Xen 虛擬機器企業版
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  • hypervisor A system program that provides a virtual machine environment. The term came from the IBM mainframe world, which first introduced the virtual machine (virtualization) concept in the form of VM, initially as software only and later enhanced with hardware circuits.
  • Because Redhat think Xen still isn’t ready for prime time,so RHEL5 is delayed.
  • Examples of Sensitive , privileged instructions. When executing in a virtual machine, some processor instructions cannot executed directly on the processor. These instructions would interfere with the underlying state of the VMM or host OS and called as Sensitive instructions. Mov Opcode can be used to load and store control registers. CS and SS registers contain CPL values. If MOV is used to store these control registers to examine the privilege level, then it will become a problem.
  • Type 1: Runs directly on hardware. It is a lean Os that has mechanisms to support VMs. Performs scheduling and resource allocation for guest OS. Type 2 : VMM runs as an application on Host Os and relies on host Os to do memory management , resource allocation and drivers.
  • Full virtualization requires no changes to the guest OS. But it is not well suited for x86 architecture as x86 is not virtualizable. x86 has machine instructions that are termed sensitive. Sensitive instructions will fail without trap when executed in the guest OS. This requires dynamic rewrite of guest OS kernel during run time and shadow system structures which results in a performance hit. Para-virtualization solves the above issues but it requires changes to the guest OS kernel although are required for the Application Binary Interface (ABI) and hence applications can run as they are on the guest OS. Non-trapping Privileged instructions are caught and handled appropriately. Shadow Page tables: Three levels. Virtual - > Architectural -> physical. Super Pages: Improving TLB coverage. Multi sized pages can be allocated by the OS. Trap: Interrupt signals initiated by programs are called software interrupts . A software interrupt is also called a trap or an exception Vmware use Middleware translate,Xen directly control Kernel。Because Vmware use image file(vmdk ext file name)read/write that cause performance bottleneck,it can directly use physical disk to improve performance RTT:Short for r ound- t rip t ime , the time required for a network communication to travel from the source to the destination and back. RTT is used by some routing algorithms to aid in calculating optimal routes.
  • ABI ( A pplication B inary I nterface) A specification for a specific hardware platform combined with the operating system. It is one step beyond the application program interface (API), which defines the calls from the application to the operating system. The ABI defines the API plus the machine language for a particular CPU family. An API does not ensure runtime compatibility, but an ABI does, because it defines the machine language, or runtime, format.
  • Trap/Exception: System calls are through fast exception handler. Directly to the handler from another application rather than indirecting through ring 0. As long as the exception handlers don’t read privileged registers they remain the same and are registered directly to the hardware exception table and are called directly without indirection from Xen.
  • The x86 resolves virtual addresses in every instruction by parsing the page table in the processor itself. This requires three level indirection For translation and hence poor performance. Soft TLB:software TLB TLB Short for t ranslation l ook-aside b uffer , a table in the processor’s memory that contains information about the pages in memory the processor has accessed recently. The table cross-references a program’s virtual addresses with the corresponding absolute addresses in physical memory that the program has most recently used. The TLB enables faster computing because it allows the address processing to take place independent of the normal address-translation pipeline . Also referred to as the address translation cache , a typical TLB contains anywhere from 64 to 256 entries. Tagged TLB: each entry does not only contain the virtual page address but also an address-space id Some manufacturers offer this tagged TLB feature. For example, a document titled "AMD64 Virtualization Codenamed 'Pacifica' Technology Secure Virtual Machine Architecture Reference Manual" [14] was published in May 2005. According to it, this architecture uses a tagged TLB.
  • When a guest Os wants to create a page table as it is starting a new process, it allocates and initializes a page from its own memory reservation and registers with Xen. Guest Os now relinquishes direct write privilege hereafter. All the subsequent updates are validated by Xen. This validation is required to make sure that the guest Os is mapping pages of own only and disallowing writable mapping of page tables. Each Machine page frame has one of the mutually exclusive types. Page Fault: Page fault handler needs to access privileged register (CR2). Since this is not possible from ring 3, Xen has an associated page fault handler. This handler copies the privileged values (CR2) to a previously agreed location (shared memory) and then call the registered page fault handler of the guest Os which is modified to read from there. MMU ( M emory M anagement U nit) The part of the computer that governs memory access. Either part of the CPU chip or housed on separate chips, the MMU controls memory partitions and virtual memory.
  • Hypercall :A hypercall is to a syscall what a hypervisor is to an OS. Alternatively, a hypercall is to a hypervisor what a syscall is to a kernel. A hypercall is a software trap from a domain to the hypervisor, just as a syscall is a software trap from an application to the kernel. Domains will use hypercalls to request privileged operations like updating pagetables. Like a syscall, the hypercall is synchronous, but the return path from the hypervisor to the domain uses event channels. An event channel is a queue of asynchronous notifications, and notify of the same sorts of events that interrupts notify on native hardware. When a domain with pending events in its queue is scheduled, the OS's event-callback handler is called to take appropriate action. See xen/include/public/xen.h in the Xen sources.
  • Recv: Guest OS provides an empty buffer (descriptor values to the recv ring). This avoids copy from Xen to guest OS (Zero copy). Scatter-Gather DMA. De-multiplexing is based on destination IP address and Port. Firewall rules such as preventing connections requests for insecure ports. More Xen-network information please go http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/XenNetworking
  • Domain 0 is created during boot time and permitted to use the control interface. It hosts the application level management software. It has the ability to create/delete other domains, VIFs etc. Managing the entire server.
  • The OUI list is available at http://standards.ieee.org/regauth/oui/oui.txt.

Xen 虛擬機器企業版 Xen 虛擬機器企業版 Presentation Transcript

  • XenEnterprise Presented by WS Liu (Nov 8 th ,2006)
  • - Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise - Install XenEnterprise - Administrator Console - Create Xen Virtual Machine - Operate Xen Virtual Machine / XenEnterprise Server - Q & A Scheme
  • Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise Xen and XenEnterprise history
    • The XEN VMM(virtual machine monitor) is an open-source project that is being developed in the computer laboratory of the University of Cambridge, UK. It enables us to create many virtual machines, each of which runs an instance of an operating system.
    • In August 2005, XenSource, a commercial company that develops virtualization solutions based on Xen, announced in Intel Developer Forum (IDF) that it has used Intel VT-Enabled Platforms with Xen to virtualize both Linux and Microsoft Windows XP SP2.
  • Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise Xen and XenEnterprise history
    • In August 2006, XenSource release XenEnterprise.
        • Industry leading open source hypervisor virtualization technology. The Xen 3 hypervisor has the features and performance for production environments. Supports Intel VT, AMD Virtualization, 32-way SMP, PAE, and 64 bit addressing.
        • XenEnterprise™, the first commercially packaged and supported Xen solution, enables you to easily get Xen-based virtualization up and running.
  • Red Hat, Novell Spar Over Xen's Readiness Red Hat insists Xen still isn't ready for prime time , which may push back the release of its Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 5 platform until early 2007 . Novell recently disputed Red Hat's contention that Xen isn't ready for prime time. The Waltham, Mass., software vendor, which rolled out its Xen-enabled SUSE Linux Enterprise 10 platform three weeks ago, claims that Red Hat is maligning the state of Xen and is trying to cripple its efforts on the virtualization front. Reference news links: http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/soa/Xen_leads_Novell_s_turnaround_effort_in_Linux/0,130061733,139263689,00.htm http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/soa/Xen_not_ready_for_prime_time_says_Red_Hat/0,130061733,139265136,00.htm http://www.infoworld.com/article/06/08/07/32OPopenent_1.html Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise
  • Types of Monitor.
    • Monitor runs on a higher privilege level than the guest OS.
    • Sensitive/Privileged instructions. (Ex: MOV )
    • Classified by the amount of guest OS instructions that are executed by monitor or by the real hardware.
    • CSIM (Complete software Interpreter machine), Hybrid VM (HVM) and VMM.
    • VMM : Requires that “Statistically dominant subset of the virtual processor instructions be executed on the real processor” . (Type 1 and Type 2)
    • Xen –Type 1 VMM.
    • VMWare GSX Server –Type 2 VMM.
    Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise
  • Type 1 and Type 2 VMMs Type II VMM Virtual Machine Monitor Guest Operating System Host Operating System Hardware Guest Process Guest Process
    • Runs directly on hardware
    • Good performance
    • Uses existing host OS abstractions to implement services
    • Poor performance
    Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise Type I VMM Hardware Virtual Machine Monitor Guest Operating System Guest Process Guest Process
  • Full Virtualization and Para Virtualization Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise
    • Full Virtualization:
    • No modification required for the guest OS (VMWare’s ESXServer).
    • Drawbacks : (especially on x86)
    • Sensitive Instructions fail without traps.
    • Need dynamic rewrite of OS kernel.
    • Shadow system structures (performance issue to sync virtual and shadow structures).
    • Guest OS may need both virtual and real resources. (Time: TCP timeouts and RTT, Machine address for super pages etc).
  • Full Virtualization and Para Virtualization Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise
    • Para Virtualization :
    • Exposed hardware is similar but not identical to the real machine.
    • ABI not changed. (Guest apps run without changes).
    • High performance.
    • Drawback
      • OS modifications is required .
  • Architecture of Xen Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise
    • Xen Hypervisor runs in ring 0.
    • Guest OS runs in a lower privilege level (ring 1). Privileged and sensitive instructions are paravirtualized by requiring them to be validated and executed by hypervisor.
    • Guest OS protects itself from it’s other processes by running in a separate address space (and separate privilege level).
    • Trap/Exception handlers are registered with Xen for validation. (Xen checks that the code segment of the handlers will not run in ring 0).
    • Fast Exception handlers for system calls.
    Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise Xen – CPU
  • Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise Xen – Memory Management
    • Initial Memory allocation:
      • Static Allocation for each domain.
      • Dynamic expansion/contraction possible.
    • Virtualizing memory is Complicated in x86:
      • x86-MMU handles TLB misses by searching through the page table in the hardware. (No Soft TLB support).
      • TLB flush on context switches. (No tagged TLB support).
  • Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise
    • Virtual address translation:
    • Page Tables: Allocated and managed by guest OSes but restricted to read only access. Updates validated and applied by Xen. (via hypercalls)
    • Xen: Associates a type and reference count with each machine page frame. (PD, PT, LDT, GDT, RW).
    • Xen exists in the 64 MB section on top of every address space (TLB flush prevented when entering/leaving Xen Hypervisor).
    • Page fault Handling: (CR2 register) : Pre determined location.
    Xen – Memory Management
  • Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise
    • Hypercalls : synchronous calls from domain to Hypervisor. Domains do privileged operations via hypercalls.
    • Events: asynchronous notifications delivered via events from Xen to domains. (For delivering h/w interrupts).
    • Data transfer through Descriptor rings. (Producer – Consumer).
    • Time and Timers: Real, Virtual and wall-clock.
    Control /Data / Timers
  • Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise
    • Xen provides a Virtual Firewall-router (VFR).
    • Each domain has one or more VIFs (virtual Interfaces) attached logically to VFR.
    • VFR has rules of the form <pattern><action>.
    • Two I/O buffer descriptor rings. (Transmit and Receive).
    • Trans: Domain updates the transmit descriptor ring. Xen copies the descriptor and the packet header. Header is inspected by VFR. Payload is not copied (Scatter-gather). Pages are pinned till completion.
    • Recv: Xen multiplexes/firewalls using VFR and avoids copy by page flipping.
    Xen - Network
  • Control and Management Introduction to Xen and XenEnterprise
    • Management software runs on a special guest OS (domain 0).
    • List of parameters to manage include access control (for i/o devices), amount of physical memory per domain, VFR rules etc.
    • Mgmt software uses control interfaces provided by Xen.
  • Install XenEnterprise
    • Before install
    • This version of XenEnterprise does not support all of the features available in open source Xen:
    • Only paravirtualized operating systems are supported. No support is provided yet for running Windows on VT or AMD-V hardware.
    • No support is provided yet for hosting 64-bit Xen VMs.
    • Xen supports 32-bit processors with and without Physical Address Extension (PAE), 64-bit processors, and Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) guest operating systems.
    • If your system have loopback or modem connect to com port,you need to remove it before install!!
  • Install XenEnterprise System requirement
  • Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 0.1
    • Go XenEnterprise official web page http://www.xensource.com/products/xen_enterprise/
    • click on download a 30 day trial and fill out and submit the form
    • http://www.xensource.com/products/xen_enterprise/eval_request.html
    • Step 0.2
    • After register complete, you will get a mail from [email_address] that contain trial download page link and your 30 day trial license key.
    • Step 1
    • Boot from XenEnterprise trial cd.
    • Select Install XenEnterprise Server and choose OK to proceed.
    Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 2
    • The next screen displays a message telling you that the setup program will install XenEnterprise on the computer, and warns that it will overwrite data on any hard drives that you select to use for the installation.
    • Choose OK to proceed.
    • If you have multiple local hard disks, you are asked to choose the Primary Disk for the installation. If you have multiple disks, after selecting the primary one, you are also prompted to choose if you want any of the other drives to be formatted for use by XenEnterprise for XenVM storage. (If the computer has a single hard disk, there is nothing to choose here.)
    Install XenEnterprise
  • Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 3.1
    • Accept EULA.
    • Step 3.2
    • The next screen asks you to
    • choose the type of keymap for
    • the keyboard you are using
    • (the default is QWERTY).
    • Select the desired keymap and
    • choose OK to proceed.
    Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 4
    • The next screen asks you to choose the type of keyboard you are using (the default is US). Select the desired keyboard type and choose OK to proceed.
    Install XenEnterprise
  • Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 5
    • The next screen asks you to specify the source of the installation packages. If you are installing off the CD, you will most likely want to select Local XenSource media . If you are installing via PXE you will most likely want to select HTTP or FTP or NFS , as appropriate. Make your selection and choose OK to proceed.
  • Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 6
    • The next screen asks you if you want to verify the integrity of the installation media.Choose skip verification to proceed.
  • Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 7
    • You are next prompted to set a root password. (This will be the password that the Administrator Console application will use to connect to the XenEnterprise Server.) Type the desired password and type it again to verify it.
  • Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 8
    • You are prompted to select the general geographical area and specific locale for Time Zone. Choose from the displayed list of geographical areas, specific locale then choose OK to proceed.
  • Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 9
    • You are prompted to choose a method of setting the System Time. You can select Using NTP or Manual time entry .
    • Warning
    • Currently XenEnterprise assumes that the time setting for the server’s BIOS is the current time in UTC , and that the time for the XenVMs reflects the local time based on the time zone offset specified.
  • Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 10
    • You are prompted to set up Networking. You can select to configure all interfaces with DHCP, or specify a different network configuration, which prompts you to set up networking by selecting the NIC or NICs that are present and configuring their properties manually.
  • Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 11
    • You are next prompted to specify the configuration for the name service.If you select Specify Hostname manually , enter the desired hostname for the server in the field below.If you select Enter DNS server manually , enter the IP addresses of your primary (required), secondary (optional), and tertiary (optional) Name servers in the fields below.Otherwise, select OK to get a hostname and/or name service configuration via DHCP.
  • Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 12
    • A message is displayed that the installation is ready to proceed and that this will format the selected disks and destroy any data that is currently on them. Select OK to proceed.
    • A progress bar is displayed as the installation commences.
    • If you chose to set the system date and time manually, a dialog box appears when the progress bar has reached about 90%. Enter the correct numbers in the fields and select OK to proceed.
  • Install XenEnterprise
    • Step 13
    • When finished, a completion message is displayed. Select OK to reboot system. Upon reaching the login prompt, the system should now be ready to manage via the Administrator Console.You will need the IP address or hostname of the XenEnterprise Server. This is displayed at the login prompt.
  • Administrator Console
    • Installing the Administrator Console
    • The Administrator Console is a Java application that can be installed and run on Windows 2000/2003/XP or Linux computers. The installer packages for each platform include the Java Runtime Environment (JRE).
    • Note
    • The Administrator Console uses its own private copy of the JRE, even if one is present on the machine you install it on. The installer does not overwrite any Java system variables like JAVA_HOME or CLASSPATH that may already be set.
  • Administrator Console
    • To install the Administrator Console on a Windows computer:
    • Before installing the Administrator Console, be sure to uninstall the previous version if one exists.
    • Put the CD in the drive.
    • Browse to the /client_install directory on the CD and find the file named xenenterprise_client.exe .
    • Double-click on the file’s icon to launch the application installer. Follow the instructions displayed in the installer window. When prompted for installation directory, either click Browse to change the default installation location, or click Next to accept the default path C:Program FilesXenSource.
    • When complete, there will be a XenSource group on the All Programs list.
  • Administrator Console
    • To install the Administrator Console on a Linux computer:
    • Before installing the Administrator Console, be sure to uninstall the previous version if one exists.
    • Put the CD in the drive.
    • Change directory to the /client_install directory on the CD and find the three RPMs named
    • Install the following three RPMs: rpm -ivh *.rpm
    • xenenterprise-client-3.0.0-6140.6140.i386.rpm (this package contains the XenSource jar files)
    • xenenterprise-client-jars-3.0.0-6140.6140.i386.rpm (this package contains third-party jar files used by the product)
    • xenenterprise-client-jre-3.0.0-6140.6140.i386.rpm (this package contains the JRE files).
  • Administrator Console
    • Logging in to Administrator Console for the first time
    • When you launch the Administrator Console for the first time, a dialog box appears, prompting you to read and accept the End User License Agreement. Click OK to accept the agreement.
    • Next, you are prompted to enter a Master Password .
    • The Master Password is the password for a local database of encrypted XenEnterprise Servers and XenVMs passwords that this Administrator Console manages. This prevents unauthorized users from gaining access to the XenEnterprise network that you deploy. It also enables you to restore the previous session by providing this single password.
    • Master Password dialog box
  • Administrator Console
    • Type the desired master password and type it again to confirm it, then click OK .
    • Next, a dialog box appears, prompting for a XenEnterprise Server to connect to.
    • Enter the XenEnterprise Server IP address or hostname and its password . Click the Remember Me checkbox if you want the XenEnterprise Server information cached locally. Click OK .
    • Next, the bottom part of the Administrator Console displays the License Key task tab. You need to provide a valid License Key to be able to use the XenEnterprise Server you have connected to. The license key is provided by XenSource as a file.
  • Administrator Console
    • To enter the License key
    • Click the . . . button on the License Key dialog box to browse the file system and locate the license key file.
    • Click Apply License . The License Key tab closes and the XenEnterprise Server becomes manageable from the Administrator Console.
    • After License applied , your XenEnterprise server is ready for operate.
  • Administrator Console
    • User interface elements
    • The upper pane
    • In the upper pane, the following information is displayed for the XenEnterprise Servers and XenVMs when they have been installed:
      • The name of each XenEnterprise Server and XenVM
      • The Status (On, Off, Paused, Installing, Initializing, Stopping) of each Machine
      • CPU Usage meter that displays the current CPU usage (for the XenEnterprise Server) or virtual CPU usage (for a XenVM), and number of CPUs
      • Used Memory percentage meter
      • Disk KB/s showing the disk I/O rate in KB per second and the number of disks (for the XenEnterprise Server) or virtual disks (for a XenVM)
      • Network KB/s showing the network I/O rate in KB per second
  • Administrator Console
    • Lower pane: Overview tab
    • The Overview tab shows the attributes and current configuration of the XenEnterprise Server or XenVM. You can change Xen VMs setting here when Xen VMs are shutdown.
    • Lower pane: Graphical Console tab
    • The Graphical Console tab shows a graphical X-window desktop (using a VNC client ) for the XenVM (if it is On, and if it is running a VNC server ; otherwise, an error message will be displayed).
  • Administrator Console
    • Lower pane: Text Console tab
    • The Text Console tab shows text console output of the XenEnterprise Server or XenVM (if it is On).
    • Lower pane: Performance tab
    • The Performance tab displays graphs of CPU usage, memory usage, disk rate, and network rate for the selected XenEnterprise Server or XenVM.
  • Administrator Console
    • Lower pane: History tab
    • The History tab displays information about the tasks that have been performed on the XenEnterprise Server or XenVM, and error messages, if any.
  • Create Xen Virtual Machine
    • Current version of XenEnterprise support four methods to install Xen VMs
    • Using a XenSource Guest Template (XGT) file
    • Installing from vendor media on a network installation server directly onto a XenVM
    • Performing a physical to virtual (P2V ) conversion on an existing physical Linux server
    • Cloning an existing XenVM
    • Note
    • When installing XenVMs, be sure to follow the memory and disk space guidelines of the operating system and any relevant applications that you want to run when allocating resources such as memory and disk space.
    • Installing a Xen VM using XGT Templates
    • Select a XenEnterprise Server in the list pane, then select Install XenVM from the toolbar or menu.The tabbed area displays the Install XenVM dialog box.
    • Click on the pulldown list to select Debian Sarge Guest Template .
  • Create Xen Virtual Machine
    • Provide:
      • a name for the XenVM (this field is required)
      • a description for the XenVM (this field is optional)
      • the number of virtual CPUs you want the XenVM to have (the default is 1 )
      • the Initial Memory in MB (the default is 256 MB; minimum is 64 MB). This will be the memory used by the XenVM when it is started.
    • Check the Start on XenEnterprise Server Boot checkbox if desired. When this is checked, the XenVM will automatically be restarted after a reboot of the XenEnterprise Server. Otherwise, it will be need to be restarted manually.
    • Provide optional Boot Parameters , if desired. These are standard Linux boot parameters. For multiple parameters, separate them in the field with a space. A list of values for a single argument should be separated with commas between the values, without any spaces.
    • For example, you might want to specify a kickstart file:
    • >ksdevice=eth0 ks=nfs:myserver.mydomain.com:/tftpboot/kickstart/ks_rhel41dev.cfg
    • On the right side, the default Virtual Disks corresponding to the configuration of this template is displayed. Click the + button (a plus sign icon) just below to add a virtual disk to the XenVM.
  • Create Xen Virtual Machine
    • Similarly, Network Interfaces appear below the Virtual Disks.
    • This section contain Name, IP Address, Mac Address and Network. A MAC address is auto-assigned by XenEnterprise using the OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifier) 00-16-3E , allocated to XenSource, Inc.
    • The fourth field is the virtual network switch on the XenEnterprise Server that the virtual NIC is attached to.By default this is xenbr0 .
  • Create Xen Virtual Machine
    • When Install XenVM pane setup ok , click Install .
    • When installation completes, the Status indicator temporarily changes to Off while the XenVM is started. In the History tab a Start XenVM message is displayed. In a moment the Off Status changes to Initializing... , and then On .
    • Click on the Text Console tab, and log in to the Xen Virtual Machine.
    • Note
    • When the Debian Sarge XenVM starts for the first time, you will be prompted to set a vnc and root password.
    • Installing an operating system from a Network
    • In preparation for installing from vendor media, you need to make an exploded network repository of your vendor media ( not ISO images), exported via NFS, HTTP or FTP accessible to the XenEnterprise Server.
    • Note: In this installation mode,only text mode is supported and mouse does not work.
  • Create Xen Virtual Machine
    • Follow the steps described above in the section called “Installing a XenVM using XGT Templates” except that in the Install XenVM dialog box, select Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.1 Repository from the pulldown.In addition, if you want to use a kickstart file, add the required information to the Boot Parameters field.
    • After clicking Install , the XenVM installation starts, and the Text Console for the XenVM displays the first step of the installation script.
    • Choose the Language to use during the installation process and select OK .
  • Create Xen Virtual Machine
    • Select NFS Image , FTP , or HTTP from the Installation Method screen. Enter the IP configuration for the machine. Either select Use dynamic IP configuration (BOOTP/DHCP) , or unselect it and edit the IP address , Netmask , Default gateway (IP) , and Primary nameserver .Select OK . (It will take several moments for a request for DHCP configuration to return values and then proceed to the next screen.)
    • Next you need to specify the HTTP, FTP, or NFS location of the installation media.
    • For NFS image , enter the name or IP address of your NFS server and the directory on that server containing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux media.
    • For FTP , enter the name or IP address of your FTP server and the directory on that server containing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux media. If the FTP server requires authentication, also select Use non-anonymous ftp , then enter the account name and password you wish to use on the next screen.
    • For HTTP , enter the name or IP address of your Web server and the directory on that server containing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux media.
  • Create Xen Virtual Machine
    • The installer script will find the media and run Anaconda, the Red Hat installer.
    • From this point on, follow the on-screen prompts just as you would to install on a physical machine. Refer to the vendor operating system's installation guide for specific details.
    • After making all your selections, the vendor installer formats the virtual disk and then starts installing packages. This might take some time, just as with a traditional installation onto a physical machine.After installing all packages, an Installation completion message appears. Select Reboot to reboot the XenVM.
    • After rebooting, the XenVM comes up and presents the login prompt, and is ready to use.
  • Create Xen Virtual Machine
    • Physical to Virtual Conversion (P2V)
    • P2V is the process by which an existing operating system on a physical server—its filesystem, configuration, etc. — is cast into a virtualized instance of the same operating system and filesystem,transferred, instantiated, and started as a XenVM on the XenEnterprise Server. This is accomplished by booting from the XenEnterprise installation CD and choosing the P2V option. The filesystem is copied across the network via ssh onto a logical volume of the XenEnterprise Server and will then be instantiated as a XenVM.
    • Note
    • Because Xen is a paravirtualizing hypervisor, the operating system kernel itself must be modified to run with Xen. Hence, only Linux distributions that are currently supported can be made into a template using the P2V tool. Unmodified guests on a XenEnterprise Server with Intel VT or AMD Pacifica extensions are not yet supported in XenEnterprise.
    • XenVMs made using the P2V tool are configured with a root device that is allocated 150% of the space occupied in the root file system of the host it was captured from, with a minimum size of 4GB and a maximum of 13GB. No swap device is automatically created for these XenVMs.
  • Create Xen Virtual Machine
    • To P2V an existing server to a XenEnterprise Server
    • Reboot the physical server that you want to convert and boot from the XenEnterprise installation CD.
    • After the initial boot messages, you will see the &quot;Welcome to XenEnterprise&quot; screen. (In this and the screens that follow, use Tab or Alt+Tab to move between elements, Space to select, and F12 to move to the next screen.)Select OK to proceed.
    • The installer does some hardware detection and initialization, then presents a screen with three choices. Select Convert existing OS on this machine to a XenVM (P2V) and choose OK to proceed.
    • A &quot;Welcome to XenEnterprise P2V&quot; message is displayed next. Click OK to proceed.
  • Create Xen Virtual Machine
    • The next screen displays the installed Linux instances found on the local hard drive. If there are multiple Linux instances present, select the desired one. Select OK to proceed.
    • Enter a description string, if desired. Select OK to proceed.
    • Enter the desired volume size. Select OK to proceed.
  • Create Xen Virtual Machine
    • You are prompted for the IP address or hostname of the target XenEnterprise Server. Enter it and click OK to proceed.
    • Note
    • You need manually press alt+F2 to setup nic ip address.Login as root.If you have dhcp server,just type ifup eth0 and see if you get ip from console.If there is no dhcp server,use ifconfig eth0 ip_address to setup ip manually.
    • You can P2V OS image to a NFS server if you have one.You can install a P2Ved OS image from NFS server later.After P2V to a NFS server,mount the NFS path to /var/opt/xen/xgt_import .And use Install XenVM,you will find a new XGT template.Just use it to install XenVM.
  • Create Xen Virtual Machine
    • Finally, you are prompted for the root password of the target XenEnterprise Server. Enter it and click OK to proceed.
    • The P2V operation commences, and a progress bar is displayed. This process can take some time. As the process proceeds, the progress bar updates from time to time and messages like &quot;compressing root filesystem...&quot;, &quot;calculating md5 sum...&quot;, and &quot;transferring root filesystem...&quot; are displayed.When finished, a completion message is displayed.Select OK to eject the CD and reboot the machine.
    • If you selected XenEnterprise Machine above, there will be a new XenVM in the upper pane of the Administrator Console connected to the XenEnterprise Server.
    • Cloning an existing XenVM:
    • Just select a stopped XenVM and right click on it,select Clone.
  • Operate Xen Virtual Machine / XenEnterprise Server XenVM commands The commands for managing a XenVM are found in the toolbar when a XenVM is selected in the upper pane, or the Tasks menu. Which buttons are shown depends on the state of the XenVM. toolbar buttons for a running XenVM toolbar buttons for a shut down XenVM toolbar buttons for a suspended XenVM XenEnterprise Server commands The tools for managing XenEnterprise Servers are found in the toolbar when a XenEnterprise Server is selected in the upper pane. Toolbar buttons for a XenEnterprise Server Extra operate command for a running XenVM Extra operate command for a XenEnterprise Server (Right click on it)
  • Operate Xen Virtual Machine / XenEnterprise Server XenVM configuration You can change Xen VM setting while a Xen VM is stop.At Overview lower pane configuration,you can change cpu,memory,disk,and network interfaces. Note By default, XenVMs have their clocks synchronized to the XenEnterprise Server that hosts them and will ignore requests to adjust the time made by an ntp daemon if one is running. If you want a XenVM to have an independent clock, log on to its Text Console and issue the command echo 1 > /proc/sys/xen/independent_wallclock then run an NTP daemon. To revert to the default, issue the command echo 0 > /proc/sys/xen/independent_wallclock
  • XenEnterprise Price
    • https://xensource.ltg.info/shop/productselection.aspx
    XenEnterprise version:3.0.0 (#6140) Socket:Real system cpu sockets
  • Question and Answer Thank You