His administration was marred by graft and corruption; moreover, the abuses of the provincial military police contributed to the rise of the left-wing (Huk) movement in the countryside. The short-lived Roxas administration embarked on a course that resulted in what were considered as his greatest achievements, namely: The Ratification of the Bell Trade Act, The Inclusion of the Parity Amendment in the Constitution and The Signing of the 1947 Military Bases Agreement.
In 1946 Manuel Roxas proclaimed the Rice Share Tenancy Act of 1933 effective throughout the country. On January 28, 1948, he granted full amnesty to all so-called Philippine collaborators, many of whom were on trial or awaiting to be tried, particularly former President Jose P. Laurel. The Amnesty Proclamation did not apply to those "collaborators", who were charged with the commission of common crimes, such as murder, rape, and arson.
The presidential decision did much to heal a standing wound that somehow threatened to divide the people's sentiments. It was a much-called for measure to bring about a closer unity in the trying times when such was most needed for the progress of the nation. Aside from withdrawing her sovereignty from the Philippines and recognizing her independence, the Treaty reserved for the United States some bases for the mutual protection of both countries.
Among the maid remedies proposed was the establishment of the Philippine Rehabilitation Finance Corporation. This entity would be responsible for the construction of twelve thousand houses and for the grant of easy-term loans in the amount of 177,000,000 pesos. His administration created an Agrarian Commission that passed a law giving 70 percent of the harvest to the tenants. However, there were difficulties in implementing the law.
Surplus War Property Scandal, the Chinese Immigration Scandal and the School Supplies Scandal and the failure to check and stop the communist Hukbalahap movement. Surplus War Property Scandal, the Chinese Immigration Scandal and the School Supplies Scandal and the failure to check and stop the communist Hukbalahap movement.
Utterly disgusted with the crimes being committed by HUKBALAHAP or HUKS and in possession of the incontrovertible evidence of the subversive character of the same, President Roxas, on March 6, 1948, in a dramatic gesture, issued a Proclamation outlawing Huks' movement, making it a crime to belong to the same.
The breaking of the backbone of the HUK movement and the restoration of the relative peace and order. The creation of President’s Action Committee on Social Amelioration (PACSA) to help the poor families. The establishment of rural banks to facilitate credit facilities in rural areas.
The establishment of Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration (ACCFA) to help farmers market their crops. The adoption of a new economic policy called “total Economic Mobilization Policy” to develop our trade and industries. Setting up the Central Bank and rural banking. It was also during his term that the RP-US Mutual Defense Treaty was approved on August 30, 1951.
President Quirino issued on October 23, 1950 Executive Order No. 355 which replaced the National Land Settlement Administration with Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO) which takes over the responsibilities of the Agricultural Machinery Equipment Corporation and the Rice and Corn Production Administration.
With the expiration of the Amnesty deadline on August 15, 1948, the government found out that the Huks had not lived up to the terms of the Quirino-Taruc agreement. In the face of counter charges from the Huk from to the effect that the government had not satisfied the conditions agreed upon, President Quirino ordered a stepped-up campaign against dissidents, restoring once more to the mailed-fist policy in view of the failure of the friendly attitude previously adopted
Unabated rampage of graft and corruption in his government, as revealed in the Tambobong-Buenavista scandal, the Import Control Anomalies, the Caledonia Pile Mess and the Textbook Racket. Wasteful spending of the people's money in extravagant junkets abroad. Failure of government to check the Huk menace which made travel in the provinces unsafe, as evidenced by the killing of former First Lady Aurora Quezon and her companions on April 21, 1949 by the Huks on the Bongabong-Baler road, Baler, Tayabas (now part of Aurora province).
The restoration of the Filipino people’s faith in democracy. Communication threat was checked by defeating the objectives of HUKBALAHAP. Improvement of the barrios and vigorous implementation of the Presidential Assistant on Community Development (PACD) program all over the Philippines. Improvement of health and sanitation.
Promotion of positive nationalism through the use of native attire during social and political functions, and the encouragement of the use of Filipino language. Ratification by the Philippine Senate of the San Francisco Treaty ending the war with Japan on July 16, 1956. The construction of artesian wells and water systems in order to give the rural folk clean and potable drinking water.
The Creation of the Presidential Complaints and Action Committee (PCAC) in order to help make the government “ truly a government of the people”. President Magsaysay worked for the establishment of the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA). This body took over from the Economic Development Corporation and helped in the giving some sixty five thousand acres to three thousand indigent families for settlement purposes.
Republic Act No. 1160 of 1954Rebel returnees and as well as landless farmers benefitted for they were given home lots and farm lands. Republic Act No. 1199 (Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954)Although the law amended on the tenancy problem, farmers benefitted from the distribution of crops on a certain basis Republic Act No. 821 (Creation of Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration) -- Provided small farmers and share tenants loans with low interest rates of six to eight percent.
Republic Act No. 1199 farmers were given a certain percentage of the distribution of crop, so it put and minor solution to that but with the case of the tenurial system, it wasn’t given notice. The relocation of the people from certain places, worked at first but eventually started a cultural dispute between the natives living there and those who were relocated.
President Magsaysay created the Presidential Complaints and Action Committee. This body immediately proceeded to hear grievances and recommend remedial action. Headed by soft-spoken, but active and tireless, Manuel Manahan, this committee would come to hear nearly sixty thousand complaints in a year, of which more than thirty thousand would be settled by direct action and a little more than twenty five thousand, referred to government agencies for appropriate follow-up.
The Huk insurrection prompted many changes in the JUSMAG and demonstrated shortcomings in post-war U.S.-Philippine policy. Of these failures, the greatest were misjudging the seriousness of the situation until 1950, and the importance of nationalism and land ownership to the average Filipino. The JUSMAG supported the Philippine governments during the first half of the 1950s through a multi-faceted approach that included advice to key military and government officials