individual differences in attitudes to new technologies and practices (e.g. Theory of Planned Behavior)
the flow of innovations through social networks (e.g. Diffusion of Innovations Theory)
reciprocal interactions between people and artifacts (e.g. Actor Network Theory)
NPT offers an explanation of the work of implementation, embedding, and integration – focusing on the agentic contribution of individuals and groups.
NPT explains phenomena not well covered by existing theories.
definition of normalization: the routine embedding of a classification, artefact, technique or organizational practice in everyday life
research question: how can those factors that promote or inhibit normalization be identified, conceptualized, and evaluated?
normalization process theory: aim
to explain how practices are routinely embedded in their organizational and professional contexts
to explain the routine embedding of practices by reference to the role of four generative mechanisms (coherence; cognitive participation; collective action; reflexive monitoring).
to explain how the work, (individually and collective), of implementing practices requires continuous investment by participants in ensembles of action that carry forward in time and space.
normalization process theory: general propositions
to understand the embedding of a practice we must look at what people actually do and how they work .
practices become routinely embedded in social contexts as the result of people working, individually and collectively, to implement them.
the work of implementation is operationalized through four generative mechanisms (coherence; cognitive participation; collective action; reflexive monitoring).
the production and reproduction of a practice requires continuous investment by agents in ensembles of action that carry forward in time and space.
the structure of NPT/ defining constructs and constraints
NPT assumes four constructs representing generative mechanisms driven by investments of human agency. These are the means by which social goals are achieved and, in turn, are foci of contests and conflicts
NPT assumes that individual and collective contributions are interdependent
NPT mechanisms are constrained (and released) by the operation of norms (notions of how beliefs, behaviours, and actions should be accomplished); and conventions (how beliefs, behaviours, and actions are practically accomplished)
four constructs of NPT reflexive Monitoring : defines and organizes assessment of the outcomes of a practice cognitive Participation : defines and organizes the people implicated in a complex intervention collective Action : defines and organizes the enacting of a practice coherence : defines and organizes the components of a practice
phenomena represented by NPT constructs appear simultaneously in relation to each other, not sequentially
all NPT constructs are not necessary to explain all phenomena
phenomena represented by NPT constructs are constrained by norms and convention
the structure of NPT/ defining processes
‘ process’ refers to patterns of organized, dynamic, and contingent interaction between:
agents (the individuals or groups that interact in encounters around a practice);
o bjects (the classifications, artifacts, practices and procedures employed by agents) ; and
contexts (the technical and organizational structures in which agents and objects are implicated).
NPT does not assume …
a normative expectation that a practice ought to be implemented and voluntarism on the part of agents
that a practice (or any of its components) is superior in performance to its alternatives or competitors
that normalization is a necessary or automatic outcome of an implementation-embedding-integration process
That normalization is a permanent state of affairs
the structure of NPT/ constructs, components, and constraints CONSTRUCT A CONSTRUCT B CONSTRUCT C CONSTRUCT D IMMEDIATE COMPONENTS C 3 & C 4 ORGANIZING COMPONENTS C 1 & C 2 CONSTRAINT: STRUCTURES & NORMS CONSTRAINT: PROCESSES & CONVENTIONS
coherence: defines and organizes the components of a practice
what is the work? Differentiation, communal and individual specification, and internalization
differentiation defines a practice and organizes its relationships with other practices and contexts;
communal specification or co-ordination forms and organizes shared beliefs and knowledge about the purpose of the practice
individual specification forms and organizes personal beliefs and knowledge about the demands of the practice
internalization defines the value of the practice to its users.