.   •  One  of  the  most  important  features:  massive  and  highly  decorated   •  The  most  common  woods  used  for  furniture:  walnut,  pine,  cypress,  chestnut,  elm   and  poplar       •  were  decorated  with  marquetry  and  inlays  of  ivory,  stones,  ebony,  and   grotesque  carvings   •  The  use  of  columns,  common  in  Greek  and  Roman  buildings  were  now  being  used  in   furniture  design.       Relief  ornament  using  carving  was  the  most  common  way  to  embellish  the  furniture  during  the   16th  century.    PasQglia  and  certosina  also  became  very  popular  in  this  period.  Aeer  the  15th   century,  turning  became  very  popular  and  had  a  highly  decoraQve  value  in  the  Italian   Renaissance  furniture.  Finials,  bedposts  and  some  furniture  legs  were  oeen  turned.     During  the  Renaissance,  the  chair,  once  a  symbol  of  status  and  power  underwent    a  process  of   democraQzaQon,  and  now  became  accessible  to  anyone.    
  33. 33. Furniture Sgabello  Chair   Dante  Chair   The  X-­‐chairs,  derived  from  the  Roman  curule  and  was  the  most  common  piece  of  furniture.    It   was  made  of  two  pairs  of  short  beans  intersecQng  at  a  central  joint  and  linked  to  a  stretcher.     These  chairs  were  known  as  the  savonarola  chairs.  Oeen  upholstered  in  velvet  or  leather,  light   weighted  and  portable.  Other  famous  seaQng  was  the  the  Sgabello  chair,  with  a  octagonal  seat   over  a  solid  trestle  support  and  a  tall  back.  
  34. 34. Furniture The  cassapanca,  was  a  combinaQon  of  chest   and  seats.  Solid,  massive  and  rectangular  this   piece  was  oeen  mounted  in  a  dais.  The  hinged   lid  served  as  the  seats.             The  most  important  piece  used  for  storage   during  the  Italian  Renaissance  was  the   cassone.  It  was  also  know  as  the  marriage   chest.    The  side  panels  were  usually  covered   with  colored  or  gilded  gesso  built  into  reliefs,   classical  figures  and  scenes.  It  was  also   common  to  be  painted  by  a  fine  arQst  or   carved.    
  35. 35. Furniture The  credenza,  a  rectangular  movable  storage   also  became  an  important  piece  of  furniture.  It   oeen  had  a  oblong  top  over  a  frieze,  and  two   or  three  drawers,  over  two  or  three  doors.     An  famous  item  found  inside  most  of  Italian   houses  was  the  long,  rectangular  table.   Massive  and  highly  decorated,  with  a  long   stretcher  between  the  end  supports.    They  also   has  center  tables,  with  round,  hexagonal  or   octagonal  tops.    The  bases  were  usually   columnar,  baluster  or  pedestal.  They  were   used  in  the  center  of  the  room,  or  in  occasional   events.  
  36. 36. Furniture The  bed,  also  known  as  leRo,  was  in  a   rectangular  form  with  paneled  head  and   footboards.    They  used  texQle  treatments  in   their  beds  to  protect  people  against  insects   and  cold  weather.     The  Italian  Renaissance  furniture  were   decorated  with  care,  they  paid  extreme   aRenQon  to  details.    ProporQon  was  perfect   and  the  classical  purity  was  clearly  reflected  in   the  details.    
  37. 37. The  Architects  of  the  Renaissance   •  Filippo  Brunelleschi  (1377  –1446)     •  Michelozzo  di  Bartolomeo   (1396-­‐1472)     •  Leon  Babsta  AlberQ(  1404-­‐1472)       •  Donato  Bramante  (1444  –1514)   •  Michelangelo  Buonarob  (1475  –   1564)  
  38. 38. Filippo Brunelleschi   Filippo  Brunelleschi  (1377  1446)  was  one  of  the   foremost  architects  and  engineers  of  the  Italian   Renaissance.  He  is  perhaps  most  famous  for  his   discovery  of  perspecQve  and  for  engineering  the  dome   of  the  Florence  Cathedral,  but  his  accomplishments  also   include  other  architectural  works,  sculpture,   mathemaQcs,  engineering  and  even  ship  design.  His   principal  surviving  works  are  to  be  found   in  Florence,  Italy.  
  39. 39. Filippo Brunelleschi The Florence Cathedral dome (1436) by Filippo Brunelleschi   •  Brunelleschi  drew  upon  his  knowledge   of  ancient  Roman  construcQon  as  well   as  lingering  Gothic  tradiQons  to   produce  an  innovaQve  synthesis.     •  Employed  the  Gothic  pointed  arch   cross  secQon  instead  of  a  semi  circular   one   To  reduce  dead  load,  he  created  a   double  shell  as  was  done  in  the   Pantheon   Employed  24  verQcal  ribs  and  5   horizontal  rings  of  sandstone,  as   observed  in  the  ruins  of  Roman   construcQon   The  cupola  on  top  was  a  temple  of   masonry  acQng  as  a  weight  on  top  of   the  dome.   Designed  special  machines  for   construcQon.   •  •  •  • 
  40. 40. Filippo Brunelleschi The  Foundling  Hospital   is  oeen  considered    as   the  first  building  of  the   Renaissance.   The Foundling Hospital, 1421-1444 by Filippo Brunelleschi • Featured  a  conQnuous  arcade   • At  the  hospital  the  arcading  is  three  dimensional,  creaQng  a  loggia  with   domed  vaults  in  each  bay.   • Use  of  Corinthian  columns  across  its  main  facade  and  around  an  internal   courtyard.   • The  design  was  based  in  Roman  architecture.  
  41. 41. Filippo Brunelleschi LeQ:     Pazzi  Chapel,  1460   The  facade  was  inspired  by   the  Roman  triumphal  arch.   Right:     San  Lorenzo,  Florence,   (1430-­‐33)       This  church  is  seen  as  one   of  the  milestones  of   Renaissance  architecture,   with  pietra  serena  or  dark   stone  arPculaPon.    
  42. 42. Filippo Brunelleschi The  Basilica  of   Santa  Maria  del   Santo  Spirito     ("St.  Mary  of  the   Holy  Spirit"),  1481   San  Spirito,  begun  1445.  The  plan  played  on   the  configuraQons  of  the  square.  The   current  church  was  constructed  over  the   pre-­‐exisQng  ruins  of   an  AugusQnian  priory  from  the  13th   century,  destroyed  by  a  fire.      
  43. 43. Michelozzo  di   Bartolomeo   (1396-­‐1472)   Italian  architect  and     sculptor.  
  44. 44. Michelozzo di Bartolomeo The  Palazzo  Medici,  Florence  1444   The  Palazzo  Medici  is  a  Renaissance  palace  located   in  Florence.     •  Bartolomeo  was  a  student  of  Brunelleschi.   •  The  Palazzo  was  influenced  by  the  Foundling   Hospital.   •  Used  the  arcaded  courtyard  of  the  hospital.   • RusQcaQon-­‐  stone  blocks  with  deeply  recessed   chamfered  joints   • Had  three  Qers  of  graduated  textures,  beginning   with  rock-­‐faced  stone  at  the  street  level  and   concluding  with  smooth  ashlar  at  the  third  level   below  a  10-­‐e  high  cornice  with  modillions,  egg   and  dart  moldings  and  a  denQl  course.   • It  was  the  first  such  cornice  since  ancient  Qmes.   • The  building  reflected  Renaissance  ideals  of   symmetry,    the  use  of  classical  elements  and   careful  use  of  mathemaQcal  proporQons.    
  45. 45. Leon  Babsta   AlberQ   (1404-­‐1472)     AlberP  was  an  Italian  author,   arQst,  architect,  poet,  priest,  linguist,     philosopher,  cryptographer  and   general  Renaissance   humanist  polymath.    
  46. 46. Leon Battista Alberti The  Palazzo  Rucellai  (1446-­‐1451)  was  the  first  building  to  use   the  classical  orders  on  a  Renaissance  domesQc  building.    
  47. 47. Leon Battista Alberti San  Maria   Novella  was   the  first   completed   design  for  a   church  facade   in  the   Renaissance.   AlberQ  linked   the  lower  aisle   roof  to  the   pedimented   higher  nave   with  flanking   scrolls.   Leon  Babsta  AlberQ  (1404-­‐1472)  
  48. 48. Leon Battista Alberti Basilica  of  Sant'Andrea,  (1472-­‐94)     The  Basilica  of  Sant'Andrea  is     in  Mantua,  Lombardy,      Italy.  It  is  one  of  the  major  works  of   15th  century  Renaissance   architecture  in  Northern  Italy.   Commissioned  by  Ludovico  II  Gonzaga,   the  church  was  begun  in  1462   according  to  designs  by  Leon  Babsta   AlberQ  on  a  site  occupied  by   a  BenedicQne  monastery,  of  which  the   bell  tower  (1414)  remains.  The   building,  however,  was  finished  only   328  years  later.       The  facade  of  S.  Andrea,  Mantua,   (1472-­‐94)  is  a  synthesis  of  the   triumphal  arch  and  the  temple.  
  49. 49. Interior,  S.  Andrea,  Mantua   Leon Battista Alberti The   assemblage  of   classical   elements  on   the  interior   presents  the   first   Renaissance   vision  rivalling   the   monumentalit y  of  the   interior  spaces   of  such  ancient   Roman  ruins  as   the  basilicas  or   baths.  
  50. 50. Donato  Bramante   (1444  –1514)     was  an  Italian  architect,  who  introduced  Renaissance  architecture  to   Milan  and  the  High  Renaissance  style  to  Rome,  where  his  plan  for  St.   Peter's  Basilica  formed  the  basis  of  the  design  executed   by  Michelangelo.     His  TempieRo  (San  Pietro  in  Montorio)  marked  the  beginning  of  the   High  Renaissance  in  Rome  (1502)  when  Alexander  VI  appointed  him   to  build  a  sanctuary  that  allegedly  marked  the  spot  where  Peter  was   crucified.  
  51. 51. Donato Bramante San  Maria  presso  San  SaQro  (1482-­‐92),   For  the  church  of  San  Maria  presso  San  SaQro   (1482-­‐92),  a  street  prevented  Bramante  from  adding   a  convenQonal  choir.  He  created  a  low  relief  that   when  viewed  on  axis,  has  the  convincing   appearance  of  a  barrel  vaulted  choir.  Using  the   illusionisQc  potenQal  of  linear  perspecQve  ,  he   created  what  must  be  the  ulQmate  use  of  this   device  in  15th  c  architecture.  
  52. 52. Donato Bramante The  TempieRo,  Rome  (begun  1502)   •  •  •  •  •  Built  for  King  Ferdinand  and  Queen  Isabella   of  Spain   The  erecQon  of  a  monument  atop  the  spot   where  St  Peter  was  believed  to  have  been   martyred.   Bramante  designed  his  building  to  embody   both  the  Platonic  preference  for  ideal  form   and  ChrisQan  reverence  for  tradiQon,  in  this   case  reverence  for  the  circular  martyrium  of   the  early  church.   The  building  is  a  2-­‐story  cylinder  capped  by  a   hemispherical  dome  and  surrounded  by  a   one-­‐story  Doric  colonnade  with  entablature   and  balustrade.   The  metope  panels  of  the  frieze  displays   symbols  connecQng  the  current  authority  of   the  Pope  to  the  grandeur  of  anQquity.  
  53. 53. Donato Bramante St.  Peter’s  Basilica,  Rome,  (1505)   Bramante’s  scheme  represented  a  building  on  the  scale  of  the  Baths  of  DiocleQan  capped  by  a  dome   comparable  to  that  of  the  Pantheon.  Started  in  April  1506.  By  the  Qme  the  church  was  completed  in  nearly   150  years  later,  almost  every  major  architect  of  the  16th  and  17th  c  had  been  engaged.  
  54. 54. Michelangelo   Buonarob   (1475  –  1564)   Michelangelo  di  Lodovico  BuonarroP  Simoni  commonly  known   as  Michelangelo  was  an  Italian  Renaissance  sculptor,  painter,   architect,  poet,  and  engineer  who  exerted  an  unparalleled   influence  on  the  development  ofWestern  art.  Despite  making  few   forays  beyond  the  arts,  his  versaQlity  in  the  disciplines  he  took  up   was  of  such  a  high  order  that  he  is  oeen  considered  a  contender   for  the  Qtle  of  the  archetypal  Renaissance  man,  along  with  fellow   Italian  Leonardo  da  Vinci.  
  55. 55. The  Palazzo  Farnese   The  Palazzo  Farnese  facade  has  a  cornice  and  central  window  with  coat  of  arms  at  the  piano  nobile  level.  Unlike   the  FlorenQne  interpretaQon  of  the  type,  this  palazzo  has  rusQcaQon  only  in  the  form  of  quoins  and  at  the  entry   has  classically  inspired  window  surrounds.  
  56. 56. The  Medici  Chapels  are  two  structures  at  the  Basilica  of  San  Lorenzo,  Florence,  Italy,  daQng  from  the  16th   and  17th  centuries,  and  built  as  extensions  to  Brunelleschi's  15th  century  church,  with  the  purpose  of   celebraQng  the  Medici  family,  patrons  of  the  church  and  Grand  Dukes  of  Tuscany.  The  Sagres,a  Nuova,   ("New  Sacristy"),  was  designed  by  Michelangelo.     Material:  white  stucco  walls  with  gray  pietra  marble.    
  57. 57. St.  Peter’s  Basilica  by  Michelangelo,  Donato   Bramante,  Giacomo  della  Porta  and  Carlo  Maderno.     Michelangelo’s  dome  for  St  Peter’s  basilica  has  a  hemispherical  form.  Della  Porta,  who   constructed  the  dome  aeer  Michelangelo’s  death,  employed  a  taller  profile  in  order  to   decrease  the  lateral  thrust  and  use  the  lantern  cupola  to  force  the  weight  of  the  dome   towards  the  drum.  
  58. 58. Papal  Basilica  of  Saint  Peter     has  the  largest  interior  of  any  ChrisQan  church  in  the  world    
  59. 59. Sources   •  hRp://derosadesign.blogspot.com/2012/03/ furniture-­‐in-­‐history-­‐italian.html   •  hRp://www.ehow.com/info_8230886_italian-­‐ renaissance-­‐interior-­‐ design.html#ixzz2shuSjvWc   •  hRp://www.ehow.com/ info_8461371_construcQon-­‐used-­‐italian-­‐ renaissance-­‐homes.html    

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