What is Hemoglobin? <ul><li>Iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloproteinase in the red blood cells of vertebrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin has an oxygen binding capacity of between 1.36 and 1.37 ml O2 per gram of hemoglobin, which increases the total blood oxygen capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin is found in the red blood cells of the body. Each red blood cell (RBC) contains approximately 280 million hemoglobin molecules. </li></ul>
Why is it Important? <ul><li>Hemoglobin helps carry oxygen through the lungs and into the bloodstream to the specified organs </li></ul><ul><li>If hemoglobin becomes seriously low (around 70 to 80) you may be need a blood transfusion. </li></ul>
Ch e m i c a l B o n d in g <ul><li>As Red Blood cells carry Hemoglobin throughout the body, they give away oxygen to each other as they are circulated through the body. </li></ul>
Mt. Everest <ul><li>As you may have guessed, Mt Everest has a very low oxygen capacity when you go further towards the top. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin shots, and boosters are given to climbers who begin to lose their oxygen levels. These ‘shots’ are vital and keep the climbers from losing too much oxygen. </li></ul>
PH <ul><li>If the pH of the body gets too low (below 7.4), a condition known as acidosis results. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be very serious, because many of the chemical reactions that occur in the body, especially those involving proteins, are pH-dependent. </li></ul>
Blood Doping <ul><li>Blood doping is the practice of boosting the number of red blood cells (RBC’s) in the bloodstream in order to enhance athletic performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Homologous blood doping- In a homologous transfusion, RBCs from a compatible donor are harvested, concentrated and then transfused into the athlete’s circulation prior to endurance competitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Autologous Blood Doping- In an autologous transfusion, the athlete's own RBCs are harvested well in advance of competition and then re-introduced before a critical event </li></ul>
EPO Uses <ul><li>E.P.O is used to treat certain forms of anemia. Anemia occurs when the amount of Hemoglobin is too low and the body cannot produce as much oxygen as needed. </li></ul>
Blood Doping in Sports <ul><li>Blood doping has become an integral part of sports and fair play. It enhances your performance by increasing red blood cell mass and thereby delivering more oxygen to muscle </li></ul>
Caught in the act P1 <ul><li>Many athletes have been caught for blood doping, the results have been either suspension from the team, or a removal from the franchise. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Skiers, cyclists, and runners have been fined for using the ‘blood boosters’ or ‘blood packages.’ </li></ul>
Caught in the act P2 <ul><li>Doping has been rampant in cross-country skiing for years. Use of EPO, or erythropoietin, is as common as ski wax, and blood doping has become an art. </li></ul><ul><li>CBS Sports Scandals </li></ul>
Side Effects of Blood Doping <ul><li>A large infusion of red blood cells (and resulting increase in cellular concentration) could increase blood viscosity and bring about a decrease in cardiac output, a decrease in blood flow velocity, and a reduction in peripheral oxygen content – all of which would reduce aerobic capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>The human heart was not designed to pump this thickened blood throughout the body and, therefore, could lead to a multitude of problems. Some of the problems that can arise from an antilogous blood transfusion are phlebitis, septicemia, hyper viscosity syndrome </li></ul>
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