Bartholomy Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Using Mazda Rotary Prototype


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  • India & China are both building economies based on oil Bush’s plan Reserve – addition 30k barrels per day to a country that consumes 21 million per day will have no effect Delaying clean burning additives – we’re really chasing the wrong target here – the additives have no effect on the worldwide price of oil
  • Like an engine, a fuel cell will run as long as fuel (hydrogen) is supplied. Like a battery, it produces electricity by electrochemical reactions No pollution – only heat, electricity & pure water PEM FC = Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. This is the type our book discusses.
  • On the anode side, hydrogen diffuses to the anode catalyst where it dissociates into protons and electrons . The protons are conducted through the membrane to the cathode, but the electrons are forced to travel in an external circuit (supplying power) because the membrane is electrically insulating. On the cathode catalyst, oxygen molecules react with the electrons (which have travelled through the external circuit) and protons to form water. In this example, the only waste product is water vapor and/or liquid water .
  • While fuel cells are potentially highly efficient, and working prototypes were made by Roger E. Billings in the 1960s, three major obstacles exist in the development of a fuel cell-powered hydrogen car. The first problem is that hydrogen has a very low density . Even when the fuel is stored as a liquid in a cryogenic tank or in a pressurized tank as a gas, the amount of energy that can be stored in the space available is limited, and hydrogen cars therefore have limited range compared to their conventional counterparts. Some research has been done into using special crystalline materials to store hydrogen at greater densities and with margins. The second major problem that used to plague hydrogen fuel cells involves the high cost of making reliable fuel cells that would provide electric power in a hydrogen car. Scientists are also working hard to figure out how to produce inexpensive fuel cells that are also robust enough to survive the bumps and vibrations that all automobiles have to handle. Furthermore freezing conditions have to be handled because fuel cells do produce water and utilise moist air with varying water content. Most fuel cell designs are fragile and can't survive in such environments. Also, many designs require rare substances such as platinum as a catalyst in order to work properly, and the catalyst can be contaminated by impurities in the hydrogen supply. However, within the past few years, a nickel-tin catalyst has been developed which drastically lowers the cost of a hydrogen fuel cell car to make it an economically viable car. The third "problem" is due to the fact that while hydrogen can be used as an energy carrier , it is not an energy source. It still must be produced from fossil fuels , or from some other energy source, with a net loss of energy (since the conversion from energy to hydrogen storage and back to energy is not 100% efficient). Hydrogen is nearly twice as efficient than traditional combustion engines, which only have an efficiency of 15-25%. Hydrogen has a thermodynamic efficiency of 50-60%. The percentage will never be 100% because of the second law of thermodynamics .
  • Hydrogen production Almost all of the hydrogen produced in the U.S. today is by steam reforming of natural gas and for the near term, this method of production will continue to dominate. Biological Certain photosynthetic microbes produce hydrogen from water in their metabolic activities using light energy. Photobiological technology holds great promise, but because oxygen is produced along with the hydrogen, the technology must overcome the limitation of oxygen sensitivity of the hydrogen-evolving enzyme systems. Researchers are addressing this issue by screening for naturally occurring organisms that are more tolerant of oxygen, and by creating new genetic forms of the organisms that can sustain hydrogen production in the presence of oxygen. Photoelectrical The cleanest way to produce hydrogen is by using sunlight to directly split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Biomass Hydrogen can be produced via pyrolysis or gasification of biomass resources such as agricultural residues like peanut shells; consumer wastes including plastics and waste grease; or biomass specifically grown for energy uses. Solar Thermal highly concentrated sunlight can be used to generate the high temperatures needed to split methane into hydrogen and carbon. Renewable electrolysis Renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV), wind, biomass, hydro and geothermal can provide clean and sustainable electricity for our nation. However, some types renewable energy are limited by the fact that they have intermittent and seasonal energy production. One solution to this problem is to produce hydrogen through the electrolysis of water and use that hydrogen in a fuel cell to produce electricity during times of low power production or during peak demand or to use the hydrogen in fuel cell vehicles. Iceland station in Reykjavik serves 3 buses built by DaimlerChrysler; station produces hydrogen by itself with an electrolyzing unit and does not need refilling; has no roof so that any leaked hydrogen escapes into the atmosphere
  • Hydrogen production Almost all of the hydrogen produced in the U.S. today is by steam reforming of natural gas and for the near term, this method of production will continue to dominate. Iceland station in Reykjavik serves 3 buses built by DaimlerChrysler; station produces hydrogen by itself with an electrolyzing unit and does not need refilling; has no roof so that any leaked hydrogen escapes into the atmosphere
  • Is the environment the reason or is it the pinch we feel everytime we gas up? Hopefully it’s at least partially the reason – because FCVs are MUCH more expensive than traditional cars currently
  • We’ve talked this semester about the flexibility of oil companies and how the long term price projections of major oil companies range down to $20/barrel Example scenario – Saudis keep incrementally increasing production
  • In his 2006 State of the Union address, he announced the U.S. government's hydrogen fuel initiative, which complements the President's existing FreedomCAR initiative for safe and cheap hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. But Bushy is the former CEO of Harken oil. In his January 2003 State of the UnionAddress, President Bush announced a new, five-year research initiative on hydrogen fuel and fuel cells. - Unveiled $1.2B Hydrogen Fuel Initiative, seeks to develop hydrogen, fuel cell & infrastructure technologies needed to make it practical & cost-effective for large numbers of Americans to choose to use fuel cell vehicles by 2020.
  • 721-723: competitive grant program for advanced vehicle demonstration projects. EPAct 2005 authorizes $200M for this program 743: $25M 2006-2009 773: study feasibility and effects of significantly reducing petroleum consumption by 2014, including impacts from FCVs 782: requires federal fleets to being leasing or purchasing FCVs & hydrogen energy systems by 1/1/2010. $15M 2008, $25M 2009, $65M 2010, “& such sums as are necessary for 2011-2015” 1341: tax credits for purchasers of new dedicated AFVs; can receive up to $40k. 1342: tax credit equal to 30% of the cost of alternative refueling property up to $30k. 1825: directs DOE to enter into a K with National Academy of Sciences; National Research Council provides budget roadmap for FCV and transition from petroleum to hydrogen in vehicles by 2020
  • IL seems to be banking more on ethanol (I WONDER WHY?!?) - The Illinois Green Fuels Program recognizes and highlights retail or commercial fuel stations that implement E85, natural gas, propane, or other clean fuels for sale to the public or to surrounding fleets. The Illinois Green Dealers Program recognizes Illinois car dealerships that promote the sale of AFVs and educate their customers on the benefits of AFVs, including which vehicle models can use E85 and where the nearest E85 stations are located.
  • Bartholomy Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Using Mazda Rotary Prototype

    1. 1. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Mike Bartholomy 4/27/2006 – Energy Law [email_address]
    2. 2. Very Relevant Topic <ul><li>The topic of alternative fuel vehicles is especially relevant given the events of the last few weeks </li></ul><ul><li>As gas prices continue </li></ul><ul><li>to rise this summer we’ll </li></ul><ul><li>likely see this topic get </li></ul><ul><li>more and more attention </li></ul>
    3. 3. Why Relevant? <ul><li>Gas prices/Oil Market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil currently around $73/barrel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projections have oil hitting $90/barrel this summer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$4/gallon this summer? What about in 2010? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long will oil be around? What about easy to get to oil? Is it already gone? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Bush’s April 25 th “Plan” </li></ul>
    4. 4. Alternate Fuel Vehicles <ul><li>Hybrids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Here now, but still require gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethanol/E85 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed by GM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive, just as dirty? </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Alternative Fuel Vehicles <ul><li>Internal Combustion Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly modified form of internal combustion engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burns hydrogen, produces pure water exhaust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious range problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BMW has broken several speed records for hydrogen cars and is banking on cars that can run successfully on both gas and hydrogen </li></ul>
    6. 6. Hydrogen Fuel Cells <ul><li>“ An old idea whose time has come” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel cells invented in 1838 by Swiss scientist Christian Friedrich Schönbein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aspects of engines as well as batteries </li></ul><ul><li>No pollution emitted </li></ul><ul><li>PEM FCs ideal for light-duty vehicles, buildings & much smaller applications </li></ul>
    7. 7. Hydrogen Fuel Cells <ul><li>Fuel cells are similar to batteries, but designed for continuous replenishment of energy via external fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Many different types of fuel cells, most common will likely be the PEM FC </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen and oxygen in, water vapor and liquid water out </li></ul><ul><li>Typical output is about .8 volts </li></ul>
    8. 8. Storage & Efficiency <ul><li>Two storage options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce the hydrogen on the ground and then store it onboard the vehicle (the direct hydrogen option ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce the hydrogen on the vehicle by means of a tiny onboard hydrogen plant (the onboard fuel processor option ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen FC’s 2 times as efficient as internal combustion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal combustion efficiency – 15-25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen FC’s – 50-60% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estimates that FC Vehicles can achieve equivalent of 80 miles/gallon gasoline. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Fuel Cell Stacks <ul><li>In order to produce enough voltage, cells are grouped into stacks </li></ul><ul><li>A hydrogen fuel cell automobile would have at least 45 cells in a stack </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is stored and injected in either liquid or gas form </li></ul><ul><li>Many cells, but only output is still liquid and vapor water </li></ul>
    10. 10. Applications of Fuel Cell Technology <ul><li>Cars </li></ul><ul><li>Buses </li></ul><ul><li>Space Travel & Exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Airplanes </li></ul><ul><li>Submarines </li></ul><ul><li>Off-grid Power Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Combined Heat & Power </li></ul>
    11. 11. Fuel Cell Vehicles <ul><li>Being pushed by car companies themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DaimlerChrysler – Several test cars in Japan and Singapore; UPS vans in 2003-04 in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ford – 40-60 vehicles in Germany, Canada, California; widespread production by 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GM – wants to be first company to sell 1M FCV profitably; started with fuel cell backup systems in 2005. Prototype is Hy-wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also Honda, Nissan, Toyota, Hyundai, VW, Mazda, others have FCV prototypes on the road </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Severing connection with gas prices? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Issues <ul><li>Storage is complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Limited range </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Still a fossil fuel? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy carrier, not energy source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*Infrastructure* </li></ul>
    13. 13. Hydrogen Sources
    14. 14. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Infrastructure <ul><li>Hydrogen Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost all of the hydrogen produced in the U.S. today is by steam reforming of natural gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce hydrogen directly from new nuclear power reactors? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R&D into several new methods: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Water Splitting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reforming of Biomass and Wastes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Thermal Water Splitting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable Electrolysis </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Infrastructure <ul><li>The Hydrogen Highway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s first hydrogen refueling station opened in Iceland in 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California & Florida have both approved funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BC Hydrogen Highway will link Vancouver & Whistler by start of 2010 Winter Olympic Games </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Environment <ul><li>Why we are pursuing Hydrogen FCVs(?) </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions free </li></ul><ul><li>There are costs associated with environmental </li></ul><ul><li>damage </li></ul>
    17. 17. Economics <ul><li>Current projections – several times the price of standard cars </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility of oil industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation of supply to keep oil just cheap enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At what point does it become worthwhile to consumers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of gas + environmental costs + dependency costs (political, militarily, social) > Cost of fuel cell cars + hydrogen fuel??? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Economics <ul><li>Only 2 ways to reduce our dependence on foreign oil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease demand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The push for hydrogen fuel cell technology in cars represents the second </li></ul>
    19. 19. Politics <ul><li>Obvious connection between current administration and oil companies and certain oil producing companies </li></ul><ul><li>Some criticize a FCV push as a cynical ploy </li></ul><ul><li>But…2006 State of the Union Address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, the 2003 Address </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Legal Environment <ul><li>Energy Policy Act of 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>§§ 721-723: Advanced Vehicles Demonstration & Pilot Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>§ 743 – Fuel Cell School Buses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>§ 773 – Study of Reducing Use of Fuel for Automobiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>§ 782 – Federal & State Procurement of FCVs and Hydrogen Energy Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>§ 1341 – Alternative Motor Vehicle Credit & Fuel Cell Motor Vehicle Credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>§ 1342 – Alternative Fuel Cell Infrastructure Tax Credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>§ 1825 – Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Technology Study </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Other Statutes <ul><li>Clean Air Act – 1990 Amendments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>§ 211 – Emission Standards for Moving Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>§ § 241-250 – Clean Fuel Vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many other federal incentive programs, including IRS tax breaks for FCV purchasers </li></ul><ul><li>State Incentives & Regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. California: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15 different incentive programs for AFVs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Energy Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CA Hydrogen Highway Network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network of hydrogen refueling stations, safety standards, commercial availability by 2010 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. So Where Are We At? <ul><li>Hydrogen is only type of energy that can provide a wholesale substitute for foreign oil within a decade </li></ul><ul><li>Clean, twice as efficient as internal combustion, and plentiful </li></ul><ul><li>But like manned space flight in early 60s, hydrogen fuel cells are proven but primitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do we need a 10 year goal ala Kennedy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currently several times (10x?) more expensive </li></ul>
    23. 23. Recommendation <ul><li>We should aggressively pursue hydrogen fuel cell vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>There are definite issues, but nothing compared to the economic, political and environmental issues associated with being wholly dependent on oil. </li></ul><ul><li>A Kennedy-type goal, combined with gas prices continuing to rise at the current rate could get us there by 2010-15, possibly even sooner. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans will need to look beyond the sticker price </li></ul>
    24. 24. Major Sources <ul><li>National Renewable Energy Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>DoE Alternative Fuels Data Center </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Fuel Cell Realm </li></ul><ul><li>Wired Magazine – How Hydrogen Can Save America </li></ul><ul><li>Bosselman et al., Energy, Economics and the Environment </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>, Wikipedia </li></ul>