Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) is best known for defining the techniques of scientific management. Taylor was a manufacturing manager who eventually became a consultant and taught other managers how to apply the principles of scientific management. To discover the most efficient method of performing specific tasks, Taylor studied and measured the ways different employees went about performing their tasks. He used time and motion studies. Once he understood the existing method of performing a task, he would experiment with ways to increase specialization. Employees who could not be trained to the level required were transferred to a job where they were able to reach the minimum required level of proficiency.
Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933) was concerned that Taylor was ignoring the human side of the organization. Her approach was very radical for the time.
Elton Mayo and F.J. Roethlisberger found that employees adopted norms of output to protect their jobs. Those who performed above the norms were called ratebusters and those who performed below the norms were called chisellers. Workgroup members discipline both in order to create a fair pace of work.
Several studies after World War II revealed how assumptions about employees’ attitudes and behavior affect managers’ behaviors. Douglas McGregor proposed that two different sets of assumptions about work attitudes and behaviors dominate the way managers think and affect how they behave in organizations. The Hawthorne Studies refers to a series of studies conducted from 1924 to 1932 at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company. The study was initiated to investigate how the level of lighting would affect employee fatigue and performance. The researchers conducted an experiment in which they systematically measured employee productivity at various levels of illumination. However, no matter whether the lighting was raised or lowered, productivity increased. The researchers were puzzled and invited Elton Mayo to assist them.Mayo proposed the use of the relay assembly test to investigate other aspects of the work context on job performance. Eventually, they found that the employees were responding to the increased attention from the researchers.The Hawthorne Effect suggested that the attitude of employees toward their managers affects the employees’ performance.
Self Efficacy is a term used in psychology, roughly corresponding to a person's belief in their own competence.
Machiavellianism (Mach) refers to the degree to which an individual is practical in his approach, maintains an emotional distance from others, and believes that ends justify the means. Research has revealed that individuals who score high on Mach are good at manipulating others and try to win by any means. They do not need to be persuaded to work but instead are able to successfully persuade others. People having a high Mach perform well in situations that involve face-to-face meetings. They are especially productive in jobs that require the use of bargaining (persuasion) skills and in jobs that offer substantial rewards for the achievement of goal
Externals individualistic young workers rank and file dissastisfied in privious jobs dissastisfied with life
Intelligence: Research has shown that generally a leader has higher intelligence that the average intelligence of the followers. However the leader cannot be exceedingly much more intelligent than his followersSocial maturity and breath:Leaders tend to be emotionally stable and mature and to have broad interests and activities. They have an assured, respectful self conceptInner motivation and achievement drives:Leaders have relatively intense motivational drives of the achievement type. The strive for intrinsic than extrinsic rewards.Human relations attitude:Successful leaders recognize the worth and dignity of their followers and are able to emphasize with them. According to research studies leaders possess consideration and are employee centered rather than production centered.
Approach – approach conflict:choosing between promotion in the organization or a new job with another firm.Avoidance – avoidance conflict: to make a choice between accepting a job transfer to another town or have the employment terminated.Approach – avoidance conflict: example, accepting or not accepting a job with a higher pay but with increased responsibilities that demand a lot of personal time.
Team with Large open area has strong mutual understanding compared to the ones having large Hidden, Blind , and/or Unknown AreasTeam Leaders should always strive to increase the open AreaThe individual should disclose more information about his/her feelings , experiences , views, etc. to reduce the size of Hidden area.Seeking feedbacks will reduce the Blind area and will overall increase the team performanceSensitive communications, active listening and experience will transfer the unknown area blind or hidden or open areas.
History of Org Behavior• A Short History of Organizational Behavior• F.W. Taylor and Scientific Management• Mary Parker Follett• Hawthorne Studies• Theory X and Y
F W Taylor• Scientific management: the systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency• The amount of and effort each employee expends to produce a unit of output can be reduced by increasing specialization and the division of labor
Principles of Scientific Management • Study the way employees perform their tasks, gather informal job knowledge that employees possess, and experiment with ways of improving the way tasks are performed • Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standard operating procedures
Principles of Scientific Management • Carefully select employees so that they possess skills and abilities that match the needs of the task, and train them to perform the task according to the established rules and procedures • Establish an acceptable level of performance for a task, and then develop a pay system that provides a reward for performance above the acceptable level
Other theories Mary Parker Follett- Human side The “Hawthorne Effect” Douglas McGregor: Average employee is lazy, Employees will do what is good dislikes work, and will try to do for the organization when as little as possible committed Manager’s task is to supervise Manager’s task is create a work closely and control employees setting that encourages through reward and commitment to organizational punishment goals and provides opportunities for employees to be exercise initiative
What is an organization?Groups of people who work interdependentlytoward some purpose –Structured patterns of interaction –Coordinated tasks –Work toward some purpose
Organizational Behavior • The study of individual behavior and group dynamics in organizations • Understand The study and application • Predict of how employees behave within organizations • Manage
Levels of Analysis Organizational Level Group Level Individual Group Level Level
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field Learning Motivation Personality Attitude, values Motivation Perception Job satisfaction
Open Systems View of Organization Task environment: Competitors Unions Regulatory agencies Clients StructureInputs:Material Outputs:Capital Task Technology ProductsHuman Services People (Actors) Organizational Boundary
Why Study Org Behavior? Competitive advantage of an organization today is represented by: Human resource of an organization and how they are managed. Widely recognized as- human capital Describe how people behave under a variety of condition Understand why people behave as they do Predict future employee behaviour
TRENDSGLOBALISATION Implications of globalisation New organisational structures Different forms of communication More competition, change, mergers, downsizing, stress Need more sensitivity to cultural differences
TRENDSCHANGING WORKFORCEMore women in workforce and professionsDifferent needs of Gen-X, Gen-Y and baby-boomersDiversity has advantages, but firms need to adjust throughCultural awarenessFamily-friendly policiesEmpowermentEmployment relationshipEmployees perform many tasks, not a specific jobWorking from home, usually with a computer connection to the officeVirtual teams(operate across space, time and organisational boundaries; mainlycommunicate through electronic technologies)
What is personality? The overall profile or combination of characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as that person reacts and interacts with others. – Combines a set of physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person looks, thinks, acts, and feels. – Predictable relationships are expected between people’s personalities and their behaviors
Factors affecting personality ENVIORNMENT HERIDITY Cultural Physical characteristics Social Gender Situational factors PERSONALITY
Personality and the self-concept – Personality dynamics. •The ways in which an individual integrates and organizes social traits, values and motives ,personal conceptions, and emotional adjustments. – Self-concept. • The view individuals have of themselves as physical, social, and spiritual or moral beings. • Self-esteem. • Self-efficacy.
How do personalities differ? “Big Five” personality dimensions. – Extraversion • Being outgoing, sociable, assertive. – Agreeableness. • Being good-natured, trusting, cooperative. – Conscientiousness. • Being responsible, dependable, persistent. – Emotional stability. • Being unworried, secure, relaxed. – Openness to experience. • Being imaginative, curious, broad-minded.
Personal conception traits. Locus of control. Authoritarianism/dogmatism. Machiavellianism. Self-monitoring.
Locus of control– The extent to which a person feels able to control his/herown life.– Externals •More extraverted in their interpersonalrelationships and more oriented toward the world aroundthem.– Internals • More introverted and more oriented towardstheir own feelings and ideas.
Locus of controlInformation processing Internals make more attempt to acquire information, are less satisfied with the amount of information they possess and are better at utilizing informationJob Satisfaction Internals are generally more satisfied, less alienated and there is strong job satisfaction/ performance relationship for themPerformance Internals perform better on learning and problem solving tasks, when performance leads to valued rewardsSelf control, risk & anxiety Internals exhibit better self control, are more cautious, engage in less risky behavior and are less anxiousMotivation, expectancies and results Internals display greater work motivation, see a stronger relationship between what they do and what happens to them, expect that working hard leads to good performance, feel more control over their time.Response to others Internals are more independent, more reliant on their own judgment and less susceptible to the influence of others ; they are more likely to accept information on its merit
Authoritarianism/dogmatism– Authoritarianism.• Tendency to adhere rigidly to conventionalvalues and to obey recognized authority.– Dogmatism.• Tendency to view the world as athreatening place.
high-Machiavellian personality Approach situations logically and thoughtfully: a) Are capable of lying to achieve personal goals. b) Are rarely swayed by loyalty, friendships, past promises, or others’ opinions. c) Are skilled at influencing others. d) Try to exploit loosely structured situations. e) Perform in a perfunctory or detached manner in highly structured situations.
NoteMachiavellianism (Mach) refers to the degree to which an individual is practical in hisapproach, maintains an emotional distance from others, and believes that ends justifythe means. Research has revealed that individuals who score high on Mach are goodat manipulating others and try to win by any means. They do not need to bepersuaded to work but instead are able to successfully persuade others. Peoplehaving a high Mach perform well in situations that involve face-to-face meetings.They are especially productive in jobs that require the use of bargaining (persuasion)skills and in jobs that offer substantial rewards for the achievement of goal
low-Machiavellian personality a) Accept direction imposed by others in loosely structured situations. b) Work hard to do well in highly structured situations. c) Are strongly guided by ethical considerations. d) Are unlikely to lie or cheat.
Self-monitoring– A person’s ability to adjust his/her behavior toexternal situational factors.– High self-monitors. • Sensitive to external cues. • Behave differently in different situations.– Low self-monitors. • Not sensitive to external cues. • Not able to disguise their behaviors
The Basic Motivation ProcessNEEDS DRIVES INCENTIVES
What is Motivation? The level and directionMotivation = of EFFORT expended at work. Derived from latin word “movere” means to move.
Categories of motivation theories. Content theories. Process theories. • Focus on profiling the needs that people • Focus on people’s thought or cognitive seek to fulfill. processes. Emphasize controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences. Major content theories. Major content theories. a) Maslows Hierarchy of needs theory. a) Vroom’s & Porter theory b) Herzberg’s Two factor theory b) Equity theory c) Alderfer’s ERG theory d) Mc Clelland
Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs SELF- ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM NEEDS LOVE NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS
A Hierarchy Of Work Motivation SELF- ACTUALIZATION Personal growth, realization of potential ESTEEM NEEDS Titles, status symbols, promotions, banding SOCIAL NEEDS Formal and informal work groups or teams SECURITY NEEDS Seniority plans, union, health insurance, employee assistance plans, severance pay, pension BASIC NEEDS Pay
Hezerberg’s two factor theory Hygiene factors in job Motivators factors in job Organisational policies Achievement Quality of supervision Recognition Working conditions Work itself Base salary or wage Responsibility Relationship with peer Advancement Relationship with Growth subordinates Status SecurityHigh Job dissatisfaction Job satisfaction High
ERG & MC CLLELAND THEORYERG Theory. Mc Clleland’s Theory of needs :– Existence needs. Need for achievement (nAch).• Desire for physiological • The desire to do somethingand material well-being. better or more efficiently, to– Relatedness needs. solve problems, or to master• Desire for satisfying complex tasks.interpersonal Need for affiliation (nAff).relationships. – • The desire to establish and– Growth needs. maintain friendly and warm• Desire for continued relations with others.personal growth and – Need for power (nPower).development. • The desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others.
McClelland’s High Need Achiever Work Preferences • Prefers moderately challenging goals • Prefers performance feedback • Prefers individual responsibility
Job Satisfaction Trends Question “Who is more likely to be satisfied with a job?” • Internals or Externals • Individualists or Collectivists • Women or Men • Younger workers or Older workers • Less experienced or More experienced • Top management or Rank and file workers • Satisfied in prior jobs or Dissatisfied in prior jobs • Satisfied with life or Dissatisfied with life
JOBS CAN BE REDESIGNED Box 1 Box 2 Box 3LOW HIGH Task Variety Skill Variety Autonomy
JOB DESIGN ALTERNATIVES Job Job Simplification Enrichment Taylor Herzberg Job EnlargementAutomation & Rotation Self- Managing Teams
DEFINITION IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP According to Koontz and o’ 1. Initiates action Donnell “it is the art of 2. Motivation including the subordinates to accomplish their assignments 3. Providing guidance with zeal and confidence. Zeal 4. Creating confidence reflects ardour, earnestness 5. Building morale and intensity in execution of 6. Builds work environment work; confidence reflects experience and technical 7. Co-ordination ability.”
Some Characteristics Of Managers Versus LeadersIn The Twenty-First Century Manager Characteristics Leader Characteristics Administers Innovates A copy An original Maintains Develops Focuses on systems and structures Focuses on people Relies on control Inspires trust Short-range view Long-range perspective Asks how and when Asks what and why Eye on the bottom line Eye on the horizon Imitates Originates Accepts the status quo Challenges the status quo Classic good soldier Own person Does things right Does the right thing
LEADERSHIP THEORIES Keith davis has summarized four of the major traits which might have an impact on successful organizational leadership. They are: A. TRAIT APPROACH (a)Intelligence (b)Social maturity and breath (c)Inner motivation and achievement drives (d)Human relations attitude Autocratic A. BEHAVIOURAL Participative or supportive APPROACH Instrumental or instrumental supportive CONTIGENCY THEORY A. SITUATIONAL THE PATH-GOAL THEORY APPROACH
THE PATH-GOAL THEORY: Path-goal theory identifies four kinds of leader behavior. Directive leader behavior - letting subordinates know what is expected of them, giving guidance and direction, and scheduling work. Supportive leader behavior - being friendly and approachable, showing concern for subordinate welfare, and treating members as equals. Participative leader behavior - consulting subordinates, soliciting suggestions, and allowing participation in decision making. Achievement-oriented behavior - setting challenging goals, expecting subordinates to perform at high levels, encouraging subordinates and showing confidence in subordinates abilities.
LEADERSHIP STYLESLeadership styles refer to a leader’s behaviour. AUTOCRATIC DEMOCRATIC An Autocratic leader will not A democratic entertain any suggestions or leader can win the initiative from subordinates. cooperation of his Under this type of group and can leadership, one person motivate them decides for the whole group. effectively and An autocratic leader does positively. not trust anybody. PATERNALISTIC LAISSEZ FAIRE A free rein leader will A paternalistic leader takes leave the group care of his followers entirely to itself in the way the head such as a leader of the family takes allows maximum care of the family members freedom to subordinates.
DEFINITIONConflicts occur when disagreements occur in a socialsituation.Conflict is a process that begins when one party perceivesthat another party has negatively affected, or is about tonegatively affect, something that the first party cares about.It could also be defined as the appearance of difference i.e.difference of opinion , difference of interest.It can be viewed as a breakdown in the standard mechanismof decision making.
Conflicts can be constructive or destructive.Constructive conflict prevents stagnation, encourages creativity,allows tension to be released.Excessive conflict can hamper the effectiveness of a group or anorganization, reduces satisfaction of group members, increasesabsence and turnover rates, and lowers productivity. Conflict is constructive when it Improves the quality of decisions. Encourages creativity and innovation. Develops interest and curiosity. Provides medium through which tensions can be released. Promotes an environment of self-evaluation and change.
Views About Conflict The Traditional View • This approach assumes that all conflicts hamper performance. • Conflicts occur due to poor communication, lack of openness and trust between people, and the failure of managers to be open to their employees. The Human Relations View • This approach assumes that conflicts occur naturally in all groups and organizations. • It is natural and cannot be avoided, hence it should be accepted. • It cannot be removed and it may play a role in group performance. Conflict Management 56
Functional vs. Dysfunctional Conflict • Functional or constructive conflict supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. • Conflicts that hamper group performance are dysfunctional or destructive conflicts. • Task conflicts are related to the content and goals of the work. • Low to medium levels of task conflict is good because it improves group performance.
Levels of Conflict Conflicts can be at Intrapersonal level (conflict within the individual) Interpersonal level (individual to individual conflict) Inter-group level Inter-organizational level
Reasons for conflict Diversity of Goals Competition for scarce resources Organisational ambiguities Introduction to change Nature of Communication Difference in work orientation
Conflict Management Approaches 1. Avoidance – In avoidance, every one shows that the conflict does not really exist and hopes that it will finish. 2. Accommodation – It involves hiding the differences between the conflicting parties and showing areas of agreement. 3. Compromise – It occurs when each party gives up something for the sake of the other. No party is fully satisfied. 4. Competition – It is a victory achieved due to force, superior skill, or domination of one party. It is a win-lose situation. 5. Collaboration – It involves appreciation by all conflicting parties that something is wrong and needs attention.
ZOHARI WINDOW • Developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham (the word “Johari” comes from Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham). • The Johari Window is a communication model that can be used to improve understanding between individuals. • Individuals can build trust between themselves by disclosing information about themselves. • They can learn about themselves and come to terms with personal issues with the help of feedback from others.
GROUP DYNAMICS ANDUNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOUR
Definition & CharacteristicsGroup means there are Characteristics of Group1. Two or more Shared values and individuals Norms2. Interacting & Interdependence Interaction interdependent Activities3. Come together to Conformity achieve particular objectives.
Theories of group formation • PROPINQUITY THEORY • EXCHANGE THEORY • BALANCE THEORY
Types of work teams Problem solving Self managed work teams Cross functional teams Virtual teams
Points to ponder A. Describe a situation where you saw evidence of power or influence being used in an organization B. Describe a time when someone influenced you to act a particular way or do a particular thing that you would not of otherwise done.
The Meaning of Power Power is the capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others. The potential to influence others People have power they don’t use and may not know they possess Power requires one person’s perception of dependence on another person
With power you can…• Intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble• Get a desirable placement for a talented subordinate• Get approval for expenditures beyond the budget• Get items on and off agendas• Get fast access to decision makers• Maintain regular, frequent contact with decision makers• Acquire early information about decisions and policy shifts
Types of Individual Power: A Summary Individual Power Position Power Personal Power • Referent power• Legitimate power • Expert power• Reward power• Coercive power
Information and Power• Control over information flow – Based on legitimate power – Relates to formal communication network – Common in centralized structures (wheel pattern)• Coping with uncertainty – Those who know how to cope with organizational uncertainties gain power • Prevention • Forecasting • Absorption
Consequences of Power Sources Consequences of Power of Power Expert Power Commitment Referent Power Legitimate Power Compliance Reward Power Coercive Resistance Power
Organizational Politics• Attempts to influence others using discretionary behaviours to promote personal objectives – Discretionary behaviours — neither explicitly prescribed nor prohibited• Politics may be good or bad for the organization
Organizational Politics: More Likely at the Top (1.22)Extent to Which Political Activity is Likely (range 0-3) 1.3 Political activity 1.2 is perceived to increase at higher (1.07) 1.1 organizational levels 1.0 .9 .8 (.73) .7 (.54) .6 (.50) .5 .4 .3 (.18) .2 .1 Production and Clerical and Technical and Lower Middle Upper blue collar white collar professional management management management Organizational Level
Conditions for Organizational Politics Personal Scarce Characteristics Resources Conditions Supporting Organizational Politics Complex and Tolerance of Ambiguous Politics Decisions
Perception“ The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process through which we interpret and organize sensory information toproduce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.”“ Perception is the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it within the framework of existing knowledge.“ A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. 82