• As a part of the federal-wide Hiring Reform Initiative
(streamlining the hiring process), 89% of federal
agencies have committed to the elimination of the
requirement of narratives, or Knowledge, Skills, and
Abilities (KSAs), from the initial application in the
hiring process. Therefore, as an applicant for this
announcement, you are most likely NOT required to
provide a narrative response for each KSA.
Have KSAs Been
• Yes and No. Some federal agencies continue to
write their federal vacancy announcements that
require KSA assessments. These KSA assessments
can be found on the federal online application
system such as USAJOBS or AVUE. There may be
specific character limits per KSA assessment. It is
very important that you read the entire federal
vacancy announcement to determine if KSA
assessments are indeed required to be
incorporated within the federal resume itself, and/or
separately on the online application system.
What Are KSAs?
• When you apply for a federal government
position, some federal job announcements require
additional statements. These statements are known
as KSAs: Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities. They also
may be called Selective Factors, Key Elements, TQs
(Technical Qualifications), or KSAOs
(Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other
Characteristics). If they are requested, they are
What Do KSAs Require?
• For many announcements, these questions are separate
3/4- to 1-page answers to questions related to the job for
which you are applying. Other announcements may
specify other lengths, or may ask to include answers to
the KSAs in your federal resume. Some announcements
require you to cut and paste your KSA answers in an
online application. Since 89% of most federal agencies
eliminated KSAs, you may see the statement “KSAs are
optional.” If you have the option, include the
KSAs, because you will receive a much higher rating on
your federal application. We highly recommend that
you READ each vacancy announcement carefully for
the specific requirements. We can help you to read and
interpret these announcements to determine what is
How Do You Answer
• KSAs can be difficult questions to answer. Each KSA
will be graded from 5 to 20 points per answer, and
are critical in your being ranked as “Qualified” or
“Best Qualified.” We offer our expertise in writing
these statements, highlighting your experience to
ensure maximum KSA ranking.
How Are KSAs Priced?
• We price our KSAs based on the amount of time it
will take us to write them for you. We write the KSAs
so they can be reused for other positions that ask
similar questions, saving you money as you apply for
additional federal positions.
What Do We
• We recommend that you hire us to write both your
KSAs and federal resume. By doing this, you will
submit a complete package that represents you at
your best, with the federal resume including all
pertinent information in the KSAs. However, if you
think your federal resume is already a polished
document, we are happy just to write your KSAs for
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