Birth and Pre-War Life• Anne Frank was born on June 12, 1929 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany as the second daughter of Otto Frank and Edith Hollander Frank.• Anne spent the first few years of her life in a mixed neighborhood of Christian and Jewish children, and spent many afternoons playing with her older sister, Margot.• Anne had a very good relationship with her sister, although their personalities were polar opposites. Anne was very outgoing, energetic and extraverted, while Margot was quiet, dedicated to her studies and introverted.
The Trouble Begins…• In March 1933, Hitler’s Nazi party was elected, anti- Semitic measures were put into effect.• Edith, Margot, and Anne moved to Aachen, Germany to stay with their grandmother until Otto Frank secured a new job and an apartment in Amsterdam.• Otto was joined by the rest of his family in February 1934. Anne began school and attended a Montessori school where she enjoyed reading and writing.
• The next few years in the Netherlands were relatively quiet, but the Franks kept hearing stories from friends in Germany about the deteriorating conditions for the Jewish population.•Otto Frank established a second company inJune 1938 with Herman Van Pels, whose familywould join the Franks in their hiding place.•The Van Pels had also fled Germany in 1938because of the escalating anti-Semitism.
• The escalating anti-Semitism also became evident in the Netherlands, and in May 1940, the Germans invaded the Netherlands, and immediately began to impose restrictions on the Jewish population.• The restrictions included the registration of all Jews, segregation into Jewish schools, and the requirement that Jews wear a yellow star to distinguish them from other citizens. •The star, which represented the star of David, was outlined in thick, black lines and the word Jew was printed in mock- Hebraic type. •The star was intended to humiliate Jews and to mark them out for segregation and discrimination. •The policy also made it easier to identify Jews for deportation to camps.
• In 1941, Anne started to attend the Jewish Lyceum, and had to leave many of her friends behind, and was discouraged to talk to them.• The discriminatory laws continued to get worse over the course of the next year.•Anne experienced a brief period of happinesswhen she turned 13 on June 12, 1942.•Anne received a red, blue, and white plaidautograph book from her father, which she decidedto use as a diary.
The Annexe• In July 1942, Margot received a notice to report for transportation to a Jewish work camp.• Otto Frank then informed Anne of their plan to hide in the rooms behind Otto’s office at 263 Prinsengracht. •This plan had to be moved up a few weeks so that Margot would not be forced to go to the camp. •The Franks moved into the Secret Annexe on the morning of July 6, 1942.
• 13 July 1942, the Franks were joined by the van Pels family: Hermann, Auguste, and 16-year-old Peter, and in November by Fritz Pfeffer, a dentist and friend of the family.• After sharing her room with Pfeffer, she found him to be insufferable and resented his intrusion, and she clashed with Auguste, whom she regarded as foolish.• She saw Hermann van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer as selfish, particularly in regard to the amount of food they consumed. •Some time later, after first dismissing the shy and awkward Peter van Pels, she recognised a kinship with him and the two entered a romance. •She received her first kiss from him, but her infatuation with him began to wane as she questioned whether her feelings for him were genuine, or resulted from their shared confinement.
The Arrest• On the morning of 4 August 1944, the Achterhuis was stormed by the German Security Police following a tip- off from an informer who was never identified.• The Franks, van Pelses and Pfeffer were taken to the •Two days later they were Gestapo headquarters where transported to Westerbork,a they were interrogated and held overnight. transit camp.• On 5 August, they were •By this time more than transferred to the Huis van 100,000 Jews had passed Bewaring, an overcrowded through it. prison. •They were considered criminals and were sent to the Punishment Barracks for hard labor.
• Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman were arrested and jailed at the penal camp for enemies of the regime.• Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl were questioned and threatened by the Security Police but were not detained.• They returned to the Achterhuis the following day, and found Annes papers strewn on the floor. •They collected them, as well as several family photograph albums, and Gies resolved to return them to Anne after the war. •On 7 August 1944, Gies attempted to facilitate the release of the prisoners by confronting Silberbauer and offering him money to intervene, but he refused.
eportation and death• On Sept. 3 the group was deported on what would be the last transport from Westerbork to the Auschwitz concentration camp• In the chaos of the unloading of the trains, the men were separated from the women and children, and Otto Frank was wrenched from his family.• Of the 1,019 passengers, 549—including all children younger than fifteen—were sent directly to the gas chambers.• Anne, at 15, was one of the youngest people to be spared from her transport.• She was soon made aware that most people were gassed upon arrival, and never learned that the entire group from the Achterhuis had survived this selection.• She reasoned that her father, in his mid-fifties and not particularly robust, had been killed immediately after they were separated.
• By day, the women were used as slave labor and Anne was forced to haul rocks and dig rolls of sod; by night, they were crammed into overcrowded barracks.• Witnesses later testified Anne became withdrawn and tearful when she saw children being led to the gas chambers, though other witnesses reported more often she displayed strength and courage•Before long, Annes skin became badly infected by scabies.She and Margot were moved into an infirmary, which was in astate of constant darkness, and infested with rats and mice.•Edith Frank stopped eating, saving every morsel of food forher daughters and passing her rations to them, through a holeshe made at the bottom of the infirmary wall.
• On 28 October, selections began for women to be relocated to Bergen-Belsen.• More than 8,000 women, including Anne and Margot Frank and Auguste van Pels, were transported, but Edith Frank was left behind and died from starvation. •As the population rose, the death toll due to disease increased. Anne was briefly reunited with two friends, Hanneli Goslar and Nanette Blitz, who were also confined in the camp. •Goslar and Blitz both survived the war and later discussed their conversations with Anne. Blitz described her as bald, emaciated and shivering and Goslar noted Auguste van Pels was with Anne and Margot Frank, and was caring for Margot, who was severely ill. •Anne told both Blitz and Goslar she believed her parents were dead, and for that reason did not wish to live any longer.
• In March 1945, a typhus epidemic spread through the camp and killed approximately 17,000 prisoners.• Witnesses later testified Margot fell from her bunk in her weakened state and was killed by the shock, and a few days later Anne died. This occurred weeks before the camp was liberated by British troops on 15 April 1945.• After liberation, the camp was burned in an effort to prevent further spread of disease, and Anne and Margot were buried in a mass grave, the exact whereabouts of which is unknown. •After the war, it was estimated of the 107,000 Jews deported from the Netherlands between 1942 and 1944, only 5,000 survived. •Otto Frank survived Auschwitz and returned to Amsterdam where he was sheltered by Jan and Miep Gies. He remained hopeful that his daughters had survived. After several weeks, he discovered Margot and Anne had also died.