Focal points of the discussionEvolution of Print media in Pakistani societyPrinting and Publishing industry of PakistanPrint media and national cohesionEconomic, technological and political factorsaffecting Print MediaPrint Media conglomerates of PakistanFuture prospects for Print Media in PakistanBenedict Andersons theory of Print Culture
Evolution of Print Media in Pakistani societyWhat is print media?The establishment of print media outlets in PakistanThe concept of a non-aligned print mediaMajor Print Media groups operating in PakistanoDawn groupoNawa-i-Waqt groupoJang groupoExpress groupoDaily Times group
DAWN Group / Pakistan Herald Publications•Normally known as Dawn Group of Newspapers, the companywas founded in 1941 by Mohammad Ali Jinnah.•Its flagship publication, the daily Dawn, was first published in 1947from an already independent Pakistan.•Their main trademark, in fact, is a secular and tolerant approach tosome of the most burning issues in Pakistan’s Society. Magazines: Herald (English monthly magazine) Aurora (marketing and advertising Based bi-monthly magazine).
JANG group of newspapers•Commonly known as the Jang Group, it was established in 1942 inDelhi by Mir Khalil-ur-Rehman.•The Group’s flagship publication is the Urdu-language newspaperDaily Jang, which is printed from six stations across the country. Thegroup also publishes arguably the second largest English newspaperThe News.• a moderate conservative perspective ’•Until the early 1950s Daily Jang was considered an independentnewspaper, but since then it has gradually succumbed to politicalpressures and temptation.
Magazines:Akhbar-e-Jehan (Urdu)Mag Weekly (English) [Fashion magazine]The News on Sunday (English)Jang Sunday Magazine (Urdu)Other newspapers of Jang group:Daily Awam (Urdu)Daily Awaz (Urdu)Daily Waqt (Urdu)Pakistan Times (English)Daily News (English – evening)
Nawa-i-Waqt Group of Publications•Established in 1940 by Hameed Nizami, one of the foundingfathers of Pakistani journalism, Nawa-i-Waqt started its operations in Lahore.•The first publication to be launched was the fortnightlyjournal Nawa-i-Waqt.•In an article that appeared in 1977, Nawa-i-Waqt was definedas the ‘self-appointed custodian of the ideologyof Pakistan’, and, in the first five years of existence of thecountry, it ‘had hunted and pursued a remorselesscampaign against all liberal trends and progressive forcesin national life’
Magazines:Nida-i-Millat (Urdu) [Sunday magazine]Weekly Family (Urdu)Sunday Plus (English)Weekly Money Plus (English)Monthly Phool (Urdu) [For children]English Daily:The Nation (English)
Express News Group•The Daily Express, founded on 3 September, 1998, is one ofPakistan’s most widely circulated Urdu language newspapers.•Published by Century Publications, a Lakson Group subsidiary.•Editor - Abbas Ather (one of the renowned columnists).Magazine:Express Sunday Magazine
Daily Times Group•The Daily Times (DT) is an English language Pakistaninewspaper. Launched on April 9, 2002.•Daily Times, which is simultaneously published from Lahore,Islamabad and Karachi, is edited by Rashed Rahman. The paperwas owned by the late Governor of Punjab and Pakistan PeoplesParty stalwart Salmaan Taseer.•Daily Times is recognized as a newspaper that advocates liberaland secular ideas.
o Magazines:Friday Times Magazine (English)Weekly WikKid (English) [For kids]Daily Times Sunday (English)Aaj kal Sunday Magazine (Urdu)Newspaper:Daily Aaj kal Urdu
Printing and Publishing industry of Pakistan•The principle centers of publishing are Karachi, Lahore andPeshawar.•Lahore stands out with its numerous publishing houses and has beenthe hub of the industry from the pre-independence era.•In the 80s the industry flourished because of the Government’semphasis on education and literacy.•Pakistan’s publishing industry also has a lucrative market for Urduand religious books abroad.
•Pakistan has also signed an agreement with the U.S, according towhich books can be imported from the U.S and payment can begiven in local currency.•A considerable number of books and periodicals are exported tocountries like Malaysia, East Africa and the Middle East.•According to an estimate there are about 2000 publishersthroughout Pakistan. The majority deals with the publishing ofschool textbooks. In the Punjab alone, there are four hundredpublishers registered with the Punjab Textbook Board.
Print media and national cohesion•The print medias preliminary role was to serve as a unifier for thenewly born state.•The stances adopted by Jang, Dawn and Nawa-i-Waqt during thelast phase of struggle for independence presented the demand fora separate homeland.•These pioneer print media groups due to different factors havegradually shifted their priority from nation-building to commercialdependence.•The primary role of ‘national cohesion’ played by print media in thePakistan movement had vanished along with the creation ofPakistan.
Economic, Political and Technological factors affecting Print Media in PakistanEconomic Factors:•Shrinkage of market due to low literacy rates and lack of awareness•Decline in reading habits•Influence of advertising agencies and sponsorsPolitical Factors:•Press regulatory acts imposed from time to time.•Till 2000 print media was not that expressive in Pakistan.
Technological factors:•Convergence of new media with the old one•Emerging trend of epapers and ebooks•Websites and easy access to information•A heterogeneous society not compatibleto use online resourcesAll these factors are leading to theconstriction of print media outlets inPakistan.
Print Media Conglomerates of Pakistan•Political affiliations.•The government has considerable leverage over the print mediathrough its substantial budget for advertising and public interestcampaigns.•For example, the countrys leading Urdu daily, Jang, and the English-language daily News, both owned by Shakil Ur-Rehman, were cut offfor a time from critical government advertising revenue after publishingarticles unflattering to the government. The Jang Group was alsoserved with approximately US $13 million in tax notices, harassed bygovernment inspectors, and pressured not to publish articles. Jangalso reportedly had difficulty obtaining sufficient newsprint to publish.
Lakson groupThe Lakson Group, was founded in 1954. Lakson Group is a well-known business group in Pakistan. The conglomerate is run by theLakhani brothers among whom Iqbal Ali Lakhani is Chairman of theLakson group.Express news group is a subsidiary company of Lakson group.
Benedict Anderson’s theory of Print Culture Nationalism is the inevitable result of the Gutenberg Revolution — Marshall McLuhan, Benedict AndersonMarshall McLuhan, later followed by Elizabeth Eisenstein andBenedict Anderson, derive Nationalism from the introduction ofprinting technology into a society.the printing press and its associated social, economic, andcultural practices — produces nationalism.The very existence and regularity of newspapers caused readers,and thus citizens-in-the-making, to imagine themselves residingin a common time and place, united by a print language with aleague of anonymous equals.
•According to Anderson, a new emerging nation imagines itself tobe antique.•He considers the nation-building mythology and national myths ofthe ‘origin‘ in rather functionalist terms—they are more inventednarratives than real stories.•The rise of nationalism is in Andersons mind closely connectedwith the growth of printed books and with the technicaldevelopment of print as a whole.•Conclusively, placing this theory in Pakistani context it is quiteclear that the prevalence of print culture is directly proportional tonationalism.
Conclusion- future prospects of Print media in PakistanPakistan’s market for print media has undergone significant changesin the past decade. In 1997 the total number of daily, monthly, andminor publications was 4,455 but by 2003, six years later, only 945remained.Based on these facts it is not difficult to predict the future prospectsof print media in Pakistan.