Civics EOC Review: Economics
Goals 7-10
FACTOR OF
PRODUCTI
ON
Capital

DEFINITION
Previously manufactured goods to
make other goods and services

EXAMPLES
Money

...
•What is the difference between a want and a
need?
Want- things that we would like to have such as
entertainment, vacation...
Objective 7.02: Scarcity and Choices
•Define scarcity: not having enough resources to produce all or the things
we would l...
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Objective 7.03: Trade-offs and Opportunity Costs
Define trade-off: the alternative you face if you ...
• Objective 7.04: Specialization, Division of Labor,
Consumption
• Define specialization: when people, businesses, regions...
•
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Objective 7.05: Impact of Investment on Human Capital, Production,
Natural Resources
Define and giv...
ECONOMIC
SYSTEM

CHARACTERISTICS

TRADITIONA An economic system where what is produced is based solely on
L
the needs of t...
• GOAL 8: Features of the United States Economic
System
• Objective 8.02: Free Market Enterprise, Private
Ownership, and I...
MARKET

WHAT HAPPENS IN THE
MARKET

Product
Market

Markets where producers offers
goods and services for sale.

Factor
Ma...
• Objective 8.04: Supply, Demand, and Prices
• How are supply, demand, and prices related? They all
affect each other.
• L...
TERM

Surplus

DEFINITION

Too much product

Shortage Not enough products to
meet demand. Price set
below equilibrium pric...
• When supply and demand are equal, we have
an _Equilibrium_ price.
• What is a price ceiling? The maximum price a
consume...
• Objective 8.06: Competition, Price, Supply
• Why is competition important in our economy? It helps
to keep prices down.
...
TYPE OF
DEFINITION
BUSINES
S
Sole
A business
Proprietors owned and
hip
operated by a
single person

ADVANTAGES
Pride in ow...
Fiscal
policy

Changes in government spending or tax policies

Monetary
policy

The government itself can go very little t...
• Objective 8.09: Role of Money
• List 3 reasons why money is important in our
economic system.
• Serves as a form of exch...
Business
cycle
Recession
Trough
Expansion
Peak
Unemployme
nt rate
Inflation
Consumer
price index
Gross
Domestic
Product
(G...
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Objective 9.03: Impact of Movement of Human Capital and Resources in Economy:
 
Servi...
• Objective 9.06: Domestic and International Trade
Interdependency
• What happens when there are changes in the 
economy o...
FACTOR

HOW ECONOMY AFFECTED

Natural
disasters

Natural disasters can put a burden on the economy.

Economic
development
...
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GOAL 10: POSITIONS ON ISSUES IN CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY
Goal 10.1: Per...
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Economics review

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Economics review

  1. 1. Civics EOC Review: Economics Goals 7-10
  2. 2. FACTOR OF PRODUCTI ON Capital DEFINITION Previously manufactured goods to make other goods and services EXAMPLES Money Someone who risks time, money and Google Entrepreneur has idea to start business ship Labor Land/ Natural Resources Human effort direct toward producing and services People’s Work Renewable resources-Resources Crops, natural stuff that can be replaced. Oil, Diamonds, Non-renewable resourcesGold, silver, bronze Resources that can be used only once.
  3. 3. •What is the difference between a want and a need? Want- things that we would like to have such as entertainment, vacations, and other items. Need- required for survival, such as food, clothing and shelter. •How do businesses use their factors of production? In the way that they will be the most productivemake them the most profit
  4. 4. Objective 7.02: Scarcity and Choices •Define scarcity: not having enough resources to produce all or the things we would like to have. •Why does scarcity exist? Because no country has all the resources it needs. •Because of scarcity, producers must make choices among alternatives. •What happens to production costs and prices if resources are scarce or expensive? They rise •Define consumer: someone who buys a good or service •Name two ways that consumers are affected by scarcity: They ask whether or not they can afford it. Or if they want the generic brand.
  5. 5. • • • • • • • • • • • Objective 7.03: Trade-offs and Opportunity Costs Define trade-off: the alternative you face if you decide to do one thing rather than another. Define opportunity cost: the cost of the next best alternative, use of time and money when choosing to do one thing rather than another. What will consumers do when making decisions? Whether or not to buy an item. Purchase at least to scarce resources (income + time) and opportunity cost. Fixed costs- costs or expenses that are the same no matter how many units of a good are produced Variable costs- expenses that change with the number of items produced 6. Total costs- added fixed costs to variable costs Marginal costs- additional cots of producing one addition unit of output Marginal revenue- is the change in total revenue- the extra revenue that results from selling one more unit of output. Marginal benefit- the additional satisfaction or benefit received when 1 more unit is produced.
  6. 6. • Objective 7.04: Specialization, Division of Labor, Consumption • Define specialization: when people, businesses, regions and or nations concentrate on goods and services that they can produce better than anyone else • Define division of labor: the breaking down of a job into separate, smaller tasks to be preformed individually. • ADVANATAGES Both improve productivity • DISADVANTAGES Both depends on other people to produce
  7. 7. • • • • • • • • • • • Objective 7.05: Impact of Investment on Human Capital, Production, Natural Resources Define and give examples of capital goods: Machines, buildings, money, and tools needed to build things. Define human capital: the sum of people’s skills, abilities and motivation. Why are businesses willing to invest time and money into the education of human capital? Because of productivity What will happen as more employees are added to a business? This is called the Expansion. Objective 7.06: Different Economic Systems What is the major difference between market economies and command economies? In a command economy the government controls the economy. While in a Market economy the government plays no role in the market. Most economies in the world today are __Market__.
  8. 8. ECONOMIC SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS TRADITIONA An economic system where what is produced is based solely on L the needs of the small community. COMMAND An economic system in which the government controls all ECONOMIES aspects of the production and consumption. MARKET An economic system in which the government plays no role, ECONOMY and what is produced is based solely on what is in demand. aka Capitalism Adam Smith wrote “The Wealth of Nations” MIXED An economic system which the government is deeply involved ECONOMIES in economic decisions through its role of regulator, consumer, subsidizer, taxer, employer, and borrower.
  9. 9. • GOAL 8: Features of the United States Economic System • Objective 8.02: Free Market Enterprise, Private Ownership, and Individual Initiative • How does the 5th amendment protect property ownership? • Patents &copyrights• Copyright- the exclusive right to control, publish, and sell an original work. Patent- a license issued to an inventor • granting the exclusive right to manufactor
  10. 10. MARKET WHAT HAPPENS IN THE MARKET Product Market Markets where producers offers goods and services for sale. Factor Market The Markets where productive resources are bought and sold.
  11. 11. • Objective 8.04: Supply, Demand, and Prices • How are supply, demand, and prices related? They all affect each other. • List the factors that effect demand. • Ability to make a product • Do people want the product? • Supply • List the factors that effect supply. • Ability of enough of a product to make it to marketdemand • How do substitutes and complements affect supply and demand? They can help or hurt supply and demand.
  12. 12. TERM Surplus DEFINITION Too much product Shortage Not enough products to meet demand. Price set below equilibrium price WHAT HAPPENS TO PRICES They fall They increase
  13. 13. • When supply and demand are equal, we have an _Equilibrium_ price. • What is a price ceiling? The maximum price a consumer will pay for a product • What is a price floor? The lowest a product can be sold and make a product. • What effect does inflation have on prices? It causes prices to rise • What effect does deflation have on prices? It causes prices to drop.
  14. 14. • Objective 8.06: Competition, Price, Supply • Why is competition important in our economy? It helps to keep prices down. • • How do consumers benefit from competition in markets? Competition helps to bring good products and good prices for those products • • Define monopoly: When the market creates a sole provider for a good or service. • • How does a monopoly hurt the consumer? It means there is no competition. They are required to pay whatever the seller asks for the product.
  15. 15. TYPE OF DEFINITION BUSINES S Sole A business Proprietors owned and hip operated by a single person ADVANTAGES Pride in owning the business, receives all the profits DISADVANTAG ES Unlimited liability or complete legal responsibility for all debts and damages Partnershi A business Pride of sharing The legal ps owned by two or ownership in a structure is more people business complex Corporatio Type of business The ease of Expensive and ns organization and raising financial complex to set by many people capital up but treated by law as if it is owned by one person
  16. 16. Fiscal policy Changes in government spending or tax policies Monetary policy The government itself can go very little to prevent inflation results from monetary policy decisions Banking system By providing loans to businesses and consumers to make purchases to stimulate the economy Types of Insurance IGNORE THIS QUESTION.
  17. 17. • Objective 8.09: Role of Money • List 3 reasons why money is important in our economic system. • Serves as a form of exchange- trade money for goods and services • Money serves as a store of value. • Money serves as a measure of value
  18. 18. Business cycle Recession Trough Expansion Peak Unemployme nt rate Inflation Consumer price index Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Real GDP Alternating period of growth & decline that the economy goes through Time of low economic activity & high unemployment Lowest point of a business cycle Takes place when the GDP goes up Highest point of a business cycle The percentage of people in the civilian labor force who are not working but are looking for jobs A continuing increase in the average level of prices of goods and services over time Measure of change in price over time of a specific group of goods and services Total value of all goods and services produced in a county during a given year GDP after adjustment for inflation 2. What happens to prices and jobs… During a Recession? Expansion? They go away! back! During They come
  19. 19. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Objective 9.03: Impact of Movement of Human Capital and Resources in Economy:   Service Industry = fasting growing industry in US   Migration = movement for job or movement of industry (usually to the south or “sun belt” from  the  north or “Rust belt”) Objective 9.04: Impact of Current Events Define specialization and explain how it makes the country interdependent. When people, businesses, regions and or nations concentrate on goods and services that they can produce better than anyone else It forces countries to rely on each other to obtain goods.   How do technological advances impact consumers? They create products that the people want.   How does a war affect consumers and producers? War requires a lot of resources and helps producers. But it can take away goods from consumers (aka rationing) to use for a war effort.     How has downsizing affected NC consumers and producers? Jobs are leaving North Carolina and going overseas.  
  20. 20. • Objective 9.06: Domestic and International Trade Interdependency • What happens when there are changes in the  economy of one nation? One country will likely export more goods and the other country’s amount of exports will decline •   •   • Objective 9.07: Effects of Fiscal and Monetary Policy • What role does the Federal Reserve System play in  regulating the money supply? • Fiscal Policy which is changes in government spending or tax policy
  21. 21. FACTOR HOW ECONOMY AFFECTED Natural disasters Natural disasters can put a burden on the economy. Economic development Every country has its own economic system or way of producing the thing people want and need Decisions of government leaders The Government has the ability to change the interest rates which affects the ability for banks to loan money. Government leaders have the ability to change the amount of taxes that are collected
  22. 22. • • •   • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • GOAL 10: POSITIONS ON ISSUES IN CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY Goal 10.1: Personal and Civic Responsibilities Give examples of civic responsibilities. Voting, keeping up with the news, volunteering, Give examples of civic duties: Obey the law, pay taxes, males must register for selective service. Jury Duty    Goal 10.2: Issues of Diversity One of the major obligations of American citizens is to respect Other People Goal 10.3: Importance of Education Why is public education important? Because it provides knowledge and experience that can turned into a profession.   Goal 10.4: Characteristics of Effective Citizenship Goal 10.5: Recurring Public Problems and Issues 1.  How does our effort to reduce crime create a problem for society?   Give examples.   It means more people are in jail, which costs more money.   Goal 10.6: Consequences / Benefits of Economic, Legal, and Political Changes Why is it a problem to balance freedoms and the need to protect American citizens?   Because it is very easy to take away citizens freedoms.

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