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  1. 1. Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference Sixth Edition Chapter 2 Individualized Special Educational Programs: Planning and Services Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>any rental, lease, or lending of the program. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Explain five important approaches used to help students with disabilities access the general education curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss each placement option used to deliver special education to students with disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe special education’s related services and how multidisciplinary teams are formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the IEP process. </li></ul><ul><li>List the different individualized education plans used for individuals with disabilities (birth through age 21). </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  3. 3. Access to the General Education Curriculum <ul><li>IDEA 2004 stresses the importance of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in the general education curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to the general education curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in statewide or district-wide testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making accommodations in testing situations </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  4. 4. Accessing the General Education Curriculum <ul><li>Approaches to accessing the general education curriculum include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional Accommodations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional Modifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiated Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistive Technology </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  5. 5. Educational Placements <ul><li>Regular classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full inclusion or pull-in programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation/collaborative teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource room </li></ul><ul><li>Self-contained special education class </li></ul><ul><li>Partially self-contained special education class </li></ul><ul><li>Separate school </li></ul><ul><li>Residential setting </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  6. 6. Placement Issues <ul><li>The severity of a child’s disability does not necessarily determine that child’s educational placement or LRE. </li></ul><ul><li>The educational placement for a specific child will probably change across his or her educational career. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  7. 7. Factors to Consider When Determining LRE <ul><li>Student’s goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Balance between LRE and FAPE </li></ul><ul><li>Desired adult outcomes for the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Array of special education services required to attain all goals </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  8. 8. Special Education and Related Services Professionals Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Physicians Itinerant Teachers Lawyers Nurses Administrators Vocational Specialists Special Education Teachers Transportation Specialists Recreational Therapists Assistive Technology Specialists Educational Diagnosticians School Psychologists Consulting Teachers Physical Therapists Counselors Paraprofessionals Speech/Language Pathologists Occupational Therapists Audiologists
  9. 9. Special Education Services <ul><li>Should be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsive to each student’s needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vary by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  10. 10. IEP Process <ul><li>Pre-referral </li></ul><ul><li>Referral </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Eligibility Determination </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the IEP </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of the IEP </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation and Reviews </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  11. 11. Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSP) <ul><li>Serve children from birth to age three and their families </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluated twice a year </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated by a service or case manager </li></ul><ul><li>Includes transitional services for the move to pre-school </li></ul><ul><li>IFSPs must include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s current functioning levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family’s strengths and needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected outcomes and time line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date for initiation of services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name of service coordinator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods for transition </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  12. 12. Individualized Education Program <ul><li>Serves students with disabilities, ages 3 to 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Assures an individualized program </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluated annually </li></ul><ul><li>All of a student’s needs must be met </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of services does not determine whether they are included on IEP </li></ul><ul><li>IEP must be individually determined </li></ul><ul><li>Communication of contents to everyone who needs the information </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  13. 13. IEPs must contain: <ul><li>Student’s present levels of performance </li></ul><ul><li>How the student’s disability influences participation and progress in the general education curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals </li></ul><ul><li>Educational services to be provided, including modifications and supports </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation of why the child will not participate in general education classes with non-disabled peers </li></ul><ul><li>Description of accommodations in state or district-wide testing </li></ul><ul><li>Projected date for initiation, frequency, location, and duration of services </li></ul><ul><li>At age 16, identification of post school goals to address transition assessments and service needs </li></ul><ul><li>Information about transfer of rights at age of majority </li></ul><ul><li>How student’s progress will be measured and parents informed </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  14. 14. Student and Parent Participation <ul><li>IDEA stresses the importance of involving families and students in the IEP process. </li></ul><ul><li>A major goal of the IEP meeting is to form partnerships between parents, schools, and professionals. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  15. 15. Procedural Safeguards <ul><li>Notification about meetings and other important events need to be in writing </li></ul><ul><li>Parents need to understand the meaning of the communications from school, so these interactions must be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in the parents’ native language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>free of educational jargon </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  16. 16. Appropriate Evaluations <ul><li>Functions of Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and qualify students for special education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guide instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine annual or long-term gains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change a student’s services </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  17. 17. Appropriate Assessments <ul><li>Standardized tests concern educators because of the overrepresentation of culturally and linguistically diverse students </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Authentic Assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum based measurement (CBM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portfolio assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional behavior assessment (FBA) </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon
  18. 18. Challenge Question <ul><li>How should the array of educational services and supports available to students with disabilities be implemented? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individually determined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the intensity required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the duration needed to solve the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With participation from the student and family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Including partnerships among school officials, teachers, the student, and family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid, flexible, and not lock-stepped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluated frequently </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon