ANALYSIS of Dao DeJing
Marxist/Political Approach
The People & Ruler – Heart of the nation
When government is lazy and informal
The people are ki...
Marxist/Political Approach
Armies & Violence
Armies are tools of violence;
They cause men to hate and fear. (#31
Armies, p...
Marxist/Political Approach
Nation
So to use law to control a nation weakens the
nation,
But to use nature to control a nat...
Paradoxical Approach
Let your community be small, with only a few people;
Keep tools in abundance, but do not depend upon ...
Paradoxical Approach
Honest people use no rhetoric;
Rhetoric is not honesty.
Enlightened people are not cultured;
Culture ...
Moral/Philosophical Approach
Nature is not kind;
It treats all things impartially.
The Sage is not kind,
And treats all pe...
Moral/Philosophical Approach
Lives within nature,
Thinks within the deep,
Gives within impartiality,
Speaks within trust,
...
Ambiguous thought
In this manner the sage governs
people:
Emptying their minds, (A)
Filling their bellies, (B)
Weakening t...
Symbolism
Harmony (46) – wholeness of all things in
nature, virtue being at peace
Water (7) – equilibrium / virtue of bein...
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Analysis of Dao de jing

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Analysis of Dao de jing

  1. 1. ANALYSIS of Dao DeJing
  2. 2. Marxist/Political Approach The People & Ruler – Heart of the nation When government is lazy and informal The people are kind and honest; When government is efficient and severe The people are discontented and deceitful (#58 No End, p1) If a ruler could control the Way All things would follow. (#32 Shapes, p.2)
  3. 3. Marxist/Political Approach Armies & Violence Armies are tools of violence; They cause men to hate and fear. (#31 Armies, p1 Line 1 & 2) Powerful men are well advised not to use violence, For violence has a habit of returning; (#30 Violence, p1 line 1 & 2)
  4. 4. Marxist/Political Approach Nation So to use law to control a nation weakens the nation, But to use nature to control a nation strengthens the nation. (#65 Subtlety, p2 line 2 & 3 When a nation falls to chaos Then loyalty and patriotism are born. (#18 Hypocrisy, p2 line 3)
  5. 5. Paradoxical Approach Let your community be small, with only a few people; Keep tools in abundance, but do not depend upon them; Appreciate your life and be content with your home; Sail boats and ride horses, but don't go too far; Keep weapons and armour, but do not employ them; Let everyone read and write, Eat well and make beautiful things. Live peacefully and delight in your own society; Dwell within cock-crow of your neighbours, But maintain your independence from them. (#80 Utopia)
  6. 6. Paradoxical Approach Honest people use no rhetoric; Rhetoric is not honesty. Enlightened people are not cultured; Culture is not enlightenment. Content people are not rich; Riches are not contentment. So the sage does not serve himself; The more he does for others, the more he is satisfied; The more he gives, the more he receives. Nature flourishes at the expense of no one; So the sage benefits all men and contends with none. (#81 The Sage)
  7. 7. Moral/Philosophical Approach Nature is not kind; It treats all things impartially. The Sage is not kind, And treats all people impartially. Nature is like a bellows, Empty, yet never ceasing its supply. The more it moves, the more it yields; So the sage draws upon experience And cannot be exhausted. (#5 Nature)
  8. 8. Moral/Philosophical Approach Lives within nature, Thinks within the deep, Gives within impartiality, Speaks within trust, Governs within order, Crafts within ability, Acts within opportunity.
  9. 9. Ambiguous thought In this manner the sage governs people: Emptying their minds, (A) Filling their bellies, (B) Weakening their ambitions, (A) And strengthening their bones. (B)
  10. 10. Symbolism Harmony (46) – wholeness of all things in nature, virtue being at peace Water (7) – equilibrium / virtue of being calm Weapons & Armors – Violence The People & Ruler – Heart of the nation

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