EDUCATION


Storage Virtualization I
What, Why, Where and How?


Rob Peglar
Xiotech Corporation
SNIA Legal Notice
                                                                       EDUCATION



• The material conta...
Agenda
                                                                        EDUCATION




• Goal of this tutorial:
  Wh...
SNIA Shared Storage Model
A Layered View                                                                                  ...
Differentiation
  Virtualizing the Storage Stack                                                                      EDUC...
What’s the Problem?
                                                                       EDUCATION


     • The MANAGEME...
Traditional Architecture
                                                                         EDUCATION


        • St...
What is Storage Virtualization?
                                                                        EDUCATION


 • An ...
Benefits of Virtualization
                                                                       EDUCATION


• Openness t...
SNIA Storage Virtualization Taxonomy
                                                                                     ...
Disk (Drive) Virtualization
                                                                                             E...
SNIA Storage Virtualization Taxonomy
                                                                                     ...
What basic functionality do users
need from Storage?                                                                      ...
Virtualization
Makes “Devices” from Devices
                                                                              ...
Where Does Virtualization Reside?
                                                                                 EDUCATI...
Link to SNIA Shared Storage Model:
SN-attached block storage
                                                             ...
Subsystem-based Virtualization
                                                                                           ...
Host-based Virtualization
                                                                                             EDU...
SANs provide a complex infrastructure
                                                                                    ...
Virtualization Devices
for In-band Virtualization                                                                         ...
Virtualization in the network:
In-band with appliances
                                                                   ...
Virtualization in the network:
In-band with switches
                                                                     ...
Virtualization in the network:
Out-of-band with appliances
                                                               ...
Comparing In-Band Network-Based
Storage Services                                                                          ...
Switch-based Virtualization
A Closer Look                                                                            EDUCA...
Standardizing switch-based
      virtualization                                                                   EDUCATIO...
SNIA Storage Virtualization
              Taxonomy                                                                        ...
Stack Terminology
                                                                                 EDUCATION


• File / Re...
SNIA Storage Virtualization Taxonomy
                                                                                     ...
Tape Storage
                       Virtualization                                  EDUCATION



• Tape Media Virtualizati...
Enhanced Storage and
 Data Services                                                         EDUCATION

    • Enhanced Stor...
Full Block Copy Snapshot
                                                                                       EDUCATION
...
Copy-on-Write (CoW) Snapshot
                                                                                   EDUCATION
...
Data Replication
                                     Multi-site block storage
                                           ...
Using Virtualization:
     Storage-based Data Replication
                                                                ...
Using Virtualization:
Host-based Data Replication                                                             EDUCATION
  ...
Using Virtualization:
     Network-based Data Replication
                                                                ...
Evolution Of Virtualization Services
                                                                        EDUCATION



...
Virtualization I Summary
                                                                       EDUCATION




   • SANs pr...
Q&A / Feedback
                                                                                                  EDUCATION...
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Storage Virtualization I

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Storage Virtualization I

  1. 1. EDUCATION Storage Virtualization I What, Why, Where and How? Rob Peglar Xiotech Corporation
  2. 2. SNIA Legal Notice EDUCATION • The material contained in this tutorial is copyrighted by the SNIA • Member companies and individuals may use this material in presentations and literature under the following conditions: – Any slide or slides used must be reproduced without modification – The SNIA must be acknowledged as source of any material used in the body of any document containing material from these presentations • This presentation is a project of the SNIA Education Committee Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 2
  3. 3. Agenda EDUCATION • Goal of this tutorial: What is Storage Virtualization and why do End Users need it? • A link to the SNIA Shared Storage Model • The SNIA Storage Virtualization Taxonomy • A survey through various Virtualization approaches • Enhanced Storage and Data Services • Q&A Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 3
  4. 4. SNIA Shared Storage Model A Layered View EDUCATION IV. Application IV Application III. File/record layer File/record layer File/record layer IIIa. Database III Database (dbms) File system (fs) IIIb. File system IIc II. Block aggregation Host IIa. Host IIb Network IIb. Network IIa Block Block aggregation Device aggregation IIc. Device I Storage devices Storage devices I. Storage devices The SNIA Shared Storage Model uses the term “aggregation“ instead of “virtualization“ Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 4
  5. 5. Differentiation Virtualizing the Storage Stack EDUCATION Application Database Objects File/record layer File/record layer Server/OS Vendors Filesystems Database File system (dbms) (fs) Volume Management HBA Vendors I/O Req/Resp (RAID) Host Virtualization LUN Carving / Masking Appliances Network Zoning Block Block Switch Vendors Virtual LUN Device aggregation aggregation Disk Groups/RAID Storage Vendors Storage devices Storage devices Physical Storage (Disk & Tape) Stack Coverage Expansion – Everybody wants a piece of the pie! Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 5
  6. 6. What’s the Problem? EDUCATION • The MANAGEMENT nightmare – Too many different • Servers – now both physical and virtual • Operating systems/Hypervisors • Switching systems • Storage systems and protocols • Management consoles – IT staff skill levels and budget (the lack thereof) • Availability requirements driven by e-business – 24x7 for applications when needed (some 24x7xforever) – Zero tolerance for downtime – planned or unplanned • Typical (non-virtualized) storage utilization – Disk: 30 - 50% – Tape: 20 - 40% Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 6
  7. 7. Traditional Architecture EDUCATION • Storage is physical – Connections – Presentation – Access and Configuration – Results in: Complexity, Reboots, Downtime, $$$ • Multiple management systems - complex – Inconsistent – Incompatible – Incomplete • Result: ever-increasing storage management costs Can’t support today’s rapid data growth Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 7
  8. 8. What is Storage Virtualization? EDUCATION • An abstraction of detail that separates layers – Host implementation (Application, OS, HBA) – Network implementation (Switch, Router, Gateway) – Storage implementation (Array, Library, Device) • Makes invisible to host: – physical pathing – device characteristics – physical data location • Provides Location and Implementation Transparency • Enables Dynamic Operations – Enables transparent “on the fly” reconfiguration – Allow data location to change transparently to host environment • There are many different types, approaches and degrees of storage virtualization Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 8
  9. 9. Benefits of Virtualization EDUCATION • Openness to new server, network and storage technology • Significantly reduced downtime – planned and unplanned • Increased storage asset utilization – Reduced storage capital cost – Reduced management complexity • (Potentially) Improved performance – Load spreading, balancing, multi-pathing, heuristic shifting • Dynamic provisioning (on-demand, ‘have it now’) • Must-Have Architecture for the future – Increased Scalability, Security, Flexibility – Managed file systems and volume managers • Simplify definition of storage policies and procedures • Improve delivery and quality of Storage Services Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 9
  10. 10. SNIA Storage Virtualization Taxonomy EDUCATION Storage Virtualization What is created: Block Disk Tape, Tape Drive, Filesystem/ Other Device Virtualization Virtualization Tape Library File/Record Virtualization Virtualization Virtualization Where it is done: Host-based, Server Network-based Storage device, Storage based Virtualization Virtualization subsystem Virtualization How it is implemented: In-band Out-of-band Virtualization Virtualization Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 10
  11. 11. Disk (Drive) Virtualization EDUCATION LBA Physical disk drive 000 001 002 003 Disk Virtualization 004 005 006 .. nnn Physical data layout Logical data layout - C-H-S Addresses - Logical Block Addresses (LBA) - Media defects - ‘Defect-Free’ Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 11
  12. 12. SNIA Storage Virtualization Taxonomy EDUCATION Storage Virtualization What is created: Block Disk Tape, Tape Drive, File System File / Record Virtualization Virtualization Tape Library Virtualization Virtualization Virtualization Where it is done: Host-based, Server Network-based Storage device, Storage based Virtualization Virtualization subsystem Virtualization How it is implemented: In-band Out-of-band Virtualization Virtualization Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 12
  13. 13. What basic functionality do users need from Storage? EDUCATION Application Physical aspects aspects of storage of storage • Capacity • Capacity Disk or tape size – Application requirements Number of disks / channel – Growth potential Number of tape devices • Performance • Performance – Throughput / IOPS Disk latency & seek time – Responsiveness Cache size & hit rate • Availability Media data rate – Failure resistance • Availability – Recovery time/point MTBF • RTO/RPO Path redundancy – Simplification of change Path bandwidth Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 13
  14. 14. Virtualization Makes “Devices” from Devices EDUCATION • Physical disks – Fixed size – Bounded performance – Do break (occasionally) Block-level Virtualization • Virtual disks As big, small or as many as users need Performance Scaling As reliable as users & applications need Can grow, shrink (!) or morph Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 14
  15. 15. Where Does Virtualization Reside? EDUCATION Host? Network? Storage Device? Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 15
  16. 16. Link to SNIA Shared Storage Model: SN-attached block storage EDUCATION Application “SN” = any network “SN” = any network used for storage used for storage File/record access. access. E.g., Fibre Channel, E.g., Fibre Channel, layer no LVM Ethernet, … Ethernet, … Host, Host with LVM Host block-aggregation Network block-aggregation SN Block layer Device block-aggregation Disk array Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 16
  17. 17. Subsystem-based Virtualization EDUCATION Provisioning Per-host & storage subsystem Virtualization Storage subsystem Abstraction is implemented in the storage device +Heterogeneous hosts +Tiered Storage +Mature industry & products Performance Stable & reliable Security less of a concern Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 17
  18. 18. Host-based Virtualization EDUCATION Abstraction is Provisioning implemented in servers, typically in Per-host…still Logical Volume Managers (LVM) Starts to utilize Virtualization SAN capabilities Host Storage subsystem Abstraction may or may not be implemented in the storage device +Heterogeneous subsystems +Multiple storage arrays +File system coupling (online growth, re-layout, movement, snapshots,…) Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 18
  19. 19. SANs provide a complex infrastructure EDUCATION heterogeneous many servers(!) servers intelligent infrastructure complex interconnections Multiple arrays and element managers Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 19
  20. 20. Virtualization Devices for In-band Virtualization EDUCATION Server-based Device Switch-based Device (Appliance) +Virtualize a variety of physical +Network optimized storage using various HBAs +High port counts +Implement complex storage +FC N_Port, FL_port, F_Port or services inexpensively E_Port functionality +FC N_Port functionality +iSCSI port functionality +iSCSI port functionality Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 20
  21. 21. Virtualization in the network: In-band with appliances EDUCATION Provisioning The appliance is in the Data center-wide data path Plug and play from the host perspective SAN Virtualization Host access Host Device access Network Device: Appliance Storage subsystem +Data center-wide management Heterogeneous storage Heterogeneous hosts One pool per storage media Virtualization Part I Caching potential in the network © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 21
  22. 22. Virtualization in the network: In-band with switches EDUCATION Provisioning FC switch in the data path Data center-wide Plug-and-play from host perspective SAN Virtualization Host access Device access Host Network Device: Switch RAID subsystem +Data center-wide management Heterogeneous storage Heterogeneous hosts Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 22
  23. 23. Virtualization in the network: Out-of-band with appliances EDUCATION Provisioning Data center-wide “ im por t” ma ppi ng Virtualization Host “SAN appliance” separate box Network In-host RAID subsystem •Appliance not in data path •May (or may not) require +Data center-wide management agent software on each host +Shorter data I/O path, but more complex interactions •Separates the data from the +Light-weight compared to full control path volume manager Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 23
  24. 24. Comparing In-Band Network-Based Storage Services EDUCATION Comparison Appliance-based Switch-based Multi-vendor fabric Independent functionality Interoperability mode Switching Separate1 Integrated Performance Read and write caching No store-and-forward2 Functionality Rich feature set possible Cost & footprint limits Availability Fail-over mechanisms Fabric topology Connectivity Usually HBA / NIC ports High density switch ports Scalability Implementation specific Implementation specific Storage ROI Leverage legacy storage SAN-attached storage Maturity Stable since 2002 Stable since 2005 1 : Some in-band appliances can also perform the switching function. 2 : Some intelligent switches actually use a store-and-forward approach, where virtualization is not integrated directly with the data switching. Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 24
  25. 25. Switch-based Virtualization A Closer Look EDUCATION • A closer look inside the “smart switch”: Intelligent Virtualization Blade Device Discovery, Configuration and I/O Error Management Intelligent Ports Normal data flow • “Smart switch” has the components of a hybrid approach – Metadata Controller = Virtualization engine for device discovery, volume configuration and I/O error management (“bad path”) – Data Controller = Intelligent Ports (based on ASICs) provide the virtual/physical I/O translation and forwarding of data to the proper targets (“good path”) Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 25
  26. 26. Standardizing switch-based virtualization EDUCATION • Problem: – Complex architecture within intelligent switches and other intelligent platforms – May lower the implementation speed of management applications – Several proprietary approaches by several different vendors • Solution: – ANSI T11 FAIS (Fabric Application Interface Standard) – A set of APIs with a library of managed objects – “easily migrate” host-or array-based services to intelligent networking platforms • Functionality of FAIS: – Split data and control path – Provide Volume Management • Virtual to physical I/O translation – Copy Services such as Snapshots, Mirroring and Data Replication • T11 FAIS and SNIA SMI-S are complimentary standards – FAIS - API on switching platform for services to exploit switch-based capabilities – SMI-S - API for managing storage (including services that are switch-based) Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 26
  27. 27. SNIA Storage Virtualization Taxonomy EDUCATION Storage Virtualization What is created: Block Disk Tape, Tape Drive, File System File / Record Virtualization Virtualization Tape Library Virtualization Virtualization Virtualization Where it is done: Host-based, Server Network-based Storage device, Storage based Virtualization Virtualization subsystem Virtualization How it is implemented: In-band Out-of-band Virtualization Virtualization Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 27
  28. 28. Stack Terminology EDUCATION • File / Record Virtualization – Presents one or more underlying objects as a single composite object • Objects can be files or directories – Can provide HSM like properties in a storage system – Presents an integrated file interface • file data and metadata are managed separately in the storage system • File System Virtualization – Aggregates multiple file systems into one large “virtual file system” – Virtual file systems may be implemented in addition to physical file systems – Users access data through the virtual file system – Underlying file systems transparent to users – Enables additional functionality Check out Check out • different file access protocol SNIA Tutorial: SNIA Tutorial: • on top of one or more existing file systems Advanced Advanced Data Sharing Data Sharing Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 28
  29. 29. SNIA Storage Virtualization Taxonomy EDUCATION Storage Virtualization What is created: Block Disk Tape, Tape Drive, File System File / Record Virtualization Virtualization Tape Library Virtualization Virtualization Virtualization Where it is done: Host-based, Server Network-based Storage device, Storage based Virtualization Virtualization subsystem Virtualization How it is implemented: In-band Out-of-band Virtualization Virtualization Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 29
  30. 30. Tape Storage Virtualization EDUCATION • Tape Media Virtualization – Resolves the problem of underutilized tape media – Data written to tape at disk cache speed, reduces mounts – Saves tapes, tape libraries and floor space • Tape Drive & Library Virtualization (VTL) – Shares tape drives and libraries among a number of servers – Less tape drives/libraries required – Help to justify use of enterprise-class tape drives – Improved error handling – Reduced complexity – No change to backup application or IT processes Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 30
  31. 31. Enhanced Storage and Data Services EDUCATION • Enhanced Storage & Data Services – Expose/extend the value of virtualization • These services become significantly less complex when virtualization technology is implemented: – Backup & Restore – Clustering – Point In Time Copy / Snapshots – Replication – Migration – Transformation – Caching – Security – Quality of Storage Services & Policies – Pooling Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 31
  32. 32. Full Block Copy Snapshot EDUCATION copy-on-write unchanged updated Background Offline copy Application Read Frozen-in-time Copy Online Application Live Volume Write Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 32
  33. 33. Copy-on-Write (CoW) Snapshot EDUCATION copy-on-write unchanged Backup updated Online Frozen-in-time View Application Live Volume Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 33
  34. 34. Data Replication Multi-site block storage EDUCATION Functions: point-in-time Functions: point-in-time copy, caching, copy, caching, Application Application local & remote mirroring, … local & remote mirroring, … Host-to-host Host-to-host File/record Host. with LVM Host. with LVM layer SN appliance SN appliance Device-to-device Device-to-device WAN Host block-aggregation Aggregation Aggregation Network block-aggregation appliance WAN appliance SN Block layer Device block-aggregation Disk array Disk array WAN Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 34
  35. 35. Using Virtualization: Storage-based Data Replication EDUCATION Hosts may be unaware of replication Local RAID subsystem replicates data to +Minimal or no host load remote RAID subsystems +Minimal client network load +Host platform independent +Network independent Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 35
  36. 36. Using Virtualization: Host-based Data Replication EDUCATION Volume updates replicated to remote servers Storage can be different from source +Recovers from Network & target outages Application load peaks +Storage device independent & Application transparent +Uses existing network Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 36
  37. 37. Using Virtualization: Network-based Data Replication EDUCATION SAN appliance (In-band / Out-of-Band) or ‘Intelligent’ Switch’ controls the replication Storage can be different from source +No host load +Heterogeneous hosts and storage devices Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 37
  38. 38. Evolution Of Virtualization Services EDUCATION • Unified Management – Virtualization plus Automation to deliver on SLAs • Standardization (SNIA SMI-S) becomes very important • T11 creation of Fabric API Intelligence Standard (FAIS) • Automatic and Intelligent Storage Provisioning • Automatic Data Migration Services – Data Lifecycle Management • Data center-wide Volumes and File Systems Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 38
  39. 39. Virtualization I Summary EDUCATION • SANs provide excellent storage connectivity • Management is the challenge – Many non-cooperating servers – Hundreds to thousands of heterogeneous devices • Virtualization to the rescue – The only way to cost-effectively reduce complexity • Stand by for: – Storage Virtualization II • ‘Effective use of Virtualization’ Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 39
  40. 40. Q&A / Feedback EDUCATION • Please send any questions or comments on this presentation to the SNIA at this address: trackvirtualization@snia.org Many thanks to the following individuals for their contributions to this tutorial. SNIA Education Committee Frank Bunn Curt Kolovson Ben Kuo John Logan Gene Nagle Rob Peglar Abbott Schindler Nik Simpson Wolfgang Singer David Thiel Virtualization Part I © 2007 Storage Networking Industry Association. All Rights Reserved. 40
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