1. Peatscapes: Monitoring of Hydrology and Water Quality at Geltsdale and Priorsdale Report of Phase 1: Nov 2007 – Mar 2009Dr Jennine Jonczyk, Dr Mark Wilkinson, Dr David Rimmer and Dr Paul Quinn
2. Some of the features in the catchment Pilot pond Overland flow following gradient of slope Leaky stream gauge wooden barrier PILOT POND STREAM Overflow SPILL Woodland Leakage R1 stream Diversion gauge structure Belford Burn Roughly 200m 1.35km 1.15km 1.85kmR1 R2 R3 BEL Upper Belford Burn “Pilot pond” Features 1 to 3
3. Some of the features in the catchment 1.35km 1.15km 1.85kmR1 R2 R3 BEL Upper Belford Burn “Pilot pond” Features 1 to 3
4. Some of the features in the catchment 1.35km 1.15km 1.85kmR1 R2 R3 BEL Upper Belford Burn “Pilot pond” Features 1 to 3
5. …but that was last week!Lower Lady’s well feature
6. Outline1. Questions to answer2. Hydrology3. WQ4. Peatscapes II
7. Questions to answerHow does grip blocking effect :-1. Water table2. Water colour (& Dissolved Organic Carbon; DOC)3. Suspended sedimentHOW are we investigating this?1. (Water table) using pressure transducers in the peat2. (Colour) grab samples taken from grips and downstream pts and measuring DOC and absorbance in lab.3. (SS) Filtering grab sample
8. Working Hypothesis ARE grips like open drainage ditches? What happens when it rains?QWT
9. Blocked Grip Generic Blocked Grip experimental Unblocked Grip Lay-out Unblocked GripDip-wells with pressure transducers upslope anddownslope of gripsDip-wells at mid-point between gripsWater quality sample from grips.
16. Geltsdale Hydrology:- response in water table during Sept 08 storm 30/08/2008 01/09/2008 03/09/2008 05/09/2008 07/09/2008 09/09/2008 11/09/2008 13/09/2008 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 0Depth of water table from surface (cms) -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 Downslope of grip 1 Upslope of grip 1 Downslope of grip 2 Upslope of grip 2
17. Observations in unblocked gripsNo response in water table position - no matter where they areFlashy spiky flow in grips.
18. Observations in blocked gripNice and smooth – less spiky and less flashy response in gripWater table position is again not responding to flow
19. Working Hypothesis• Grips and Pipes are ‘off’ even though there may be a water table present• Small additions of percolating rain – connect all the pipes and grip together• What comes in goes out• When rain stops, flow stops and pipes empty Active flow paths in the acrotelm (top) layer pipes grip WT
20. Water Quality
21. Colour• Water colour is caused by the presence of dissolved organic compounds – predominantly humic and fulvic acids, which are the products of decomposition from organic soils.• Current EU Drinking water standard for Water colour is :- 20 Hazen• Colour of River Tees is: 60-120 Hazen
23. DOC• Dissolved Organic carbon is derived from organic matterand has a strong correlation with WATER COLOUR.•DOC is an important component of the carbon cycle instreams and a primary food source.•Evidence for upward trend in DOC concentrations relatedto atmospheric deposition changes. (Worrall et al, 2004;Evans et al, 2006)
25. E4/E6 ratio• Ratio of humic acid(E4) and fulvic acid(E6)• Used to represent the degree of humification in peatHumification is decomposition of vegetation…..• Ratio below 5 classified as humic above 5 classified as fulvic
27. Suspended Sediment• Some studies on IMPACTS of suspended sedimentsfrom peatlands(Holden 2005, 2006; Rothwell et al 2005; Yeloff et al2005; White et al 1996; Stewart 1963 )• Little data on erosion rates or supply to main channels(Holden 2007)• Ranges of SS from Holden 2007 at peak discharge wereUndisturbed catchment (1) - 2.5 mg/lGrips (3) - 25-14 mg/lBlocked grips (2) - 0.2- 0.14 mg/l
29. Peatscapes IINew hydrological hypothesis Active flow paths in the acrotelm layer Pipes in the catotelm layer WT grip • Moving pressure transducers closer to the grip edge to see if there are any edge effects from unblocked grips • Mapping all observation sites to look at the effect of surface topography on the recorded depth to the water table • Putting pressure transducers in the shallow acrotelm layer to study the activity of runoff within the layer. The layer could be producing a temporary perched water table and the instruments will pick this up. • In Priorsdale we could move the flow gauge from one unblocked grip to the other to see if it has higher flow rates.
30. Summary Hydrology• Unblocked grips respond rapidly to rainfall• RO smoothed in blocked grips• Some attenuation from blocked grip area and buffered by interaction withacrotelm area but still HIGH RO to main channels• New hypothesis- ON/OFF switch WQ• No clear effect of blocking on colour and DOC at either site YET• Increase of colour and DOC in blocked (like Worrall et al , 2007 and Dodd,2008)•Seasonality Peatscapes II• Moving some instrumentation to test new hypothesis