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Experience Mazda Zoom Zoom Lifestyle and Culture by Visiting and joining the Official Mazda Community at http://www.MazdaCommunity.org for additional insight into the Zoom Zoom Lifestyle and......

Experience Mazda Zoom Zoom Lifestyle and Culture by Visiting and joining the Official Mazda Community at http://www.MazdaCommunity.org for additional insight into the Zoom Zoom Lifestyle and special offers for Mazda Community Members.

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  • Chapter 2 Title: Alternative Vehicle ConceptsLevel: Basic, intermediate Requisites: none Overall aim The chapter gives an overview of working-principles and concepts of alterative drives and presents exemplary cars. The focus is on fuel cell vehicles. Content Introduction: European and US emission-laws Internal combustion engines (ICE) Diesel- and gasoline engine Rotary-Engine (Wankel engine) 3. Hybrid-Drives Mild-Hybrids Full-Hybrids Plug-In Hybrids 4. Electrical Drives Batteries Fuel Cells Fuel Cell Vehicles Types and car-concepts Components Efficiency Learning outcomes: The student will be able to: Appreciate the history of the relevant technologies Understand the variety of technologies that are available Understand the potential for this technologies in the future Methodology: Lectures, group work, discussion Schedule 4 one - hour - units

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter: Alternative Vehicle Concepts The chapter gives an overview of working-principles and concepts of alternative drives and presents exemplary cars. The focus is on fuel cell vehicles.
  • 2. Contents
    • 1. Introduction: European and US emission-laws.
    • 2. Internal combustion engines (ICE).
      • Diesel- and gasoline engine.
      • Rotary-Engine (Wankel engine).
    • 3. Hybrid-Drives.
      • Mild-Hybrids.
      • Full-Hybrids.
      • Plug-In Hybrids.
    • 4. Electrical Drives.
      • Batteries.
      • Fuel Cells.
    • 5. Fuel Cell Vehicles.
      • Types and car-concepts.
      • Components.
      • Efficiency.
    Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5
  • 3. EURO emission standards Gasoline (emissions ins mg/km) Diesel (emissions in mg/km) Source: Aigle/Krien/Marz 2007, 19 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Source: Aigle/Krien/Marz 2007, 19 I
  • 4. EURO emission standards: Nitrogen- Oxides and Particles
      • NOx and Particles are health hazards.
      • Especially nano particles (PM) are suspected to be dangerous.
      • Diesel-engines emit much more NOx and PM than gasoline-engines.
      • Particle-Filters and NOx-exhaust after-treatments are necessary for a “clean” diesel.
      • Restrictions for older diesel-cars in urban areas. (EU particular matter directive)
    Nitrogen Oxides Particles Source: Aigle/Krien/Marz 2007,72 Source: Aigle/Krien/Marz 2007,77 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 5. California's Low-Emission-Act
      • California has the world-wide strongest emission law.
      • California claims a 4% market-share of Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV).
      • Hybrids and natural gas cars can be credited.
      • ZEV are only Fuel Cell- and Battery cars.
      • Note 1: There's no limit for CO2.
      • Note 2: The production of a fuel produces emissions !
    LEV - Low Emission Vehicle ULEV - Ultra Low E. V SULEV - Super Ultra Low E. V. EZEV - Equivalent Zero E. V. PZEV1 - Partial Zero E. V. ZEV - Zero Emission Vehicle Data: Aigle/Krien/Marz 2007, 24 own Illustration Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 6. Overview Fuels
      • Fuels on the left-side are used in diesel-engines. (diesel-ICE).
      • Fuels on the right side are compatible to gasoline-engines (Otto-ICE).
    Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Source: Aigle/Krien/Marz 2007, 43 B
  • 7. Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) Principle
    • Invention in the 1876:
      • First four-stroke cycle engine developed by Nikolaus August Otto.
    • First automobile in 1886:
      • Developed by Gottfried Daimler and Carl Benz.
    • Four-stroke principle:
      • Intake.
      • Compression.
      • Ignition.
      • Exhaust.
    • Engine-Types:
      • Diesel engine (self-ignition).
      • Otto engine .
    Nikolaus Otto Rudolph Diesel Source: Wikipedia 2007 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B Source: WBZU 2007 Exhaust gases Exhaust valve Piston Cylinder Connecting rod Crankshaft Rotating direction Intake valve Sparking Plug fuel-air mixture Piston rings
  • 8. A Example: DaimlerChrysler BlueTec. The cleanest Diesel ever known?
      • Diesel engine V6.
      • Displacement: 2987 ccm.
      • Maximal output: 154 kW.
      • Maximal torque: 526 Nm.
      • Fuel consumption: 7,0 Litre/km.
      • Cruising range: 1200 km.
      • Top-Speed: 250 km/h.
      • Performance: 0-100 km/h: 6.6 sec.
      • NOx exhaust aftertreatment (DeNOx).
      • Costs: 39.780 EUR.
    Mercedes E320 Bluetec Introduction US-market in 2007, (Permission in 45 States) Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Discussion: Future of Diesel-engines? Established Technology versus alternative drives B
  • 9. The Hydrogen ICE – A conventional drive with a new fuel
      • The design of a H2-Engine is similar to a petrol.
      • Differences result from the specifics of hydrogen and constructive measurements are necessary to avoid backfires.
      • Cars with a H2-ICE are rated as PZEV in California.
      • NOx-Emissions occur because nitrogen is in the combustion gas.
      • The H2-ICE is less efficient than fuel cells.
      • BMW plans to test 100 cars with a H2-ICE in 2008 (Hybrogen7).
    Hydrogen7 from BMW Source: BMW 2006 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Discussion: Most car manufacturer consider hydrogen in combination with fuel cells as the concept for the future. Why does BMW focuses on the H2-ICE ? B
  • 10. Rotation-Engine: Principle
    • First engine in 1954:
      • Felix Wankel.
    • First adoption:
      • Audi Ro80 (until 1977).
    • Four-stroke principle:
      • But: A rotary piston is used instead of a linear piston.
    • Main-advantage:
      • compact design.
    Felix Wankel Source: HyCar 2006 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Air-Intake Exhaust gases Eccentric shaft Electrical connected H2-injector nozzle B
  • 11. A Example: Mazda's RX-8 Hydrogen RE The last “sign of life” of Wankel´s engine?
      • Two rotary engines.
      • Bivalent: Gasoline and Hydrogen (CGH2).
      • Displacement: 2x654ccm (1.308ccm).
      • Maximal Output engine:
        • Max. Output gasoline: 154 kW.
        • Max Output Hydrogen: 80 kW.
      • Torque.
        • gasoline: 222 Nm.
        • Hydrogen:140 Nm.
      • Tank:
        • Hydrogen: 110 Litre (@350 bar).
        • Tank gasoline 61 Litre.
      • Cruising Range:
        • Hydrogen. 100 km.
        • Gasoline: 549 km.
      • Top-Speed 170 km/h (H2 mode).
      • Curb-weight: 1460 kg.
      • Price: concept car.
    Mazda-RX8 Source: Mazda 2006 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 12. Hybrid Cars
    • Invention in 1902:
      • Ferdinand Porsche.
    • First mass-production vehicle
    • in 1997
      • Toyota Prius.
    • Today:
      • Toyota sold several hundred-thousands cars of the “Prius II” worldwide. Mainly in the US and Japan (see figure).
      • Most car-manufacturer develop hybrid-cars today.
    • Basic idea:
      • Support of the combustion engine by a electrical engine.
      • Storage of electrical energy in batteries, e.g. breaking energy.
    Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Source: Manager-Magazin 2005 B
  • 13. Hybrid Cars: Principles and concepts
    • Different forms of Hybrid-cars:
      • Micro-Hybrids: electric start&stop automatic.
      • Mild-Hybrids: recuperation of braking energy.
      • Full-Hybrids can drive in an electrical mode.
    • Different structure of drive:
      • Parallel Hybrids.
      • Serial Hybrids.
    Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Source: Aigle/Marz 2007, 65 B
  • 14. Parallel and serial hybrids
      • In a parallel system the ICE and the electric motor can transmit the power to the transmission.
        • Main advantage: Both drives can be used simultaneously.
      • In a serial hybrid the ICE runs as generator to produce electrical power. Only the electrical motor conducts the transmission.
        • Main advantage: The ICE can always run wit good efficiency.
      • In mixed-systems, so called serial-parallel systems, both advantages can be combined.
    Source: Bady 2000 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 15. An example: Toyota Prius A success-story made in Japan
      • Combustion-engine: 4-Cylinder Otto-engine:
        • Displacement::1497 ccm.
        • Nominal Power: 57 kW.
        • Nominal Torque: 115 Nm (@ 4000 U/min).
      • Electrical-Engine: Synchron AC engine:
        • Nominal Power: 50 kW.
        • Nominal Torque: 400 Nm (@ 1200 U/min).
      • Battery: Ni-MH.
      • Fuel consumption: 4,3 Litre.
      • Cruising range: 1050 km.
      • Tank: 45 Litre.
      • Top speed:: 170 km/h.
      • Performance 0-100km/h: 10,9 sec.
      • Curb-weight: 1400 kg.
      • CO2-Emissions: 104 g/km.
      • Price: 24.070 €
    Source: Toyota 2006 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Toyota Prius B
  • 16. Electric Vehicles
      • First electric car in 1881:
        • Gustav Trouve.
      • An electric vehicle was the first car that reached a Top-Speed of 100 km/h in 1889.
      • Battery-Types:
        • Lead acid battery.
        • New battery types.
      • Type of electrical motors:
        • Direct current (dc).
        • Alternating current (ac).
      • Electrical motors have high efficiencies and a good torque at lower revolutions.
    Electric Vehicle von Trouve Source: Elektroauto-Tipp 2006 Part 1 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 17. Overview Traction-Batteries
      • Lead acid-Batteries
        • Common technology, but energy-density is too low.
        • Limited cruising range, batteries are too heavy.
        • Cars only play a role in certain niches (e.g. as city car).
      • New battery-technologies
        • Nickel-cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride, Lithium-Ion.
        • Only energy-density of Lithium-Ion batteries are sufficient to reach adequate cruising ranges. The electrical car comes out of the niche.
        • Problems: Costs, safety and life-time.
    Source: Aigle/Marz 2006, 77 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 I
  • 18. A example: Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution: Li-Ion Batteries and in-wheel motors
      • Four synchronic in-wheel motors.
      • Max. Power: 50 kW.
      • Max. Torque: 518 Nm.
      • Batteries: Li-on.
        • Capacity 95 AH.
        • Off-load Voltage: 336V.
        • Nominal energy: 32 kWh.
      • Cruising range: 250 km.
      • Top-Speed: 180 km/h.
      • Curb-Wight:1590 kg.
      • CO2-Emissions: 0 (local).
      • Price: Prototype.
      • Series-Production planned in 2010.
    Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution Source: Mitsubishi 2005 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 19. The Tesla Roadster
      • 6831 rechargeable Li-Ion batteries are used in the Tesla.
      • Time to charge the batteries: 3,5 hours.
      • Life-time of the batteries is enough for 100.000 miles.
    New Performance with Li-Ionen batteries! Source: Umweltbrief 2007 B
  • 20. Fuel Cell Cars Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5
  • 21. History of H2-Vehicles
      • 1807: First H2-ICE by Francois Isaac de Rivaz.
      • 1839: Discovery of the functional principle of the fuel cell by Sir William Grove.
      • 1860: 1-Cylinder gas engine by Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir. Production of H2 by electrolysis on board the car.
      • 1875 - 1890: Development of the 4-stroke combustion engine for liquid fuels by Otto, Benz and Daimler.
      • 1933: Combustion of H2 with on-board reforming of ammonia by Nosk Hybdro.
      • 1967: First fuel cell driven electric-car by General Motors.
      • 1970: First fuel cell – battery hybrid vehicle (Austin A40) with an approval for road-service. Karl Kordesch.
      • 1970-1990: Continuance of the development of the H2-ICE. Especially in Japan by Musashi.
      • Since 1990: Systematic development of fuel cell drives by Mercedes-Benz, Toyota, Opel, Audi, Honda und Ford.
      • 1994: Fuel Cell-Transporter Necar1 by DaimlerChrysler
      • Since 2000: Field-tests with FC-Vehicles.
      • 2003: Field-test with 60 fuel cell driven “A-Klasse” by DaimlerChrysler (worldwide 60 cars).
      • 2006: German government invests 500 Mio. Euros over 10 year for market introduction of fuel cell vehicles.
    Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 22. Introduction: FC-Vehicles Types of fuel cells Source: Jörissen/Garche 200,17. Own additions Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 I
  • 23. Introduction: Characteristics of fuel cell types <100°C Up to 1000°C Platinum metal 4-5.0 H 2 C n H m 40-50% 50-60% Reforming System Internal Ref. Seconds Hours Source: own illustration Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 I high At once Start-Up-Time low high Dynamic low high System complexity high low Cell efficiency less clean clean Gas specification less pure pure Catalyst high low Temperature SOFC MCFC PAFC PEFC / DMFC AFC
  • 24. Which type for which application ?
    • Continuous loads
      • CHP-Unit for industrial use
      • Base load plants
    Golden rule:
    • Dynamic loads
      • FC-Vehicles
      • Mini CHP-Units. for households
      • Portable applications
      • Peak shaving, UPS
    PAFC MCFC SOFC But: Not rule without a exception ! Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B PEFC (DMFC)
  • 25. Concepts of fuel cell vehicles
      • DaimlerChrysler developed a prototype (Necar5) with a methanol on-board reformer.
      • Daimler stopped its activities and followed the Hydrogen concept.
      • Most of the car manufacturer focus on direct hydrogen storage.
      • Most vehicles use compressed hydrogen gas. It can be compressed up to 350 bar. In near future 700 bar tanks are available.
      • Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogen tanks. Hydrogen liquefies at minus 253°C.
    Source: Aigle/Marz 2006, 85 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 26. Main components of a H2-FCV 1: Electrical Engine. 2: Fuel-Cell System. 3: High-Pressure vessels. 4: High-voltage Battery. Fuel Cell A-Klasse of DaimlerChryler Source: Stauch 2005 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 27. Energy flow in a Fuel Cell Vehicle
      • In a fuel car the chemical energy of H2 is converted into electrical energy.
      • A ICE converts the thermal energy of the fuel into mechanical energy (Karnot-process).
      • Compared to the Carnot-process the electrochemical conversion is more efficient.
    Source: Los Alamos 1999, 5 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 28. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicles (NECAR V)
      • Fuel Processor System Specifications
      • Fuel: Methanol (CH 3 OH).
      • H2 flow rate 60 Nm³/h.
      • Efficiency 86%.
      • Start-up time1 minute.
      • Start from below 0°C possible.
      • Turn-down ratio 1:40.
      • Dynamics1.5 seconds (idle-90%load) .
      • Calculated cost $1,750 @ 100,000 units/yr.
      • per unit$3,550 @ 10,000 units/yr.
      • Dimensions 800x260x320 mm.
      • Volume / weight65 ltr/ 95 kg .
      • Fuel Cell System Specifications
      • Power of fuel cellsystem75 kW el,gross/ 60 kW el, net.
      • Emissions <SULEV.
      • Volume / weight332 ltr/ 385 kg.
      • System net efficiency> 40 %.
    Source: Tillmetz/Benz 2006 Source: Tillmetz/Benz 2006 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 29. Flow chart of a Methanol FCV Source: Los Alamos 1999, 16 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 30. The fuel cell stack (Ballard)
      • Impressive technical achievements over the last years.
      • Ballard is the worldwide best-known stack-manufacture for mobile cars.
      • Hurdles are: costs, life-time and cold-start. But only a “small” gap to the performance of today's ICE.
    Ballard MK902 Light Duty (LD) Ballard MK902 Heavy Duty (HD) Data: Budd 2006, 14-17, own illustration Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 31. Fuel Cell System Xcellsis TM HY-80 Power electronics Cooling pump System module Fuel Cell (80 kW) Control electronics Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Source: Tillmetz/Benz 2006 B
  • 32. Tank-System for compressed Hydrogen gas (CHG)
      • CGH2: compressed gaseous hydrogen,
      • Pressure 35–70 MPa and room temperature.
      • Usually 2 or 3 vessels can be placed in a car. In busses up to 8 vessels can be placed.
      • Cruising range is between 200km (350 bar) up to 500 km (700 bar).
    Source: Helmolt/Eberle 2007, 837 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 33. Tank-System for liquid hydrogen (LH2)
      • Operating temperature of in-between 20 and 30 K and 0.5 to max 1 MPa pressure.
      • Problem: Unavoidable head flow through:
        • Thermal conduction.
        • Convection.
        • Thermal radiation.
      • A efficient multi-layer vacuum super insulation is necessary (approximately 40 layers of metal foil).
      • Boil-off losses after several days.
      • Energy to liquefy hydrogen consumes 30% of the stored chemical energy.
    Source: Helmolt/Eberle 2007, 838 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 34. A example: DaimlerChryslers f-cell
      • Three-Phase asynchronous motor:
        • Nominal Power: 65 kW.
        • Nominal Torque: 210 Nm.
      • Fuel Cell System:
        • PEFC Ballard Mark 902.
        • Nominal Power: 85 kW.
      • Batteries:
        • NiMh 20kW.
      • Tank:
        • CGH2@350bar: 1,8 kg.
      • Consumption: 4,2 l Diesel equivalent.
      • Cruising-Range: 160 km.
      • Top-Speed: 145 km/h.
      • Performance: 16 sec
      • Costs: Prototype:
        • Field-test of 60 cars since 2002.
    F-cell DaimlerChrysler Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Only water! B
  • 35. GM´s Chevrolet Equinox Fuel Cell
      • Electric traction:
        • 73 kw 3-Phase asynchronous motor. 94 kw max.
        • Nominal Torque 320 Nm.
      • Fuel Cell System:
        • Stack: 440 cells, 93 kW.
        • NiMH battery 35 kW.
        • Operation life: 2.5 years, 80.000km.
        • Operation temperature: -25 to +45°C.
      • Fuel storage:
        • 3 CGH2 vessels.
        • 70 MPa.
        • 4.2. kg Hydrogen.
      • Performance:
        • Acceleration: 0-100 km/h in 12s.
        • Top speed 160 km/h.
        • Operation range 320 km.
      • Curb weight: 2010 kg.
    Source: Helmolt/Eberle 2007, 842 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B
  • 36. Comparison of Efficiency and CO 2 -Emission  Average efficiency (European Drive Cycle): Efficiencies: 36 % / 22 % CO 2 -Emissions (direct): 0 g/km / 177 g/km [ Km/h ] Source: Hermann/Winter 2003 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 50 100 150 200 [ Efficiency (%) ]
    • Hydrogen-driven FC Zafira (HydroGen3)
    • Diesel Zafira (X20DTL Engine)
    1. Gear 2. Gear 3. Gear 4. Gear 5. Gear
  • 37. Overall efficiency FC-car (example DC) 100 % l H 2 Data: Lamm 2002 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 B 37.7 % overall efficiency tank to whell 62.2 % FC-output 37.8 % Heat 45.8 % Converter output 16.4 % auxilliaries 37.7 % Wheel 8.1 % converter, motor, gear, differential
  • 38. Fuel Cell Busses
      • DaimlerChryslers “Citaro-Bus” based on fuel cell technology.
      • 27 Citaro buses were tested during 2003 to 2005 in 9 European cities.
      • Stack-Technology from Ballard:
        • Two modules “MK902 Heavy Duty“ with 300 kW.
      • Tank-System
        • 9 CGH2-vessels with 350 bar can store 1845 litre.
      • operating range
        • 200 to 250 kilometres.
      • maximum speed
        • approx. 80 kilometres.
    Source: Fuel Cell Bus Club 2004 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Fuel Cell Bus “Citaro” B
  • 39. H2 Filling Stations - worldwide Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 299 filling stations worldwide ! Source: H2stations.org by LBST (LBST 2007) B
  • 40. H2 Filling Stations – Europe Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Source: H2stations.org by LBST (LBST 2007) B
  • 41. Sources I
    • Aigle, Thomas; Marz, Lutz (2007a): Automobilität und Innovation. Versuch eine interdisziplinären Systematisierung. Discussion Paper SPIII 2007-102. Wissenschaftszentrum für Sozialforschung Berlin
    • Aigle, Thomas; Krien, Philipp; Marz, Lutz (2007): Die Evaluations-Matrix. Ein Tool zur Bewertung antriebs- und kraftstofftechnologischer Innovationen in der Automobilindustrie. Discussion Paper SPIII 2007-105. Wissenschaftszentrum für Sozialforschung Berlin
    • Bady, Ralf (2000): Hybrid-Elektrofahrzeuge – Strukturen und Entwicklungen. Vortrag, 6. Symposium Elektrische Straßenfahrzeug. Technische Akademie Esslingen.
    • Budd, Geoff (2006): A fuel cell bus project for Europe – Lessons learned from a fuel cell perspektive. Vortag, CUTE-Abschlusskonferenz. 22.5.2006, Hamburg.
    • BMW (2006a): Der BMW Hydrogen 7 – eine neue Ära der Mobilität. Pressemitteilung, Internet: www.7-forum.com/news/Der-BMW-Hydrogen-7-eine-neue-Aera-der-Mo-1285.html. Zugriff: 10.10.2006
    • Fuel Cell Bus Club (2004) Background Information / Fuel Cell Technology / New Generation of Buses Internet: /www.fuel-cell-bus-club.com/index.php?module=pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=1&pid=116. zugriff: 17.12.2007
    • Helmolt von, Rittmar; Eberle, Ulrich (2007): Fuel cell vehicles: Status 2007. In: Journal of Power Sources, 165 (2007), S. 833-845
    • Herrmann, M.; Winter, U.: Fuel Cells 2003, 3, No. 3, 141 ff
    • HyCar (2006): Der Wasserstoff-Wankelmotor. Informationsseiten über Wasserstofffahrzeuge von Jürgen Kern. Internet: www.hycar.de/wankel.htm. Zugriff: 04.10.06
    • Jörissen, Ludwig; Garche, Jürgen (2000): Brennstoffzellen für den Fahrzeugantrieb. In: Wengel, Jürgen; Schirmeister, Elna (Hg.): Innovationsprozess vom Verbrennungsmotor zur Brennstoffzelle – Chancen und Risiken für die baden-württembergische Industrie. Abschlussbericht. Karlsruhe, Februar 2000, S. 13-48.
    Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5
  • 42. Sources II
    • Lamm, Arnold (2006): PEM-BZ-Systeme für den mobilen Einsatz. Vortrag, DaimlerChrysler Forschungszentrum Ulm. Internet: www.sfb374.uni-stuttgart.de/rv_02_03/PEM_Brennstoffzelle_Lamm.pdf. Zugriff: 06.11.2006
    • LBSt (2007): Hydrogen filling stations worldwide. Internet: www.h2stations.org
    • Los Alamos (1999): Fuel Cells. The green Power.
    • Manager-Magazin (2005): Hybridautos – Der Airbag-Effekt. Artikel, Internet: www.manager-magazin.de/unternehmen/artikel/0,2828,373740,00.html. Zugriff: 22.10.2006
    • Mitshubishi (2005): Mitsubishi Motors to drive forward development of next-generation EVs - Colt EV test car uses in-wheel motors & lithium-ion batteries. Pressemitteilung, Internet: http://media.mitsubishi-motors.com/pressrelease/e/corporate/detail1269.html. Zugriff: 02.11.2006
    • Stauch, Thorsten (2005): Präsentation Technik F-Cell. Vortrag, Praxis-Seminar Wasserstoff­betriebene Fahrzeuge, Weiterbildungszentrum Brennstoffzelle. 27.1.2005, Ulm.
    • Tillmetz, Werner; Benz, Uwe (2006): Methanol Fuel Cell Power Train. Vortrag. European Biofuel Congress, 17.Oktober 2006, Essen
    • Toyota (2006): Seriell-paralleles Hybridsystem - Fluss der Systemenergie. Schaubild, Internet: www.hybridsynergydrive.com/de/series_parallel.html. Zugriff: 22.10.2006
    • Umweltbrief (2007): Tesla - ein Elektro-Roadster aus USA. Internet: www.umweltbrief.de/neu/html/aktuell.html#Tesla-Elektro-Roadster. Zugriff: 17.12.2007
    Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5